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Diversify your vegetable crops 2017 90 mins Pam Dawling

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As a vegetable grower, offer a broader range of vegetables and keep your customers coming back with a different crop every week, while still dependably supplying their old favorites. Learn how to distinguish between the crops likely to succeed and the siren call of too many weird eggplants.

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Diversify your vegetable crops 2017 90 mins Pam Dawling

  1. 1. Diversify Your Vegetable Crops ©Pam Dawling 2017 Twin Oaks Community, Virginia Author of Sustainable Market Farming Published by New Society Publishers SustainableMarketFarming.com facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming
  2. 2. The Purpose of this Presentation To give you ideas so that you can • Make your selection of vegetables the most interesting one around. • Offer a broader range of vegetables and keep your customers' coming back with a different crop every week, while still dependably supplying their old favorites. • Attract restaurant chefs by offering crops and varieties they don't easily find elsewhere. • Introduce your CSA sharers or your school and other institutional clients to crops they haven't tried before. • Learn how to distinguish between the crops likely to succeed and the siren call of too many weird eggplants.
  3. 3. Outline Part l: What does diversify mean to you? 1. Offer a broader range of vegetables A. Introduce your customers to crops they haven't tried before. B. Offer varieties your customers don't easily find elsewhere C. Consider gourmet high value crops - (but do you have a market?) D. Include some non-food crops (but this presentation is about vegetables!) 2. Signature crops – ones that become associated with your farm - many kinds of one crop, or one type of crop 3. Season extension – crops when customers don't expect them 4. Don’t stop supplying old favorites! Succession planting – never waste a chance to sell squash! Part ll: Once you’ve listed crops that look interesting to grow, winnow out the chaff 1. Clarify your goals 2. Which crops are likely to succeed? Distractions, including the siren call of too many weird eggplants 3. How to decide which crops to grow - Rate crops against each other, using factors important to you Resources and my contact info
  4. 4. 1A. Less usual crops • Introduce your customers to crops they haven't tried before. Keep them coming back with a different crop every week. Restaurant chefs particularly like special new ingredients. • Peanuts, parsnips, leeks, Jerusalem artichokes, chicories, radicchio, endives, celeriac, kohlrabi, multiplier onions, daikon, Asian greens, unusual greens, microgreens, perennial vegetables For details, see my slideshows Fall Vegetable Production Storage Vegetables for Off-Season Sales Cold-hardy winter vegetables on www.slideshare.net
  5. 5. Peanuts • Peanuts need a frost-free period of at least 110 days. • They like warm or hot conditions, with adequate but not excessive water. • They can be transplanted, but they do not germinate well without soil. Use actual soil, or a mix containing soil. • Slow growing at first • Hill when 12” (30 cm) tall • Do not disturb the soil during pegging Carwiles Virginia Peanut Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  6. 6. Parsnips Root crops that thrive in mild weather, surprisingly easy to grow in warmer climates Similar requirements to carrots and beets but parsnips are slow growing, start them in spring only Need at least 110 days before winter gets too cold for them to grow any more Sow March - late April - they are almost guaranteed to be big enough by the end of the season Don’t harvest before frosts – poor flavor Hybrids are often smoother, higher quality than OPs Photo Small Farm Central Hollow Crown parsnips. Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  7. 7. Leeks Unlike onions, leeks grow independently of day length and will stand in the field at temperatures below what many other vegetables can handle, increasing in size until you harvest them. Leeks are slow growing, start them in spring. Overwintered leeks with a scattering of snow. Leek varieties - 2 main types: • less hardy, faster-growing varieties, often with lighter green leaves, which are not winter-hardy north of Zone 8, • blue-green hardier winter leeks. We like Tadorna (100 days), Bandit, Jaune du Poiteau, King Sieg (84 days) and Bleu de Solaize (105 days, very hardy). • Giant Musselburgh (105 days) is bolt-resistant, for overwintering in milder climates.
