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Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production 2019 Pam Dawling

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Produce vegetable crops when you want them and in the right quantities; sell them where and when you need to and support yourself with a rewarding livelihood while replenishing the soil

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Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production 2019 Pam Dawling

  1. 1. Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production ©Pam Dawling, 2019 Author of Sustainable Market Farming and The Year-Round Hoophouse SustainableMarketFarming.com facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming
  2. 2. What’s in This Presentation Produce crops when you want them and in the right quantities; sell them where and when you need to and support yourself with a rewarding livelihood while replenishing the soil • Why make detailed plans? • How to plan? Helpful tools • Step by step planning. 12 steps 1. How much money 2. Which markets to sell at 3. Which crops to grow 4. Harvest schedule 5. How much to plant 6. Field Planting schedule 7. Seedling/Transplant schedule 8. Maps 9. Packing more in 10.Adjust and tweak 11.Plan B 12.Next Year’s Better Plan • Lots of Resources
  3. 3. Why Plan? On-farm Rewards ҉Plan in the winter, farm in the growing season! ҉Make the most productive use of your land. ҉Pace yourself, enjoy your life! ҉Reduce stress and confusion ҉Become a better farmer - keep good records, make good plans. ҉Invest in your future - Planning gets easier each year – just tweak last year’s plan.
  4. 4. Market Rewards for Planning ҉ Earn a living! ҉ Enjoy the satisfaction of full CSA bags, groaning tables every week! ҉ Enjoy your great reputation providing what customers want. ҉ Enjoy having information at your fingertips - when broccoli will start, or cucumbers end. ҉ Achieve balance each week: some leafy crop, something brightly colored, something bulky and filling, something new, something highly flavored. ҉ Use your full market season, all your opportunities.
  5. 5. How to Plan? Helpful Tools • Be clear about your goals (before choosing tools). • Design a system you like, so you’ll use it. • Do you prefer clipboards, computers, or photos? • There are Web-based Tools, Spreadsheets, Worksheets and Notebooks • Build in the ability to adapt the plan if conditions change.
  6. 6. Web-Based Planning AgSquared online planning software: www.agsquared.com includes a free trial. • If you already have your plans on spreadsheets, you can import them into AgSquared – you don’t have to start over. • “Smart scheduling” Once you’ve got your information in there, you can adjust a date or row length and the changes will automatically be made to the other relevant spreadsheets. • Space for record-keeping is vast - you can include comments on the weather, pests, soil observations etc which might be helpful later.
  7. 7. How AgSquared works
  8. 8. COG-Pro is a record keeping software made for Certified Organic Farms. The planning tools include prompts for info needed for certification. It uses a simple tabbed notebook visual and generates reports for the certification process.
  9. 9. Spreadsheets • Make your own, or copy others – see Resources at end • During the year we follow printed sheets - don’t often need the computer. • The program does the calculations. • Quickly sort out selected parts of the information and rearrange it
  10. 10. Spreadsheets from Johnny’s Johnny’s Selected Seeds has spreadsheet based tools available at http://www.johnnyseeds.com/t-InteractiveTools.aspx
  11. 11. Crop Planning for Vegetable Gardens There are also smaller scale on-line planners: • Gardenplanner.southernexposure.com • Gardenplanner.motherearthnews.com There is also an app:  Gardenplanpro.com
  12. 12. Worksheets • Cindy Conner explains worksheets in her book Grow a Sustainable Diet. • She also sells a DVD/CD set Develop a Sustainable Vegetable Garden Plan. Aimed primarily at homesteaders, the steps help you figure how many seeds and plants you need, when to plant and where, and when to expect a harvest. • Mark Cain www.drippingspringsgarden.com and Daniel Brisebois and Frédéric Thériault Crop Planning for Organic Vegetable Growers, are other good sources for ideas on worksheets.
  13. 13. Planning is Circular, Just Like Farming 1. How much money do you need to earn? 2. Which markets to sell at 3. Which crops to grow 4. How much of what to harvest when: Harvest Schedule 5. How much to grow to achieve your harvest goals 6. Calculate sowing dates to meet harvest dates: Field Planting Schedule7. When to sow for transplants: Seedlings Schedule 8. Where to plant each sowing of each crop: Maps 9. Packing more in: succession plantings, intercropping, relay planting, double cropping 10. Adjust to make your best possible plan 11. What to do if something goes wrong: Plan B 12. Record results for next year’s Better Plan Before planning anything, be clear about your farming goals
  14. 14. First Clarify your Goals • Jean-Martin Fortier in The Market Gardener, shows how to meet your goals and fit your resources. • Having decided how much money they need to support their family, Jean-Martin and Maud-Hélène Fortier decided to provide the equivalent of 220 CSA shares for 20 weeks, with 8-12 different vegetables/week. • They choose vegetables based on demand balanced with the financial value of those crops and the practicalities of growing. 35 of their 160 beds grow mesclun –salad mix only takes 45 days in the bed, and then another crop is grown, increasing the income/bed • My climate is very different from Quebec. Our market is very different. We don’t want 300 pounds of salad mix each week! We're providing for 100 people for 52 weeks.
  15. 15. Step 1. How much Money do you Need to Earn? • What are your living expenses? • What are your farm expenses? • What do you want to save for old age, rainy days, raising children, college funds. . . • The Federal Minimum Wage is $7.25/hour (Jan 2014), going up to $10.10. Just saying. . . • Do you have other sources of income?
  16. 16. Setting Prices The Iowa State University publication Determining Prices for CSA Share Boxes compares pricing based on either • what customers will pay, • what other growers are selling the crop for • what it costs to produce. It includes a chart of share value of 24 crops based on grocery prices and the quantity included. Step 1
  17. 17. Step 2 Which Markets will you Sell at? New growers are often advised to start with a farmers’ market rather than a CSA the first year, as you can sell a more erratic supply of crops at market. On the other hand, if you have experience from working on another farm, a commitment to careful planning, and you need that upfront beginning-of - season cash, you may decide to start a CSA right away. If you have an off-farm job to tide you over, it may be practical to leave the financial questions for a year, and build on that experience.