  8. 8. Jerusalem artichokes/Sunchokes • Simple to grow, 10ft tall sunflower cousins • Different skin color and root shapes are available - look for smooth, not knobbly ones, to save cleaning time • Better to have a semi-permanent plot, as any small tubers you miss will regrow • Plant small, whole tubers from early spring until last frost. • To get big roots, give plants the longest possible growing season. • Harvest 100 lbs from 25 sq ft. • Dig them up from late fall to mid-winter, depending how cold it gets. Cool weather improves flavor. Can harvest in early spring • Store under refrigeration or in a root cellar • Save small tubers to replant
  9. 9. Endives and chicories • Related to wild chicory and dandelions, naturally bitter. • 3 main species: endive, wild endive and common chicory Endives and Chicories Common Chicory SugarloafRadicchio Belgian endive Wild Endive The weed Endive Escarole (Batavian endive) Frisee (curly endive)
  10. 10. Endives Frisée endive is the most bitter. Normally it is blanched before eating. Upper photo Hudson Valley Seed Library Escarole is the least bitter member of the family and looks like a sturdy lettuce. Although it can be eaten in hearty salads, it is generally sautéed or braised, which brings out the sweetness and mutes the bitterness. Lower photo Van Geest Inter- national Photo NPR Kitchen Window
  11. 11. Chicory for chicons • Belgian Endive (Witloof chicory) – forcing chicory • The seeding date is earlier than other chicories, to get a large root for harvest before the ground freezes. • The harvested roots are stored (planted) in deep crates of soil mix • In late winter the crates are warmed in a completely dark space to force leaves to grow, forming a tight, very pale head of leaves. • Darkness reduces bitternessWitloof chicory
  12. 12. Heading chicories • Unlike frisée or escarole, some chicories including radicchio and sugarloaf chicory are storable • Chicories develop their peak flavor and sweetness as temperatures drop in the fall • More hardy than lettuce • Hold well in the cooler, much better than lettuce, especially when harvested slightly immature with an inch of root attached • 2 main types of radicchio - Chioggia (round and red), and Treviso (oblong and red). • Longer maturing varieties are more cold tolerant, shorter maturing ones are more heat tolerant. Photo www.growitalian.com
  13. 13. Sugarloaf chicory • A heading chicory between a Belgian endive and a radicchio in appearance • It grows to the size of a small romaine lettuce • One of the sweetest, least bitter chicories • But also the least cold hardy. Photo www.growitalian.com
  14. 14. Celeriac Mars celeriac. Photo Johnnys Selected Seeds Also known as turnip-rooted celery, celeriac is an unusual vegetable, which stores very well. Only the root is eaten, the stalks are fibrous. Growing celeriac is similar to growing celery, but is somewhat easier. • Slow-growing - 85 days to grow to transplant size and at least 95 days from transplanting to maturity • The seeds need light to germinate. • After seedlings emerge, do not expose them to temperatures below 55°F/12.7°C for a period of 10 days or more - this can cause bolting. • Harden off seedlings before transplanting carefully • Transplant once the weather is settled warm. Plants 6–8” apart in the row with 18–36” between rows. • Keep the soil damp for uninterrupted growth and good quality roots.
  15. 15. Kohlrabi • Kohlrabi can be direct sown or transplanted for spring or fall • Only 58 days from sowing to harvest. • We have transplanted 3-4 week old starts on August 3, and harvested at the end of October. • We could plant mid-August for early November harvest. • Kohlrabi is hardy to about 15°F (–9.4°C). The temperature is not likely to get that cold before the beginning of November • It stores well in perforated plastic bags under refrigeration Kohlrabi Photo by McCune Porter
  16. 16. Multiplier Onions • Potato onions are planted in September (the largest ones) • Medium-sized ones are planted in late October or early November • Small ones are planted in November or in early spring (less good) • Mulch over the top immediately after planting • Do nothing all winter • Weed in spring • Harvest as the tops fall in June • Sell the largest ones for eating (but save back any for planting) • Cure and store the smaller ones for replanting or sell for growing Yellow Potato Onions Photo Kathryn Simmons
  17. 17. • We sow winter radish August 4. China Rose and a daikon. • We harvest in October or November before temperatures drop to 20°F (- 7°C) • Stores well in plastic bags under refrigeration • Popular for making Kim Chee, as well as for salads and stir- fries. Frosty daikon. Photo Bridget Aleshire Winter radish, including daikon
  18. 18. Green Wave Mustard. Photo http://www.rareseeds.com Mature Red Giant Mustard Photo Planet Natural Mustard greens Asian mustards such as Red Giant, Osaka Purple Brassica juncea, and American Mustards (eg Southern Green Wave) are hardy to light frosts. Attractive colors. 21 days to baby leaves, 40–45 days full size
  19. 19. Asian Greens • Huge range of attractive varieties • Grow when you normally grow kale • Quick-growing, bring fast returns • Short spring season, bolt when it gets hot • Long fall season, no bolting. Success depends on getting them germinated and planted in June and July • Grow particularly well in the hoophouse, all winter in zone 7 Blues Napa Chinese cabbage Photo Ethan Hirsh For details, see my slideshow Producing Asian Greens on www.slideshare.net
  20. 20. Advantages of Asian greens  A quick way to fill out your market booth or CSA bags  A catch crop for spaces where other crops have failed or otherwise finished early. Keep a flat of seedlings ready, pop plugs into empty spaces as they occur.  Better able to germinate in hot weather than lettuce.  Faster growing than lettuce  Some of the faster-growing types are ready for transplanting 2 weeks after sowing (or you can direct sow them) Photo Ethan Hirsh
  21. 21. Healthful Diversity!  Flavors vary from mild to peppery - read catalog descriptions before growing lots  Colors cover the spectrum: chartreuse, bright green, dark green and purple.  Nutritious as well as tasty. Photo Ethan Hirsh
  22. 22. Asian Greens – many types • Napa Chinese Cabbage • Pak Choy • Tokyo Bekana • Maruba Santoh • Tatsoi • Yukina Savoy • Senposai • Komatsuna • Mizspoona • Toraziroh • Thick-stemmed mustard • Yokatta • Hon Tsai Tai • Mizuna • Scarlet Frills & other mustards • Chrysanthemum greens • Mustard-based salad mixes
  23. 23. Unusual Greens 3 hot weather greens Malabar spinach Jewels of Opar Purslane 3 cold weather greens Miners Lettuce/Claytonia Upland Cress Minutina 3 “all season” greens Orach Sorrel Saltwort
  24. 24. Baby Lettuce Lettuce Mixes Small-leaf lettuces: Osborne’s Multileafs, Johnny’s Salanovas, Tango, Oscarde, Panisse. Photo Osborne Seeds Lettuce Mix. Photo Twin Oaks Community
  25. 25. Brassica salad mixes Wild Garden Pungent Mix, Brassica juncea, (Wild Garden Seeds, Fedco). A cross of pungent Indian mustards for those who like Big Flavor. 40 days to harvest. Photos Wild Garden Seeds Pink Petiole Mix, Brassica rapa (Wild Garden Seeds, Fedco). Fast-growing, cold tolerant, adds a touch of color to the brassica portion of winter salad mixes. A varied mix of colors and shapes. Ready in 40 days.