  18. 18. 1. Which crops suit the conditions? Check the cold-hardiness table 2. Which crops are most profitable? Can you earn a living growing it? 3. Which crops sell for high prices? Is there a market for it? 4. Which crops are easy to grow? 5. Would you have to reduce space for another crop? 6. Would you lose efficiency by growing many different crops? – Consolidate and simplify (Asian greens) – Grow crops needing similar conditions or timing – Specialize in one Signature Crop, grow many kinds Step 3. Deciding Which Crops to Grow Also see my slide show Cold-Hardy Winter Vegetables on SlideShare.net Also see my slide show Diversify Your Vegetable Crops on SlideShare.net
  19. 19. Which Crops Suit the Conditions? • In Market Farming Success: The Business of Growing and Selling Local Food, Lynn Byczynski identifies and explains aspects of market farming that growers need to tackle. • You need a diversity of crops, not just a few profitable items. • You need not only early crops, but critical mass for the whole of your chosen season. • Grow what yields well for least labor • Grow what sells best at the highest price • Grow what fills gaps between your major crops. Step 3
  20. 20. Clifton Slade at Virginia State University in his 43,560 Project (how to earn $43,560 from one acre), recommends choosing crops which produce one vegetable head or stalk, or 1 lb of produce, per square foot. Leafy crops feature prominently. Richard Wiswall in the Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook found that outdoor kale can produce $2463 from 1/10 acre, and of the crops he compared, only parsley and basil earned more. Field tomatoes came in at $1872, and several vegetables (bush beans, sweet corn, peas) made a loss. Morris Heading Collards, Photo Kathryn Simmons Which Crops are Most Profitable? Some crops offer more money per area, some are more profitable in terms of time put in. You have to crunch the numbers to know! Step 3
  21. 21. Crop Enterprise Budgets • Richard Wiswall’s Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook includes crop enterprise budgets for 24 crops. • He makes spreadsheets easy, clear. • The book includes a CD you can use to create enterprise budgets, and every other farm worksheet: timesheets, payroll calculator, a farm crew job description template and a Farm Financials Workbook. Vern Grubinger in Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market, NRAES explains how to make an enterprise budget for each crop. • Compare the financial value of one crop with another, without delving into overhead costs. • Record the amount of work done on each crop each day. • Keep records of harvest quantities; time and money from sales. • At the end of the season, divide the income for each crop by the time spent on it, and divide the income for that crop by the area, or number of beds. Step 3
  22. 22. Enterprise Budgets Vern Grubinger in Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market explains how to make an enterprise budget for each crop. These calculations compare one crop with another, while not delving into overhead costs.  In your Crop Journal, record the amount of work done on each crop each day: o Bed prep, cultivating o Planting, mulching, staking.  Record at each harvest o weight or count of each crop, o time spent harvesting and cleaning it; o money raised from each crop each week.  At the end of the season, add up the total time for each crop o Divide the income for that crop by the time spent on it, and o divide the income for that crop by the area, or number of beds.  Aim for $400/100’ bed per season. The range could be $109-1065.
  23. 23. Dollars per Square Foot • Tomatoes, Heirloom $19.25 • Tomatoes, Hybrid $12 • Ginger $12 • Pea Shoots $10 • Salad Mix $10 • Spinach $10 • Spring mint tips $7.50 • Lettuce, Romaine $5 • Carrots, bunched $4.50 • Carrots, bagged $4.50 • Shallots $4.50 • Microgreens $3.75 • Rhubarb $3.75 • Turnips, bunched $3.30 • Garlic $3 • Beets, bunched $2.80 • Fennel $2.80 • Kohlrabi $2.80 • Lettuce, head $2.50 • Onions, green $2.50 • Pak choy $2.50 • Potatoes, new $1.30 • Broccoli $1.25 • Snap peas $1.25 • Onions, bulbs $1 From Ben Hartman, The Lean Farm Dollars per square foot, highest to lowest (of the crops they grow). Does not account for the time each crop occupies the space, or the time spent tending the crop. Bulb onions curing. Photo Wren Vile Heirloom tomatoes Photo Craig LeHoullier Step 3
  24. 24. Crops that Sell for High Prices (not necessarily easy to grow) • microgreens, • heirloom tomatoes, • baby vegetables, • salad mix, • lettuce, • arugula, • herbs, • edible flowers, • storage crops, • garlic, • fruits, • unusual crops • out-of-season crops, • bedding plants and transplants, • cut flowers, • ornamental crops • This list is from Market Farming Success Also see my slide show Diversify Your Vegetable Crops on SlideShare.net Step 3
  25. 25. Which Crops Are Easy to Grow? Steve Solomon in Gardening When it Counts provides tables of outdoor vegetable crops by the level of care they require. Your results may vary! Onion bed. Photo Kathryn Simmons • His Easy List: kale, collards, endives, chicories, spinach, cabbage, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, all cucurbits, beets, chard, sweet corn, all legumes, okra, tomatoes (followed by the more difficult eggplant, peppers). • His Harder to Grow List: lettuce, arugula, parsley, carrots, parsnips, broccoli, radishes, kohlrabi, turnips, rutabagas, mustards, non-heading Asian greens, scallions, potato onions, garlic • His Difficult List: bulb onions, leeks, Chinese cabbage, asparagus, celery, celeriac, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, early cabbage, cantaloupe. Step 3
  26. 26. Consider Flowers as well as Vegetables Mark Cain of Dripping Springs Garden, Arkansas:  50% of their growing area in cut flowers and 50% in vegetables.  The cut flowers bring in 75% of the income. Photo Tom Freeman, Twin Oaks Flowers Step 3
  27. 27. Reasons to Grow Crops that Don’t Make the Highest Income  Provide a good crop rotation for your farm,  Provide diversity (customers will only buy so much parsley and basil)  Provide for times of the year when fewer growers are selling produce,  Provide critical mass for the whole of the season. Kohlrabi. Photo McCune Porter Step 3
  28. 28. Step 4 How Much to Harvest  The average person eats 160-200 pounds of fresh vegetables per year (USDA)  the average CSA share feeds 2 or 3 people,  an annual share will need to include about 500 pounds of 40- 50 different vegetables, distributed, say, once a week for 8 months and once a month for 4 months.  Many CSAs have a shorter season than this – your call. Photo Bridget Aleshire
  29. 29. Step 4 Your Harvest Schedule • Decide which crops you want to harvest when, how often and over what length of time, including quantities. • For a CSA, make a Share Schedule, telling sharers what to expect when. • Multiply that up, add a margin for culls and failures, and list how much of each crop to have ready for harvest each week.
  30. 30. Step 5 How Much to Grow to Achieve Your Harvest Goals Take likely yields and add a margin for culls and failures (10%?). The table I provide in Sustainable Market Farming lists 48 crops, with likely yield, quantity required for 100 CSA shares, and length of row needed to grow this amount.
  31. 31. Resources for Quantity Calculations • The Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems at UC Santa Cruz: – Crop Plan for a Hundred-Member CSA, with planting requirements for 36 crops • Jean-Paul Courtens of Roxbury Farm, Kinderhook, New York: – On his website, you’ll find the 100 Member CSA Plan, including a Weekly Share Plan, Greenhouse Schedule, and Field Planting and Seeding Schedule (with charts of possible crop yields).
  32. 32. More Resources on Yields • Some seed companies have tables of likely yields in their catalogs. • Elizabeth Henderson and Robyn Van En Sharing the Harvest. • John Jeavons How to Grow More Vegetables has charts: – Pounds Consumed per Year by the Average Person in the US – Average US Yield in Pounds per 100 Square Feet. – These are particularly useful to small-scale growers, and can be multiplied up by others. Spring brassicas at Twin Oaks. Photo McCune Porter Step 5
  33. 33. Step 6 Harvest Dates Sowing Dates Days to Maturity When to sow to meet the harvest dates?  Find the number of days to maturity (from the catalog).  Is that number from seeding to harvest or transplant to harvest?  Work back from each target harvest date, subtracting days to maturity, to give the planting date.  Days to maturity in catalogs are generally for spring planting once conditions have warmed to the usual range for that crop. ‒ If you are starting very early in spring, add about 14 days - plants grow slower when cold. ‒ In summer crops mature sooner than in spring. ‒ When growing late into the fall, add about 14 days for the slowdown. ‒ In winter when the temperature is below 40F (4C), plants don’t grow much at all – ignore those days from your calculations.  “Days to Maturity” usually means “Days to First Harvest” which may not be the same as “Days to Full Harvest”.  With CSAs, you can distribute eggplant to some sharers one week, and others the next, although keeping track involves more work.  With carrots it doesn’t matter exactly what size they are, but an immature Chinese cabbage is just no good. Add another 7-14 days.