  26. 26. Other salad crops • Sylvetta, Surrey and Astro varieties of arugula are particularly cold-hardy. Even’Star arugula photo credit SouthernExposure Seed Exchange • Parsley, Belle Isle upland cress, winter purslane, salad burnet and mache (corn salad) are also very winter-hardy. Belle Isle Upland Cress. Photo Credit Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  27. 27. Microgreens www.chelseagreen.com and Andrew Mefferd For clear instructions on efficiently growing microgreens for sale, see Andrew Mefferd’s Greenhouse and Hoophouse Grower's Handbook – Organic Vegetable Production Using Protected Culture
  28. 28. Perennial vegetables • Asparagus • Rhubarb • Globe artichokes • Cardoon • Arrowhead • Ramps • Sissoo spinach • Water celery • Scorzonera • Yacon • Okinawa spinach • Sea kale • Good King Henry • Nopale cactus • Bitter melon • Water Chestnut • Ostrich Fern • Hyacinth bean • Water Lotus • New Zealand spinach Hyacinth bean. Photo by Raddysh Acorn
  29. 29. 1B. Unusual varieties • Boldor beet, Purple Haze carrot, lemon cucumber, Clara eggplant, Islander pepper, Adirondack Blue potato, Cherokee Green tomato from Johnnys Selected Seeds. • Louisiana Long Green Eggplant, Bowling Red Okra, Suyo Long Asian Cucumber, Georgia Streak tomato from Southern Exposure Seed Exchange. • Oscarde lettuce, Redbor kale from Fedco Seeds
  30. 30. 1B. Small varieties • Baby beet, Atlas carrot, Unistars cocktail cucumber, Kermit eggplant, Lunchbox peppers, Russian banana fingerling potatoes, Purple Bumblebee tomatoes from Johnny’s • Jenny Lind melon, Fireball pepper, Claytonia, Camelot shallots from Fedco • Chires Baby Sweet Corn, Lemon squash, Matt’s Wild Cherry tomato, White Galaxy Asparagus bean from Southern Exposure
  31. 31. 1C. Gourmet high value crops Restaurant chefs particularly like special new ingredients Be sure you have a market, and that prices reflect the time and land involved. • Bulb fennel • Crosnes • Edible flowers • Garlic scapes, scallions, and green garlic • Gherkins • Gobo • Ginger • Horseradish • Herbs • Jicama • Mushrooms • Turmeric and Galangal West Indian gherkins Photo Mary Kranz
  32. 32. Bulb fennel The crunchy white “bulb” consists of the swollen stem bases of the leaves. Has a vaguely licorice-like flavor. • A cool-weather short-lived perennial grown as an annual in zone 6 and warmer. • In zones 2-5 it grows as a biennial. • Depending on your climate, seed may be sown in early spring, mid-spring, late summer and early fall. • The two seasons for planting bulb fennel in zone 7 are March-April and July-August • Can be sown outdoors when the danger of hard frost (28°F) is over • The fall crop is likely to be more successful than a spring one. • Sensitive to day-length, and sudden chilly spells • If your spring crop bolts before forming a good bulb, your weather is too hot for spring planting - stick to fall crops in future, or start earlier in the spring • Grow the plant fast, harvest before flower stems form and provide plenty of water
  33. 33. Crosnes/Chinese artichokes • Perennial, also known as Japanese artichoke, chorogi and knotroot • Trendy tiny spiral-shaped tubers that come from a member of the mint family. • Plant in fall or early spring in full sun, 3” deep, 12” apart (crowding reduces yield, size) • Harvest in the fall when the mint-like leaves die. The ones you miss grow next year • Cleaning can be slow so pack size should be relatively small and price relatively high • Store crosnes in plastic bags at a temperature of 35-40 F • The flavor is mild and juicy - it can be eaten raw or cooked, more as a garnish than a staple. Salads, stir-fries, pickles
  34. 34. Edible flowers • Calendula Pacific Beauty, SESE • Nasturtium Jewel Mix, SESE • Borage, SESE • Edible Flower Collection, Johnnys • Rocket Mix snapdragons, Johnnys • Lemon Mint Monarda, Johnnys • Helen Mount Viola, Johnnys • Costata Romansco squash, Johnnys
  35. 35. Garlic can be several crops! It’s not just bulbs! Bulbs (and braids) Garlic scapes Green garlic Garlic scallions (shown here)
  36. 36. Reasons to grow garlic scallions • A very tasty and visually attractive crop during the Hungry Gap, the spring period before any new crops are ready for harvest. • Supply garlic taste at a time when supplies of bulb garlic may have run out. Photo from cbf.typepad.com
  37. 37. Garlic scallions Set aside the smallest cloves when planting your main garlic crop Plant close together in furrows, dropping them in almost shoulder to shoulder, just as they fall. Close the furrow and mulch over the top with spoiled hay or straw. We harvest garlic scallions from early March, once they reach about 7-8" (18-20 cm) tall, They last till May, unless we need to use the space.