  34. 34. Decide whether to Sow or Transplant Photo Kathryn Simmons  Choose high-yielding varieties suited to your climate, budget, certification and market  Buy seeds or starts? Is what you want available as plants? Do you need Organic? Is the price worthwhile? Money vs labor.  Do you have the equipment to grow transplants? Step 6
  35. 35. Direct Seeding Pros and Cons Photo Kathryn Simmons • Pros – Less work than transplanting – Less money compared to buying starts – No need for a greenhouse and equipment – Better drought tolerance – roots grow without damage – Some crops don’t transplant easily – Some crops have millions of plants! (Carrots) • Cons – Uses more seed – Uses more time thinning – Occupies the land longer – Maybe harder to get started in cold (or hot) conditions Step 6
  36. 36. Getting the Best from Direct Sowing  Good soil conditions lead to even germination: tilth (size of particles), moisture  Decide by soil temperature, not calendar. New Seed Starter’s Handbook.  Correct depth and sowing density  Good seed contact with soil: tamp lightly  Good tools: EarthWay, precision seeders, hoes, jab planters for large seeds, tractor seed drills. • Photo Bridget Aleshire Step 6
  37. 37. Transplanting Pros and Cons Pros • Start earlier than outside, get earlier harvests • Start seed in more ideal conditions in greenhouse, better germination, more fun! • Easier to care for new seedlings in a greenhouse • Protected plants grow quicker • Select sturdiest plants, compost the rest • More flexibility if weather turns bad. Plants still grow! • Fit more crops into the season • Use time windows for quick cover crops • Save on seed costs Cons • Extra time caring for the starts • Transplant shock can delay harvest • More attention needed to watering new plants Photo Kathryn Simmons Step 6
  38. 38. Getting the Best from Transplanting  Roots need space. Open flats, plug trays, soil blocks, bare root plants.  Transplant shock is less for plants with good root systems - harvests will start sooner.  Good seed compost  Use a soil thermometer, not a calendar, to decide when to plant out tender plants. Don’t rush them!  Measure and mark the correct spacing: tractor equipment, rolling dibbles, row marker rake, measuring sticks and triangles, span of finger and thumb.  Ideal conditions for transplanting are mild windless afternoons and evenings just before (or during!) light steady rain.  Transplanting late in the day gives the plant a chance to recover during the cooler night hours - the rate of water loss is slower.  Shadecloth or rowcover can be used to reduce the drying effects of wind and sun. Step 6
  39. 39. Transplant Age and Size Vegetable Notes Ideal Age at Transplanting Cucumbers, melons, squash 2 true leaves max (maybe less) 3–4 weeks Watermelons (older is OK) 3–4 weeks Sweet Corn 3–4 weeks Tomatoes age is less important 4–8 weeks Lettuce 4–7 weeks Brassicas 5 true leaves is ideal 6–8 weeks spring/ 3–4 weeks summer Peppers & eggplant 4 or 5 true leaves, not flowering 6–8 weeks Onions (spring sown) & leeks 10–12 weeks Celery 10–12 weeks Step 6
  40. 40. Field Planting Schedule Draw up your list of outdoor planting dates, along with varieties, row feet, spacing, notes and space to write down what you actually do. Step 6
  41. 41. Step 7 When to Sow for Transplants  If the crop is to be transplanted and the catalog doesn’t include the time to grow the transplant, add that. See Sustainable Market Farming Use your own experience or the catalog information, or somewhere in between In future years you will have your own records to customize your calculations  Extract the dates to sow for transplants, and make your Seedlings Schedule Seedlings in Twin Oaks Greenhouse Photo Kathryn Simmons
  42. 42. Seedlings Schedule Step 7 Pepper transplants. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  43. 43. Step 8 Maps  Where in the fields to plant each sowing of each crop ?  Start filling your map with your major crops remembering crop rotation and cover cropping considerations. Note the spaces for squeezing in other crops See my slideshow Crop Rotations for Vegetables and Cover Crops on www.slideshare.net
  44. 44. Crop Spacing Yield is related to plant density.  Area per plant is the important bit, not particular row spacing.  There is a balance point at which the plant density provides the maximum total yield. At that density some plants will be too small to use. That’s taken into account when calculating yield.  Crop size (do customers want big carrots or small carrots?)  Disease control (humidity and molds)  Preferred layout (beds with equidistant plants, or rows).  Ease of cultivation (tractor equipment, hoes, horses) and irrigation  For large plants such as okra or eggplant, it makes more sense to plant a single row in a bed and have the plants close together in that row, in a “hedge.” Photo of Morris Heading Collards by Kathryn Simmons Step 8
  45. 45. Optimal Crop Spacing for Various Goals Crop Row spacing In-row spacing Notes Beets 7" (18 cm) 4" (10 cm) For early harvest 12" (30 cm) 1" (2.5 cm) For max total yield (small). 2" (5 cm) for bigger beets Beans, fava 18" (45 cm) 4.5" (11 cm) For tall varieties. Beans, green 18" (45 cm) 2" (5 cm) 12" (30cm) × 3" (7.5 cm) gives the same area/plant Broccoli (Calabrese) 12" (30cm) 6" (15 cm) For equal amounts of heads and side shoots Cabbage 14" (35 cm) 14" (35 cm) For small heads 18" (45 cm) 18" (45 cm) For large heads Carrots 6" (15 cm) 4" (10 cm) For early crops, limiting competition 6" (15 cm) 1.5" (4 cm) For maincrop, medium size roots Celery 11" (28 cm) 11" (28 cm) For high yields and mutual blanching Cucumber (pickling) 20" (51 cm) 3" (8 cm) Leeks 12" (30 cm) 6" (15 cm) Max yield of hilled up leeks, average size Lettuce 9" (23 cm) 8" (20 cm) Early crops under cover 12" (30 cm) 12" (30 cm) Head lettuce 5" (13 cm) 1" (2.5 cm) Baby lettuce mix Onions 12" (30 cm) 1.5" (4 cm) For medium size bulbs 12" (30 cm) 0.5" (1 cm) For boiling, pickling, kebabs Parsnips 12" (30 cm) 6" (15 cm) For high yields of large roots 7.5" (19 cm) 3" (8 cm) For smaller roots Peas, shelling 18" (46 cm) 4.5" (11.5 cm) Can sow in double or triple bands, 4.5" (11.5 cm) apart Potatoes 30" (76 cm) 9-16" (23–41 cm) Depends on size of seed pieces; small pieces closer Sweet Corn 30-36" (76–90 cm) 8" (20 cm) Closer than 8" (20 cm) the plants shade each other. Tomatoes, bush types 19" (48 cm) 19" (48 cm) For early crops Watermelon 66" (168 cm) 12–24" (30–60 cm) For small varieties. 5–10 ft2 (0.5–1 m2) each 66" (168 cm) 30–84" (76–215 cm) For large varieties. 13–40 ft2 (1.2–3.7 m2) each Step 8
  46. 46. Step 9 Packing More in: Intercropping, Relay Planting, Double Cropping and Succession Planting • Promptly clearing short term crops like beans or cucumbers helps with pest and disease control and opens up the space for double-cropping or for more cover crops to replenish the soil • Fast growing crops like lettuce, radishes and greens can be planted between or alongside slower-growing crops to generate more income and diversity • We grow peas with spinach, peanuts with lettuce, okra with cabbage Tyee spinach in a relay with snap peas. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  47. 47. Interplanting • Fast growing crops like lettuce, radishes and greens can be planted between or alongside slower- growing crops to generate more income and diversity • Interplanting lettuce and tomatoes is 39% more efficient than growing each crop individually. (Statistic and photo thanks to Alison and Paul Wiediger) • We have grown peas with spinach Step 9
  48. 48. Fast Catch Crops Tatsoi. Credit Wren Vile Ready in 30–35 days in fall, longer in winter: • kale, arugula, radishes (both the fast small ones and the larger winter ones). • many Asian greens: Chinese Napa cabbage, Komatsuna, Maruba Santoh, mizuna, pak choy, Senposai, tatsoi, Tokyo Bekana and Yukina Savoy. • spinach, chard, salad greens (lettuce, endives, chicories) and winter purslane. • brassica salad mixes Ready in 35–45 days in fall: • corn salad, land cress, sorrel, parsley and chervil. Ready in 60 days in fall: • beets, collards, kohlrabi, turnips and small fast cabbage Some cool-weather crops mature in 60 days or less. Mostly these are greens and fast-growing root crops. Useful if a crop fails, or you have a small empty space. Step 9
  49. 49. Season Extension in Every Season  Grow earlier crops in spring: o Choose fast-maturing hardy varieties o Use transplants o Use rowcovers, low tunnels, Quick Hoops, high tunnels (= hoophouses)  Extend the growth of cool-weather crops into summer: o Learn how to germinate seeds in hot weather o Use shadecloth, use insect netting to keep bugs off o Interplant to allow a new crop to grow in the shade of the old one  Extend the survival of frost-tender crops beyond the first fall frosts o Use rowcover o Minimize frost damage  Grow cold-hardy winter vegetables o Use rowcovers, low tunnels, Quick Hoops, hoophouses Step 9 For details, see my slide show Season Extension on SlideShare.net
  50. 50. Pondering Season Extension Extend the season without overworking yourself, your crew, or your soil. A longer harvest season helps you retain and satisfy customers. You can provide year-round employment for your crew - retain skilled workers. It’s easier to get extra harvests for a month or two in fall from mature plants, than to get harvests a week earlier in the spring. Tired but unbroken. Photo Bridget Aleshire Step 9
  51. 51. Economics of Season Extension • Season extension requires putting in more time and/or money than main season growing, to gain extra production. • Find the balance point at which time, money and energy put in are still definitely worthwhile. • Beyond that point, the diminishing returns aren’t worth the extra energy put in. You might do better to turn your attention to some seasonal crop and not chase after unseasonal ones regardless of costs. • Before investing a lot of money, talk with other nearby growers. • Compare the costs and benefits of various types of cold weather crop protection. Step 9
  52. 52. To Determine the Last Sowing Date for Frost-Tender Crops Count back from the expected first frost date, adding: • the number of days from seeding to harvest, • the average length of the harvest period, • 14 days to allow for the slowing rate of growth in the fall, and • 14 days to allow for an early frost (unless you have rowcover). Zephyr Summer Squash CREDIT: Kathryn Simmons. Step 9
  53. 53. Scheduling for Continuous Harvests  Plan the sowing dates carefully if you want continuous supplies of summer crops such as beans, squash, cucumbers, sweet corn; winter hoophouse greens; and year-round lettuce.  Planting squash or beans once a month will not provide an even supply.  Crops grow faster at some times of year than others, and the time between one sowing and the next needs to vary to balance this.  To harvest a new planting at regular intervals, you need big sowing gaps early in the spring, and shorter ones in the late summer or fall. Step 9
  54. 54. Step 9 Succession Planting for Continuous Harvests  As spring temperatures and day- length increase towards the Summer Solstice, the time to maturity shortens – later sowings almost catch up with earlier ones.  As temperatures and day-length decrease in the fall, the time to maturity lengthens – a day late in sowing can lead to a week’s delay in harvesting.  To get harvests starting an equal number of days apart, vary the interval between one sowing date and the next accordingly For all the details, see my slideshow Succession Planting for Continuous Harvests on SlideShare.net Bean bed. Photo Pam Dawling
  55. 55. Step 9 Find Space for Succession Crops • Beans, edamame, cucumbers, melons , squash, sweet corn can be produced through the frost-free period, if you sow several times. • Beets, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, collards, kale, spinach can be grown in spring and again in the fall in the Southeast. • Lettuce can be grown year-round • Lettuce, spinach, turnips, radishes, scallions, tatsoi and some other Asian greens can be sown in succession in the winter hoophouse
  56. 56. Step 9 Succession Crops Planning Chart • We list the spare spaces in the plots (in order of availability) • and the crops we hope to plant (in date order) • Then we pencil in arrows, fitting the succession crops into the spaces available.