  38. 38. Garlic scapes • The firm, round seed stems that grow from hard-neck garlic, starting to appear in our region 3 weeks before harvest , as the bulbs size up. Day-length and temperature determine when. • Remove them! The garlic bulbs will be bigger and also easier to braid, if you want braids from hardneck varieties. • Contrary to ideas mentioned by some sources, leaving scapes in does not increase the storage life. • 1 acre (0.4 ha) of hardneck garlic produces 300-500 lbs (136-226 kg) of scapes • Most people who remove scapes cut them where they emerge from the leaves. We prefer to pull ours, to get the most out. Photo www.greencitymarket.wordpress.com
  39. 39. Scapes post-harvest • Scapes are aligned in a bucket, with a little water. • Easy to bunch or cut up. Scapes sell in bunches of 6-10. • They store well in a refrigerator for months if needed. • Use for stir-fries, grilling, omelets, quiche, soups, pesto, pickles, dips, sauces, dressings • Photo simpleseasonal.com
  40. 40. Green garlic The juicy immature plants before the bulbs mature. Could be small bulbs before they differentiate (divide into cloves) or later, before they dry down. Worthwhile if you have a large planting and you can get a good price Photo by Small Farm Central www.smallfarmcentral.com
  41. 41. Gherkins Mexican Sour Gherkins Photo Johnnys Selected Seeds West Indian Gherkins Photo Bridget Aleshire
  42. 42. Gobo (Japanese Burdock) Harvest is not easy - Success with root vegetables Haruka and Jason Oatis www.slideshare.net/LeahJoyner/suc cess-with-root-vegetables www.omafra.gov.on.ca https://wawaza.com
  43. 43. Baby ginger • Fresh baby ginger sells at $9- $20/pound. • A yield of 8:1is good. 4:1 is poor. You could get 17:1 • It needs a heated space from mid-March to mid-May, while the plants are young. • You can save the highest yielding, good shaped roots for next year’s Mother Roots. • To overwinter ginger, it must remain planted in soil/media and soil temps should not fall below 54-57°F (12-14°C). Below 50°F the roots will die. Ginger in the hoophouse. Credit Kathryn Simmons Virginia State University is working on tissue cultured ginger to supply planting material
  44. 44. Baby ginger • Planting rate is about 30 lbs per 100 feet, with one 2oz seed piece every 5” • Start in mid-March in zone 7. • Week of March 24-April 1 - When buds are obvious, plant in lightweight crates. • Keep at 70-80°F (night min in high 40’s). • When hoophouse soil is 55°F and rising (check first thing in the morning), transplant at 5” in-row spacing, rows 24” apart. • Feed and hill 4 times with 2-3” soil, every 2-4 weeks • Harvest early to Mid-October (5 months after sprouting) before the soil temperature cools to 50-55°F. Dig and lift roots carefully For details, see my slideshow Hoophouses in Spring and Summer on www.slideshare.net Photo Kathryn Simmons Refrigeration (34-45F) will turn ginger rubbery. OK to use for cooking, pickling, or candying another day, when rubbery is okay
  45. 45. Culinary herbs Growing and using the top 10 most popular herbs, Jim Long (basil, lavender, parsley, mint, rosemary, oregano, marjoram, thyme, sage, chives, and cilantro) Herbs 101, Jim Long Herbs – culinary and medicinal Medicinal herbs Growing and Marketing Ginseng, Goldenseal and other Woodland Medicinals, Jeanine Davis and W. Scott Persons Lemon balm Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  46. 46. Horseradish • Horseradish is a perennial, easily propagated from pieces of root • It can be hard to get rid of if you change your mind • Traditionally harvested September-April • Harvested roots can be refrigerated for several months until used. • It can provide value-added products for out-of-season sales • When you process it, do it outdoors, with googles on • Throw the peelings in the trash, not the compost pile, as they easily regrow!
  47. 47. Jicama greenbeanconnection.wordpress.com • Jicama, a crunchy tuber, is not a quick-maturing crop, but it is vining and we grew it at the “back” (=north side) of the hoophouse, where it would not shade anything. • Seeds are available from Pinetree, and Baker Creek, who warn: “Takes a very long season, these must be started very early in all areas except the deep south. Caution: the seeds and pods are poisonous”. • We came to the conclusion that we did not have hot enough conditions for long enough. If you are in zone 8 or 9, you might try it.