  57. 57. Succession Crop Scheduling • Plan sowing dates for even, continuous supplies of popular summer crops, such as beans, squash, cucumbers, sweet corn; year round lettuce and winter hoophouse greens. • Length of time from sowing to harvest varies according to temperature (and day length in some cases). • Planting squash once a month will not provide an even supply. • Keep records and use information from other growers in your area to fine-tune planting dates. Photo Credit: Kathryn Simmons. For all the details, see my slideshow Succession Planting for Continuous Harvests on SlideShare.net Step 9
  58. 58. Several Approaches to Succession Crop Planning – Which Suits You? 1. Rough plan: “every two weeks” 2. “No paperwork” methods 3. Sow several varieties on the same day 4. Plan a sequence of sowings to provide an even supply, using graphs 5. Use Accumulated Growing Degree Days data Squash drawing by Jessie Doyle Step 9
  59. 59. Rough Plan: Every 2 weeks for beans and corn, Every 3 weeks for squash and cucumbers and edamame Every 4 weeks for carrots 2 or 3 plantings of muskmelons (cantaloupes) at least a month apart. CREDIT: Kathryn Simmons. Step 9
  60. 60. “No Paperwork” Methods • Sow another planting of sweet corn when the previous one is 1”–2" tall • Sow more lettuce when the previous sowing germinates • Sow more beans when the young plants start to straighten up from their hooked stage Step 9
  61. 61. Sow Several Varieties on One Day Use varieties with different days-to-maturity sown on the same day. We do this with broccoli, lettuce, sweet corn. Step 9
  62. 62. Step 9 Make a Graph - 6 Steps a) Gather sowing and harvest start and finish dates for each planting of each crop b) Make a graph for each crop: sowing date along the horizontal (x) axis; harvest start date along the vertical (y) axis. Mark in all your data. Join with a line. Smooth the line. c) From your first possible sowing date find the first harvest start date. d) Decide the last worthwhile harvest start date, mark that. e) Use the harvest end dates to see how long a planting lasts (how often you want a new patch starting). Divide the harvest period into a whole number of equal segments of that length. f) Mark in the harvest start dates and see the sowing dates that match those harvest datesNext we’ll take one step at a time
  63. 63. For each sowing of each crop, collect 1. Sowing date 2. Date of first harvest 3. Date of last worthwhile harvest of that sowing  Compared to spring and summer plantings, the results for winter plantings can look quite wacky, as plants “sit still” when it’s too cold.  Here’s the first part of our data Sowing Date Harvest Start Harvest End 6-Sep 30-Sep 7-Nov 6-Sep 3-Oct 10-Nov 6-Sep 7-Oct 7-Nov 1-Oct 2-Nov 17-Dec 1-Oct 10-Nov 25-Dec 5-Oct 9-Nov 2-Jan Radishes a) Gather Sowing & Harvest Dates
  64. 64. b) Make a Graph X axis = Sowing Date, across the bottom • Mark in all your data, and join with a line. • Graphs can be made by hand or using a spreadsheet program such as Excel, which calls them charts. This type of graph is called a “scatter chart.” 9/7/2016 9/27/2016 10/17/2016 11/6/2016 11/26/2016 12/16/2016 1/5/2017 1/25/2017 2/14/2017 3/6/2017 3/26/2017 4/15/2017 8/18/2016 9/7/2016 9/27/201610/17/201611/6/201611/26/201612/16/2016 1/5/2017 1/25/2017 2/14/2017 Harveststartdate Sowing date Ser… Yaxis=HarvestStartDate Radishes - several years’ data
  65. 65. c) From Your First Possible Sowing Date Find the First Harvest Start Date Draw a line up from your first possible sowing date on the x axis to the graph line. 9/7? Draw a horizontal line from the point on the graph line to the y axis. This is your first harvest date. Ours is around 10/1. Harvest date varies according to temperature. 9/7/2016 9/27/2016 10/17/2016 11/6/2016 11/26/2016 12/16/2016 1/5/2017 1/25/2017 2/14/2017 3/6/2017 3/26/2017 4/15/2017 8/18/2016 9/7/2016 9/27/2016 10/17/2016 11/6/2016 11/26/2016 12/16/2016 1/5/2017 1 Harveststartdate Sowing date
  66. 66. d) Decide Your Last Worthwhile Harvest Start Date • Decide your last worthwhile harvest start date 3/18? • Draw a line across from this date on the y (harvest) axis to the graph line • Draw a line from this point on the graph line down to the x axis to show when to sow. 1/26? 9/7/2016 9/27/2016 10/17/2016 11/6/2016 11/26/2016 12/16/2016 1/5/2017 1/25/2017 2/14/2017 3/6/2017 3/26/2017 4/15/2017 8/18/20169/7/20169/27/201610/17/201611/6/201611/26/201612/16/20161/5/20171/25/20172/14/2017 Harveststartdate Sowing date S…
  67. 67. • The line joining the points on the graph is often jagged, due to differences in weather from year to year, and to growing varieties with differing maturity dates. • Smooth the jaggedness by drawing a smooth line hitting most of your points, with equal numbers of points above and below it, equally distributed over time. • Practice with a pencil, drawing a line in the air just above the graph. • When you’re fairly confident, draw a smooth line. • With radishes the curve is slight, but it’s there. Smoothing the Graph Line
  68. 68. Radish Succession Crops Graph with Smoothed Line
  69. 69. e) Divide the Harvest Period into a Whole Number of Segments  Count the days from first harvest of the first sowing to the first harvest of the last sowing:10/1–3/18=30+30+31+31+28+18=168  Use the harvest end dates to see roughly how long a patch of radishes lasts (how often you want a new patch coming on line)  Divide the harvest period into a whole number of equal intervals of that length. If we want new radishes every 34 days, we’ll need 5 equal intervals between plantings (34 x 5 = 170).  Five intervals means 6 plantings. (P-I-P-I-P-I-P-I-P-I-P)  The harvest start dates will be 10/1, 11/4, 12/8, 1/11, 2/14,3/20  Draw a horizontal line from each harvest start date to the graph line – see next slide
  70. 70. Radish Succession Crops Harvest Start Dates
  71. 71. Radish Succession Crops Sowing Dates
  72. 72. f) Determine the Sowing Dates to Match Your Harvest Start Dates  Drop a vertical line down to the horizontal axis from each place that a horizontal line meets your smoothed curve.  Read the date on the horizontal axis at this point  Write these planting dates on your schedule: 9/7, 9/30, 10/28, 11/22, 12/20, 1/27  Sowing intervals are 23, 28, 25, 28, 38 days – longer in Dec-Jan, as the Jan sowing will catch up some with the Dec sowing.  If your planting plans exceed the space you’ve got, simply tweaking to a less frequent new harvest start could free up space to grow something else.  Also consider a gap in radish supply, if other crops could make better use of the space.
  73. 73. Our Radish Succession Dates 1. Radish #1, sown 9/6, harvested 10/5- 11/15. 2. #2, sown 10/1, harvested 11/6-12/25 3. #3, sown 10/30, harvested 12/16-2/7 4. #4, sown 11/29, harvested 1/16-2/25 5. #5, sown 12/23, harvested 2/19-3/16 Our harvest intervals are uneven: 31-40 days. This fits better with our other crops. After many calculations and too many radishes, we cut back to 5 sowings of 32' (10 m) each. We reduced the amount we sow each time as a result of evening out our supply. Sept 7 sowing of radishes on Oct 3. Photo Pam Dawling
  74. 74. Sweet Corn Example
  75. 75. Year Round Lettuce Part 1 Photo Kathryn Simmons When to sow for transplants for outdoors: The short version: sow • twice in January, • twice in February, • every 10 days in March, • every 9 days in April, • every 8 days in May, • every 6-7 days in June and July, Step 9 See my slideshow Lettuce Year Round on www.slideshare.net for a list of varieties and more information
  76. 76. Step 9 Year Round Lettuce Part 2 Photo Kathryn Simmons The short version on when to sow for outdoors: • every 5 days in early August, • every 3 days in late August, • every other day until Sept 21. For coldframes sow in early September. For an unheated greenhouse, sow in mid-September. For planting in a hoophouse, sow mid-late September Tango cold-hardy lettuce Photo Kathryn Simmons
  77. 77. For details, see my slideshow Hoophouse in Fall and Winter on SlideShare.net Winter Succession Crops in the Hoophouse To provide continuous supplies of salad and cooking greens, as well as radishes and small turnips, we plan successions of winter hoophouse crops. Lettuce, spinach, turnips, radishes, scallions, tatsoi and other Asian greens can provide continuous supplies. Don’t stop too soon! Step 9 Photo Kathleen Slattery
  78. 78. Step 9 Hoophouse Succession Planting • 2 sowings of chard, scallions, tatsoi, yukina savoy • 3 sowings of mizuna, turnips, bulb onions • 4 sowings of baby lettuce mix, brassica salad mix • 5 sowings of spinach, radish Crop Planting Date Harvest Dates Notes Brassica Salad Mix #1 sown 10/2 10/29 – 12/22 #2 sown 12/18 ? – 4/20 11 days to germinate. #3 sown 1/27 4/15 – 5/15? Only 2 cuts #4 sown 2/1 4/15 – 5/26 2/12 is last sow date Chard #1 transplanted 10/15 12/11 - 4/9 #2 sown 10/26 2/6 - 5/1 Lettuce Mix #1 sown 10/24 12/11 – 2/21 Up to 8 cuts #1.5! sown 11/16 ? New this year #2 sown 12/31 2/21 - 4/15 3 cuts if we’re lucky #3 sown 2/1 3/18 - 4/20 3 cuts if we’re lucky #4 sown 2/15 3/25? - 5/15 Only sow if spring outdoor lettuce is late Lettuce heads until October 11/16 - 2/20 Harvest leaves from the mature plants 2/21 - 3/31 Cut the heads Mizuna #1 transplanted 10/20 11/27 – 3/7 Includes other frilly mustards #2 sown 11/10 2/26 - 3/20 #3 sown 2/1 3/24 – 4/23 Scarlet Frill, Golden Frills outlive mizuna and Ruby Streaks Onions (bulbing) #1 sown 11/10 Transplanted outdoors as early as possible in March#2 sown 11/22 #3 back-up sown 12/6 Radish #1 sown 9/6 10/5 - 11/15 #2 sown 10/1 11/6 - 12/25 #3 sown 10/30 12/16 - 2/7 #4 sown 11/29 1/16 - 2/25 #5 sown 12/23 2/19 - 3/16 Scallions #1 sown 9/6 12/8 - 2/1 #2 sown 11/18 3/19 - 5/15 Following radish #1 Spinach #1 sown 9/6 10/30 - 2/15 or later Sprouted seeds sown #2 sown 10/24 11/25 - 5/7 #3 sown 11/9 These later sowings are harvested until 5/7 We keep planting to fill gaps and pulling up finished plants#4 sown 1/16 #5 sown 1/17 Until mid-May To transplant outdoors in February Tatsoi #1 sown 9/7 10/30 - 12/31 9 weeks of harvest #2 sown 11/15 2/12 - 3/12 4 weeks of harvest Turnips #1 sown 10/14 12/5 - 2/20 Thinnings11/29 #2 sown 10/25 2/1 - 3/13 Thinnings 1/11 #3 sown 12/10 3/5 - 3/20 Only worthwhile if thinned promptly and eaten small. Yukina Savoy #1 transplanted10/6 12/5 - 1/25 #2 transplanted 10/24 1/8 - 2/1 or so Only one week extra
  79. 79. Growing Degree Days  GDDs measure actual conditions on your farm, this season  More reliable than the calendar – traditional dates will not work well now climate change has taken hold.  A measure of heat accumulation as the year progresses  Can be a tool for season extension,  Can indicate when it’s warm enough to plant tender crops,  Or when they might be ready to harvest.  GDDs can also be used to plan dates for succession sowings.  For most purposes a base temperature of 50°F (10°C) is used – roughly the temperature at which most plant growth changes start to take place. Each day when the temperature rises above the threshold, growing-degrees accumulate. Step 9
  80. 80. Step 9 Growing Degree Days  Add the maximum and minimum temperatures for the 24 hour period, average them, and subtract the base temperature. Add each day’s figure to the total for the year to date. This is the GDD figure.  Wikipedia has a good explanation at www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growing-degree_day  http://farmprogress.com/mobile-apps has a free mobile phone app!  Using GDDs to schedule sweet corn plantings https://extension.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/?p=6618  Using Heat Units to Schedule Vegetable Plantings, Predict Harvest Dates and Manage Crops http://smallfarms.oregonstate.edu/sfn/f11degreedays
  81. 81. Step 10 Look at the Overview - Tweak to Make Your Best Possible Plan• Can’t fit everything in? Drop crops or change your plant quantities? Tighten up your planting schedule? • Perhaps the old crop is not worth keeping, if pulling it helps you establish a new crop in a timely way. • Keep your highest priorities in mind: crops for your best markets, the signature crops you are famous for, and food for your household. • Use all available space for food crops or cover crops • Check timings of seedlings – do you have enough germinating capacity? • Is it physically possible to do all the transplanting you plan in the time allotted? • Simplify planting dates, eg squash and cucumbers on the same days. • Other times it helps to spread the workload over several consecutive days, to give you time to harvest, eat lunch, do your outdoor work. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  82. 82. How to Decide Which Crops to Grow • Some crops offer more money for the area • Some are more profitable in terms of time put in • Crops which quietly grow all season from a single planting can be an advantage. • If the same plants provide multiple harvests, this can be great value for time. Leafy greens are the best example. • In High-Yield Vegetable Gardening, Colin McCrate and Brad Halm point out that when planning what to grow, it's important to consider how long the crop will be in the ground, especially if you have limited space Step 10
  83. 83. McCrate and Halm distinguish between • Fast Growing Crops (25-60 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown arugula, baby lettuce mix, mustard greens, some Asian greens, radishes, spinach, turnips; Transplanted head lettuce, endive, heading Asian greens. • Half Season Crops (50-90 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown snap beans, lima beans, beets, carrots, corn salad, snap peas, snow peas, shelling peas, scallions; Transplanted broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, chard, cucumbers, eggplant, kale, kohlrabi, okra, radicchio, summer squash, zucchini, tomatoes. • Long Season Crops (70-120 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown edamame, fava beans, shell beans, sweet corn, parsnips, peanuts, rutabagas, potatoes, winter squash, pumpkins; Transplanted Brussels sprouts, celeriac, celery, bulb fennel, garlic (longer), leeks, cantaloupe, other melons, bulb onions, peppers, watermelon, sweet potatoes. Fast and Slow Crops Step 10
  84. 84. Crop Value Rating Curtis Stone has a Crop Value Rating system based on 5 factors. Decide if each particular crop gets a point for that factor or not. • Then look for the crops with the highest number of points. Spinach gets all 5 points; cherry tomatoes only 3. • The smaller your farm, the more important to choose high-scoring crops. His 5 are: 1. Shorter days to maturity (fast crops = chance to plant more; give a point for 60 days or less) 2. High yield per linear foot (best value from the space; a point for1/2 pound/linear foot or more) 3. Higher price per pound (other factors being equal, higher price = more income; a point for $4 or more per pound) 4. Long harvest period (= more sales; a point for 4 months or longer) 5. Popularity (high demand, low market saturation) Step 10