  48. 48. Mushrooms • Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation, Tradd Cotter • Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms, Paul Stamets • Mycelial Mayhem, David and Kristin Sewak • Cultivating Mushrooms, Stephen Russell
  49. 49. Turmeric and Galangal • Other tropical root crops. • Turmeric is not hilled. The rhizomes grow out and slightly downwards so will only need hilling an inch or two if the rhizomes appear above the soil during growth. • It needs less feeding than ginger. • Turmeric contains curcumins, which have valuable medicinal properties. • Planting rate is 6" between seed pieces. 10-16 pieces per pound. • Galangal – I know nothing! Red Hawaiian Turmeric, Photo http://www.quallaberryfarm.com
  50. 50. 1D. non-food crops Consider some non-food crops (but this presentation is about vegetables!) • Gourds • Luffas • Decorative strings of chillis, • Fancy garlic braids • Halloween pumpkins • Birdhouse gourds • Seed crops • Cut flowers • Bedding plants • Indian corn Photo Johnnys Selected Seeds
  51. 51. Consider flowers as well as vegetables Mark Cain of Dripping Spring Gardens, Arkansas:  50% of their growing area in cut flowers and 50% in vegetables.  The cut flowers bring in 75% of the income. Photo Tom Freeman, Twin Oaks Flowers
  52. 52. 2. Signature crops A crop that people will associate with your farm above all others. One that you grow well and can earn a profit on. Grow many varieties • Garlic • Winter squash • Sweet potatoes • Eggplants • Heirloom tomatoes • Hot peppers • Microgreens Garlic Display and photo by Joanna and Eric Reuter, Chert Hollow Farm
  53. 53. Types of garlic • Garlic (Allium sativum) has 2 subspecies, hardneck (ophioscorodon) and softneck (sativum). • Hardneck types have flower stalks or scapes, bigger cloves, are easier to peel, more cold- tolerant. • Softneck (no scapes, easier to braid, stores later, smaller cloves, harder to peel). Left: Music hardneck garlic Right: Silverwhite Silverskin softneck garlic Photos SESE For details about growing garlic, see my slideshow Growing Great Garlic on www.slideshare.net
  54. 54. 3. Season Extension in Every Season Crops when customers don't expect them  Grow earlier crops in spring: o Use fast-maturing hardy varieties and transplants o Use rowcovers, low tunnels, Quick Hoops, high tunnels (= hoophouses)  Extend the growth of cool-weather crops into summer: o Learn how to germinate seeds in hot weather o Use shadecloth to cool plants down o Use ProtekNet to keep bugs off o Intercrop - let a new crop grow in the shade of the old  Keep frost-tender crops alive beyond the first fall frosts o Use rowcover  Grow cold-hardy winter vegetables  Grow vegetables to store for off-season sales For details, see my slideshow Cold-hardy winter vegetables and Storable vegetables for Off-Season Sales on www.slideshare .net
  55. 55. Winter hoophouse crops • Salad crops • cooking greens • Asian greens • roots • onions • early peas, fava beans • bare root transplants for setting outdoors in February & March For details, see my slideshow Fall and Winter Hoophouses on www.slideshare.net
  56. 56. 4. Don’t stop supplying old favorites!  Be a reliable supplier of basic crops while adding intrigue with new crops  Never waste a chance to sell squash!  Many vegetable crops can be planted several times during the season, to provide a continuous supply.  Plan for continuous supplies but no waste of time or land in growing a glut.  Typically, plants mature faster in warmer weather.  So, to get harvests starting an equal number of days apart, shorten the interval between one sowing date and the next as the season progresses.  Keep records and use information from other growers in your area to fine-tune planting dates. For details, see my slideshow Succession Planting for Continuous Harvests on www.slideshare.net Photo Kathryn Simmons
  57. 57. Rough plan: Every 2 weeks for beans and corn, Sow another planting of sweet corn when the previous one is 1”–2" tall Sow more beans when the young plants start to straighten up from their hooked stage Every 3 weeks for squash, cucumbers, edamame Every 4 weeks for carrots 2 or 3 plantings of muskmelons (cantaloupes) at least a month apart. Photo Kathryn Simmons.