  85. 85. Putting together these various ideas, here's my list of possible factors. Loosely speaking, there are 6 categories: A. time involved (#1-4), B. yield (5-8), C. likely income (9-10), D. likely demand (11-15), E. strategic importance (16-20) F. complexity (21-25). Fast-maturing tatsoi Photo Wren Vile Time 1. Is it labor efficient? (Some space-hogging crops like sweet corn are not labor intensive) 2. Does the intense work for this crop come in at a less-busy time of year? 3. Is this crop fast-maturing? (If labor is short, weed control might be an issue for a slow-growing crop, even if space isn't) 4. Is it high yielding for the labor intensiveness? (Okra doesn't provide much food for the space or the time) Factors in DIY Crop Value Rating Step 10
  86. 86. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Yield 5. Is it high yielding for the space occupied (does it produce one vegetable head or 1 pound of produce, per square foot or1/2 pound/row foot)? 6. Is it high-yielding for the time it occupies the ground? (if land is short) 7. Does it provide multiple harvests from a single planting? 8. Does it provide a single bulk harvest of a storable crop? Bulk harvest of long-storing sweet potatoes. Photo Nina Gentle Step 10
  87. 87. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Likely Income 9. If you are selling produce, does it bring a high price, above $4 per pound? 10.If you are growing for a household, or a non- profit, or considering buying wholesale from another farmer for your CSA: Is it expensive to replace? Step 10
  88. 88. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Likely Demand 11.Is it popular (do you have a good market for it)? 12.Is it a staple? 13.Does it store well/easily? 14.Does it provide harvests at times of year when other crops are scarce? 15.Does it provide appealing diversity for your booth or CSA boxes? Step 10
  89. 89. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Strategic Importance 16. Is it a resilient "insurance crop" (forgiving of difficult weather) which provides harvests even if other crops fail (chard, storage root vegetables)? 17. Does it help provide your land with a good crop rotation? 18. Is it in the Dirty Dozen? (What are the pesticide levels in the non- organic crop, if that's the alternative source for your customers?) 19. Are you relying on this crop for personal sustenance? 20. Is it nutritionally dense or important (a protein crop, an oil crop, a mid-winter crop?) Chard is an important Insurance Crop. Photo Wren Vile Step 10
  90. 90. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Complexity 21.Is it reliably easy to grow? Or fun or pleasantly challenging to grow? 22.Is there minimal wastage/maximum saleable yield of the harvested crop? 23.Does the crop require minimal processing to be ready for sale? 24.Is its peak period for water use at a time when you have plenty of water? 25.Will it grow without a fence for deer/rabbit/bird protection? Frosty fall cabbage – cut and sell Photo Lori Katz Step 10
  91. 91. Customize and Chart the Most Relevant Factors • Rearrange the list of factors to suit your farm • Select 6-10 of the most important factors and make up a chart. • List all the crops you are growing (or might grow). • Assess the crops as objectively as you can. • Award each crop a point for each check mark. • Knock out the crops with fewest points. • If you need a tie-breaker, you could use secondary factors from the list. Winnow out the chaff Step 10
  92. 92. Beets, both greens and roots, whether spring or fall, scored well for us. Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange Step 10
  93. 93. Step 11 What to Do if Something Goes Wrong: Plan B Have a brainstorm list to help deal with disasters:  Do immediate damage control to stop the problem getting worse  Ask for help from sharers, neighbors, kids,  Salvage anything you can and process it in some way to sell later.  Plant some quick-growing crops to substitute for crop failures  Buy from other local growers to tide you over  Team up with other growers, share a market booth, save on the rent  Write down what went wrong and why, so you don’t have the same problem next year Senposai can be harvested 40 days from sowing. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  94. 94. Step 12 Record Results for Next Year’s Better Plan• Make recording easy to do • Minimize the paperwork. Record planting dates and harvest start and finish dates on the planting schedule. • Have a daily practice of writing down what was done that day: Planting dates, harvest start and end dates for each planting of each crop; the amount of work done on each crop; the amount harvested. • Allow time to do that, without losing your lunch break • At the beginning of the winter, have a Crop Review Meeting, discuss and write up what worked and what didn’t, to learn from the experience and do better next year. • If your records suggest adjusting a date next year, adjust it to halfway between last year’s plan and what seems ideal - gradually zero in on the likely date without wild pendulum swings based on variable weather.
  95. 95. Advantages of Planning and Record-Keeping 1. Use all the space to best advantage 2. You may find you don’t need to sow as often or as soon as you had thought. 3. Your records may show up the chanciness of certain sowing dates, particularly crops that will bolt soon after sowing. 4. Your record keeping may show up some other ways to increase the harvest period (eg pay attention to aphids in February), and remove the need to resow so soon. Chard Photo Kathryn Simmons Step 12
  96. 96. Resources - General ATTRA attra.ncat.org/ Market Farming: A Start-up Guide; Plugs and Transplant Production for Organic Systems; Scheduling Vegetable Plantings for a Continuous Harvest; Intercropping Principles and Production Practices (mostly field crops, but the same principles apply to vegetable crops); Season Extension Techniques for Market Farmers, etc. SARE www.sare.org/ A searchable database of research findings. See Season Extension Topic Room articles.extension.org/organic_production and eorganic.info/ The organic agriculture community with eXtension. Publications, webinars, videos, trainings and support. An expanding source of reliable information. Growing Small Farms: growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu/ Farmer Resources.  Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, swfrec.ifas.ufl.edu/ or swfrec.ifas.ufl.edu/programs/veg-hort/transplant/ (All about transplants)
  97. 97. Resources - Books (I have reviewed some of these books on my blog at www.sustainablemarketfarming.com)  Jean-Martin Fortier, The Market Gardener: A Successful Grower’s Handbook for Small-Scale Organic Farming.  The Four Season Harvest, Eliot Coleman, 1999, Chelsea Green  The New Organic Grower, Eliot Coleman, 1995, 2018 Chelsea Green  The Winter Harvest Handbook, Eliot Coleman, 2009, Chelsea Green  The Complete Know and Grow Vegetables, J K A Bleasdale, P J Salter et al.  Knott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers, Maynard and Hochmuth http://extension.missouri.edu/sare/documents/KnottsHandbook2012.pdf  The New Seed Starter’s Handbook, Nancy Bubel, 1988, Rodale Books  Root Cellaring, Nancy and Mike Bubel (for construction details and advice)  The Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook, Richard Wiswall, Chelsea Green  Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market, Vern Grubinger, http://host31.spidergraphics.com/nra/doc/fair%20use%20web%20pdfs/nraes- 104_web.pdf NRAES  The Lean Farm, How to Minimize Waste, Increase Efficiency, and Maximize Value and Profits with Less Work and The Lean Farm Guide Ben Hartman, Chelsea Green  The Urban Farmer, Curtis Stone, New Society Publishers  High-Yield Vegetable Gardening, Colin McCrate and Brad Halm, Storey Pub
  98. 98. Resources – More books  The Bio-Integrated Farm, Shawn Jadrnicek.  Gardening When it Counts, Steve Solomon, New Society Publishers  The Vegetable Growers Handbook, Frank Tozer, 2008, Green Man Publishing  Market Farming Success: The Business of Growing and Selling Local Food, Lynn Byczynski  Wholesale Success, Atina Diffley, Jim Slama http://www.familyfarmed.org/publications/wholesalesuccess/ or static1.squarespace.com/static/59370f34a5790a9ef264ae76/t/59a71ff7e3d f28f2da21badc/1504124924473/Farmer%E2%80%99s+Guide+to+Food+Saf ety%2C+Selling%2C+Postharvest+Handling%2C+Packing+Produce.pdf /  Sharing the Harvest, Elizabeth Henderson and Robyn Van En  Nature and Properties of Soils, fourteenth edition, Nyle Brady and Ray Weil  Garden Insects of North America, Whitney Cranshaw  Managing Weeds on your Farm: A Guide to Ecological Strategies. Charles Mohler and Antonio DiTommaso. SARE. In prep.(not yet published)  SARE Crop Rotations on Organic Farms, A Planning Manual, Charles Mohler and Sue Ellen Johnson, editors.