  58. 58. Use varieties with different days-to- maturity sown on the same day. We do this with broccoli, lettuce, sweet corn. Sow several varieties on one day Photo Small Farm Central
  59. 59. Veg Finder Example: Squash #3 WEST Plot J Plant 6/23 120’ Planted….. Harvesting….. Finished….. BEANS CUKES SQUASH CORN CARROTS EDAMAME #1 29W, 29E Plant 4/16 180' dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #1 BED 13W Plant 4/20 90' Planted Harvesting Finished #1 BED 23W Plant 4/20 90' Planted Harvesting Finished #1 EAST Plot G 4x265’ Plant 4/26+4/29 1060' Bod Planted Harvesting Finished #1 BED 9E Plant 2/14 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #1 BED 21W Plant 4/26 90’ Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot G Plant 5/14 176’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot I Plant 5/24 180’ slice 90' + pickle 90' Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot I Plant 5/24 88’ Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot G 4x265' Plant 5/21 1060' Bod/KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #2 BED 25E Plant 2/28 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #2 EAST Plot G No-soak Plant 5/18 88’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #3 WEST Plot J Plant 6/7 240’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #3 WEST Plot J Plant 6/23 120’ Planted Harvesting Finished #3 WEST Plot J Plant 6/23 120’ Planted Harvesting Finished #3 WEST Plot A north 4 x 180' 6/6 1080' Sug Pearl /KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #3 BED 12W Plant 3/13 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #3 EAST Plot I Plant 6/7 60’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #4 EAST Plot K Plant 6/29 175' dbl (5x35’) Planted Harvesting Finished #4 CENT Plot D Plant 7/15 240' slice 120' +pickle 120' Planted Harvesting Finished #4 EAST Plot K Plant 7/15 105’ (3x35’) Planted Harvesting Finished #4 WEST Plot A 6 x 180' 6/19 1080' Bod/KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #4 BED 12E Plant 3/27 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #4 CENTRAL Plot D Plant 6/26 60’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #5 25E 22W Plant 7/19 180’ dbl (2x90’) Planted Harvesting Finished #5 BED 15E Plant 8/5 90' slicers Planted Harvesting Finished #5 BED 13E Plant 8/5 90’ Planted Harvesting Finished #5 WEST Plot A 6 x 180' Plant 7/2 1080' Bod/KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #5 BED 19W Plant 4/10 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #5 EAST Plot K Plant 7/14. 70’ (2x35’)dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #6 BEDS 9W, 9E Plant 8/3 180’ dbl Planted Harvesting Finished #6 CENTRAL Plot D 7 x 200' Plant 7/16 1400' Bod/KK/SQ Planted Harvesting Finished #6 BED 17W Plant 5/14 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #8 BED 1 CARROTS#8 BED 30W Only if needed Plant 7/8 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #7 Not this year, perhaps never again #7 BED 27E Only if needed Plant 6/11 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished #8 BED CARROTS #9 Overwinter Raised Beds Plant 7/28 Danvers Planted Harvesting Finished
  60. 60. Making a Close-fit Plan Using Graphs Sowing Date Harvest Start 4/18 6/1 4/21 5/19 4/23 5/25 5/14 6/3 5/15 6/21 5/20 7/5 5/25 7/4 5/29 7/7 6/12 7/20 6/15 7/20 6/30 8/2 7/1 8/8 7/2 8/11 7/4 8/8 7/5 8/10 7/14 8/14 7/18 8/17 7/19 8/28 8/3 9/9 8/4 9/5 8/5 9/15 8/7 10/2 8/9 9/25 8/12 10/5 For each crop, gather several years’ worth of planting and harvesting records in two columns (this example is squash).
  61. 61. Make a Graph - Five Steps 1. Plot a graph for each crop, with sowing date along the horizontal (x) axis and harvest start date along the vertical (y) axis. Mark in all your data. Join with a curve. 2. Mark the first possible sowing date and the harvest start date for that. 3. Decide the last worthwhile harvest start date, mark that. 4. Then divide the harvest period into a whole number of segments, according to how often you want a new patch. 5. Figure the sowing dates needed to match your chosen harvest start dates For step-by-step instructions, see my slideshow Succession Planting for Continuous Harvests on www.slideshare.net
  62. 62. Step 4: Divide the Harvest Period into a Whole Number of Segments  (Switching to our sweet corn example) Count the days from first harvest of the first sowing to first harvest of the last sowing: 75 days of sweet corn! (Plus the 15 days from the harvest start of the last sowing to the end = 90 days!!)  Decide how often you want a new patch coming on line  Divide the harvest period into a whole number of intervals. If we want fresh corn every 15 days, we’ll need 5 equal intervals between plantings (15 x 5 = 75).  The harvest start dates will be July 9, July 24, Aug 8, Aug 23, Sept 7 and Sept 22.  5 intervals means 6 plantings. (P-I-P-I-P-I-P-I-P-I-P)
  63. 63. Step 5: Figure the Sowing Dates to Match your Harvest Start Dates  Draw a horizontal line from one harvest start date to the smoothed graph line  Then drop a vertical line down to the horizontal axis  Read the date on the horizontal axis at this point. This is the sowing date.  Repeat for each harvest start date:  Sowing dates will be April 26, May 19, June 6, June 24, July 9, July 16  Sowing intervals are 23, 18, 18, 13 and 9 days – a lot shorter later in the season.
  64. 64. Graphs for winter crops • Using succession crop graphs can also be used for winter hoophouse crops • Keep good records and eliminate sowings that are too late to give a harvest – some crops bolt in January (Tokyo bekana and Maruba Santoh), some in February (tatsoi) Cherry Belle radishes. Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  65. 65. Radish Succession Crops Graph
  66. 66. Year Round Lettuce Part 1 The short version is that we sow • twice in January, • twice in February, • every 10 days in March, • every 9 days in April, • every 8 days in May, • every 6-7 days in June and July, Spring lettuce in flats Photo Kathryn Simmons
  67. 67. Year Round Lettuce Part 2 • every 5 days in early August, • moving to every 3 days in late August, • every other day until Sept 21. • After that we ease back to every 3 days until the end of September. Those last plants could feed us right through the winter. Tango cold-weather lettuce Photo Kathryn Simmons
  68. 68. Part ll Winnow out the chaff 1. Can you earn a living growing it? 2. Is it challenging to grow in your climate? 3. Is there a market for it? 4. Would you have to reduce space for another crop? 5. Do you lose efficiency by growing many different crops? 6. Diversify without overwork 7. Consolidate and simplify 8. Specialize in one crop and grow many kinds 9. Grow crops needing similar conditions or timing 10.Consider carefully – use a rating system
  69. 69. 1. Clarify your goals • Jean-Martin Fortier in The Market Gardener: A Successful Grower’s Handbook for Small-Scale Organic Farming, shows how to meet your goals and fit your resources. • Having decided how much money they need to support their family, Jean-Martin and Maud-Hélène Fortier decided to provide the equivalent of 220 CSA shares for 20 weeks. • They choose vegetables based on demand balanced with the financial value of those crops and the practicalities of growing. They provide 8-12 different vegetables each week. • 35 of their 160 beds grow mesclun – it's #2 in sales rank, although only #19 in revenue/bed. But salad mix only takes 45 days in the bed, and then another crop is grown, increasing the income/bed • My climate is very different from Quebec. Our market is very different. We don’t want 300 pounds of salad mix each week! We're providing for 100 people for 52 weeks. We want potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots and winter squash to feed us all winter.