  99. 99. Resources - Planning  The Twin Oaks Harvest Calendar by Starting Date and by Crop are available as pdfs on my website sustainablemarketfarming.com/2013/11/07/growing-for-market-articles-2/  AgSquared online planning software: agsquared.com  COG-Pro record-keeping software for Certified Organic Farms: cog-pro.com  Free open-source database crop planning software code.google.com/p/cropplanning.  Mother Earth News interactive Vegetable Garden Planner, free for 30 days: motherearthnews.com/garden-planner.  Target Harvest Date Calculator: (Excel spreadsheet) johnnyseeds.com/t- InteractiveTools.aspx  Growing Small Farms: growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu click Farmer Resources, Farm Planning and Recordkeeping to download Joel Gruver’s spreadsheets.  Mark Cain www.drippingspringsgarden.com under the CSA tab, you can download their Harvest Schedule. Notebook-based system.  Crop Planning for Organic Vegetable Growers, Daniel Brisebois and Frédéric Thériault (Canadian Organic Growers www.cog.ca)  Grow a Sustainable Diet: Planning and Growing to Feed Ourselves and the Earth, Cindy Conner, New Society Publishers, (worksheet based). DVD/CD set Develop a Sustainable Vegetable Garden Plan
  100. 100. Resources – Detailed Planning  Tables of likely crop yields johnnyseeds.com/assets/information/vegetablecharts.pdf.  gardensofeden.org/04%20Crop%20Yield%20Verification.htm two charts, one of organic crops from The Owner-Built Homestead by Ken & Barbara Kern, one from California.  Determining Prices for CSA Share Boxes Iowa State U extension.iastate.edu/agdm/wholefarm/pdf/c5-19.pdf  New England Vegetable Management Guide Crop Budgets http://nevegetable.org/cultural-practices/crop-budgets  Clif Slade’s 43560 Project: Virginia Association for Biological Farming newsletter vabf.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/clif-slade-43560-demo-project.pdf.  USDA annual vegetable consumption www.usda.gov/factbook/chapter2.pdf  John Jeavons How to Grow More Vegetables has charts: Pounds Consumed per Year by the Average Person in the US and Average US Yield in Pounds per 100 Square Feet.  The Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems at the UC Santa Cruz Crop Plan for a Hundred-Member CSA, for a range of 36 crops in its Unit 4.5 CSA Crop Planning: casfs.ucsc.edu/education/instructional-resources/downloadable-pdf-files2 or directly at 63.249.122.224/wp-content/uploads/2010/05/4.5_CSA_crop_plan.pdf  Jean-Paul Courtens , Roxbury Farm www.roxburyfarm.com/. Regenerative Farming Practices tab: Soil Fertility Practices; Biodynamic Practices; Whole farm Approach; Harvest Manual; Crop Manual; Purchasing Equipment; Crop Plan for a 100 Member CSA, including a CSA Share List, Greenhouse Plan, Field Plan
  101. 101. Resources – My Slideshows www.slideshare.net/ Search for Pam Dawling. You’ll find:  Cold-hardy Winter Vegetables  Cover Crops for Vegetable Growers  Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production  Crop Rotations for Vegetables and Cover Crops  Diversify your Vegetable Crops  Fall and Winter Hoophouse  Fall Vegetable Production  Feeding the Soil  Growing Great Garlic  Growing Sweet Potatoes from Start to Finish  Hoophouse Production of Cool Season Crops  Lettuce Year Round  Many Crops, Many Plantings, to Maximize High Tunnel Efficiency  Producing Asian Greens  Production of Late Fall, Winter and Early Spring Vegetable Crops  Season Extension  Sequential Planting of Cool Season Crops in a High Tunnel  Spring and Summer Hoophouses  Storage Vegetables  Succession Planting for Continuous Vegetable Harvests  Sustainable Farming Practices.  The Seed Garden  Year Round Vegetable Production  Year Round Hoophouse Vegetables
  102. 102. Resources - Slideshows  Mark Cain Planning for Your CSA: https://www.slideshare.net/ (search for Crop Planning)  Brad Bergefurd, Cultural Practices And Cultivar Selections for Commercial Vegetable Growers. https://www.slideshare.net/guest6e1a8d60/vegetable- cultural-practices-and-variety-selection  Daniel Parson Planning the Planting of Cover Crops and Cash Crops, SSAWG 2012 https://www.slideshare.net/parsonproduce/southern-sawg  Joel Gruver Cover Crop Innovation and Cover crops for vegetable cropping systems https://www.slideshare.net/jbgruver/cover-crops-for-vegetable-crops  Joel Gruver Finding the best fit: cover crops in organic farming systems. Some overlap with previous slideshow. https://www.slideshare.net/jbgruver/cover- crops-decatur  Alison and Paul Wiediger https://www.slideshare.net/aunaturelfarm/high- tunnel-1-why-grow-in-high-tunnels and at least 11 more.
  103. 103. Resources - Season Extension  Extending the Season: Six Strategies for Improving Cash Flow Year-Round on the Market Farm a free e-book for online subscribers to Growing for Market magazine  Janet Bachmann, Season Extension Techniques for Market Gardeners, ATTRA, 2005. attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=366  Fall and Winter Gardening Quick Reference, Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, www.southernexposure.com/growing-guides/fall-winter-quick- guide.pdf www.johnnyseeds.com. Growers’ Library, Winter growing guide www.motherofahubbard.com Winter Vegetable Gardening  Solar Gardening: Growing Vegetables Year-Round the American Intensive Way, Leandre Poisson, Gretchen Poisson and Robin Wimbiscus, 1994, Chelsea Green  Extending the Season: Six Strategies for Improving Cash Flow Year-Round on the Market Farm a free e-book for online subscribers to Growing for Market magazine
  104. 104. Web Resources  The Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers ascfg.org/  Southern Exposure Seed Exchange www.southernexposure.com wonderful link for Seed Saving Resources: homepage.tinet.ie/~merlyn/seedsaving.html  Saving Our Seeds website has information on isolation distances, seed processing techniques, where to get manuals on growing specific seeds, and links to more information: www.savingourseeds.org  Growing Degree Days www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growing-degree_day  farmprogress.com/mobile-apps free GDD mobile phone app  Using GDDs to schedule sweet corn plantings extension.udel.edu/weeklycropupdate/?p=6618  Using Heat Units to Schedule Vegetable Plantings, Predict Harvest Dates and Manage Crops smallfarms.oregonstate.edu/sfn/f11degreedays  Brittney Wyatt et al., Row Cover Weight Influences Nitrate Content of Kale Grown in Solar Greenhouses, Kentucky State University, 2011. organic.kysu.edu/NitratePoster.pdf
  105. 105. Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production ©Pam Dawling, 2019 Author of Sustainable Market Farming and The Year-Round Hoophouse SustainableMarketFarming.com facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming

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