  70. 70. 2. Which crops are likely to succeed? • In Market Farming Success: The Business of Growing and Selling Local Food, Lynn Byczynski identifies and explains aspects of market farming that growers need to tackle. • She points out to new market growers that you need a diversity of crops, not just a few profitable items. • You need not only early crops, but critical mass for the whole of your chosen season. • Grow what yields well for least labor, grow what sells best at the highest price, and also grow what fills gaps between your major crops. For details, see my slideshow Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production on www.slideshare.net
  71. 71. Dollars per square foot • Tomatoes, Heirloom $19.25 • Tomatoes, Hybrid $12 • Ginger $12 • Pea Shoots $10 • Salad Mix $10 • Spinach $10 • Spring mint tips $7.50 • Lettuce, Romaine $5 • Carrots, bunched $4.50 • Carrots, bagged $4.50 • Shallots $4.50 • Microgreens $3.75 • Rhubarb $3.75 • Turnips, bunched $3.30 • Garlic $3 • Beets, bunched $2.80 • Fennel $2.80 • Kohlrabi $2.80 • Lettuce, head $2.50 • Onions, green $2.50 • Pak choy $2.50 • Potatoes, new $1.30 • Broccoli $1.25 • Snap peas $1.25 • Onions, bulbs $1 From Ben Hartman, The Lean Farm Dollars per square foot, highest to lowest (of the crops they grow). Does not account for the time each crop occupies the space. Bulb onions curing. Photo Wren Vile Heirloom tomatoes Photo Craig LeHoullier
  72. 72. Crops that sell for high prices (not necessarily easy to grow) • microgreens, • heirloom tomatoes, • baby vegetables, • salad mix, • lettuce, • arugula, • herbs, • edible flowers, • storage crops, • garlic, • fruits, • unusual crops • out-of-season crops, • common crops grown efficiently, • bedding plants and transplants, • cut flowers, • ornamental crops • This list is from Market Farming Success
  73. 73. Which Crops Take Most Attention? Steve Solomon in Gardening When it Counts provides tables of vegetable crops by the level of care they require. Your results may vary! Onion bed. Photo Kathryn Simmons • His Easy List: kale, collards, endives, chicories, spinach, cabbage, Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, all cucurbits, beets, chard, sweet corn, all legumes, okra, tomatoes (followed by the more difficult eggplant, peppers). • His Harder to Grow List: lettuce, arugula, parsley, carrots, parsnips, broccoli, radishes, kohlrabi, turnips, rutabagas, mustards, non-heading Asian greens, scallions, potato onions, garlic • His Difficult List: bulb onions, leeks, Chinese cabbage, asparagus, celery, celeriac, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, early cabbage, cantaloupe.
  74. 74. Clifton Slade at Virginia State University in his 43,560 Project (how to earn $43,560 from one acre), recommends choosing crops which produce one vegetable head or stalk, or 1 lb of produce, per square foot. Leafy crops feature prominently. Morris Heading Collards, Photo Kathryn Simmons Which crops are most profitable? Some crops offer more money per area, some are more profitable in terms of time put in.
  75. 75. Which Crops are Most Profitable? Richard Wiswall Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook • Leafy greens, parsley and basil earn more than fruiting crops. • Outdoor kale can produce $2463 from 1/10 acre, and of the crops he compared, only parsley and basil earned more. • Field tomatoes came in at $1872, and several vegetables (bush beans, sweet corn, peas) made a loss. Vates kale. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  76. 76. Crop Enterprise Budgets • Richard Wiswall’s Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook includes crop budgets for 24 crops. • He makes spreadsheets easy, clear. • The book includes a CD you can use to create budgets, timesheets, payroll calculator, a farm crew job description template and the Vermont Farm Viability Enhancement Program Farm Financials Workbook. Vern Grubinger in Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market, NRAES explains how to make an enterprise budget for each crop. • Compare the financial value of one crop with another, without delving into overhead costs. • Record the amount of work done on each crop each day. • Keep harvest records of quantity, time and money from sales. • At the end of the season, add up the total time for each crop, divide the income for that crop by the time spent on it, and divide the income for that crop by the area, or number of beds.
  77. 77. Reasons to grow crops that don’t make the highest income  provide a good crop rotation for your farm,  provide diversity (customers will only buy so much parsley and basil).  provide for times of the year when fewer growers are selling produce: fall crops to harvest before serious cold, crops for all-winter harvests, overwintering crops for early spring markets with. Kohlrabi. Photo McCune Porter
  78. 78. Distractions From Ben Hartman The Lean Farm: How to Minimize Waste, Increase Efficiency, and Maximize Value and Profits with Less Work. Which of your activities with a crop add value and which are wasteful? The customer defines what is valuable! Avoid distractions that don’t add value: 1. Fascination with gadgets or complexity; 2. Weird and wonderful shapes and colors of vegetables; (The siren call of too many weird eggplants). If you want to make eggplants your signature crop, Baker Creek Seeds is the place to go! They have 61 varieties! Their masthead: 3. Unusual methods of growing crops; 4. Letting supply determine your assessment of value. More kale is not always better!
  79. 79. Ten Types of Farm Waste, from The Lean Farm 1. Overproduction 2. Waiting 3. Moving things from A to B 4. Over-processing (when harvesting or when researching on websites) 5. Inventory – too many supplies, tools, seeds 6. Motion – handling too many times, inefficient techniques, not bringing all needed tools 7. Cull produce – poor field management, poor harvesting, poor handling, poor storage 8. Overburdening with heavy loads, physical or mental 9. Uneven production – gluts and shortages. Monitor and tweak succession plantings. 10. Unused talent
  80. 80. 3. How to decide which vegetable crops to grow • Some crops offer more money for the area, some are more profitable in terms of time put in. A crop which quietly grows all season from a single planting early on, when time is less frantic, can be an advantage. If the same plants provide multiple harvests, this can be great value for time. Leafy greens are the best example. • In High-Yield Vegetable Gardening, Colin McCrate and Brad Halm point out that when planning what to grow, it's important to consider how long the crop will be in the ground, especially if you have limited space
  81. 81. McCrate and Halm distinguish between • Fast Growing Crops (25-60 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown arugula, baby lettuce mix, mustard greens, some Asian greens, radishes, spinach, turnips; transplanted head lettuce, endive, heading Asian greens. • Half Season Crops (50-90 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown snap beans, lima beans, beets, carrots, corn salad, snap peas, snow peas, shelling peas, scallions; transplanted broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, chard, cucumbers, eggplant, kale, kohlrabi, okra, radicchio, summer squash, zucchini, tomatoes. • Long Season Crops (70-120 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown edamame, fava beans, shell beans, sweet corn, parsnips, peanuts, rutabagas, potatoes, winter squash, pumpkins; transplanted Brussels sprouts, celeriac, celery, bulb fennel, garlic (longer), leeks, cantaloupe, other melons, bulb onions, peppers, watermelon, sweet potatoes. Curtis Stone, in The Urban Farmer, distinguishes between Quick Crops (maturing in 60 days or less) and Steady Crops (slower maturing, perhaps harvested continuously over a period of time). Quick Crops and Steady Crops
  82. 82. Crop Value Rating • Curtis Stone has designed a Crop Value Rating system based on 5 characteristics. To use this assessment, you look at each characteristic and decide if the particular crop gets a point for that characteristic or not. Then look for the crops with the highest number of points. Spinach gets all 5 points; cherry tomatoes only 3. The smaller your farm, the higher the score the crops need to get chosen. His 5 are: 1. Shorter days to maturity (fast crops = chance to plant more; give a point for 60 days or less) 2. High yield per linear foot (best value from the space; a point for1/2 pound/linear foot or more) 3. Higher price per pound (other factors being equal, higher price = more income; a point for $4 or more per pound) 4. Long harvest period (= more sales; a point for 4 months or longer) 5. Popularity (high demand, low market saturation)
  83. 83. Crop Value Rating Some examples of CVR scores from The Urban Farmer. (not an exhaustive list). • 60 days to maturity or less: spinach, kale, leafy greens, fast varieties of carrots and beets, lettuce, arugula, other salad greens, salad mixes, microgreens, radishes, salad turnips, pak choy, summer squash, zucchini, early tomatoes, cilantro, dill, parsley • High yield per linear foot: spinach, chard, kale, leafy greens, beets, carrots, lettuce, arugula, other salad greens, salad mixes, microgreens, radishes, salad turnips, pak choy, summer squash, zucchini, cherry tomatoes, other tomatoes, basil, cilantro, parsley, dill • Higher price: spinach, chard, kale, beets, carrots, arugula, lettuce, other salad greens, salad mixes, microgreens, salad turnips, pak choy, cherry tomatoes, other tomatoes, basil, cilantro, parsley, dill • Long harvest period (either harvesting the same crop for 4 months, or replanting and getting continuous harvests that way): spinach, kale, chard, beets, carrots, arugula, lettuce, other salad greens, salad mixes, microgreens, radishes, salad turnips, indeterminate tomatoes, cilantro, • Popularity: spinach, kale, beets, carrots, lettuce, arugula, other salad greens, salad mixes, microgreens, radishes, salad turnips, summer squash, zucchini, cherry tomatoes, other tomatoes, basil, cilantro, parsley, dill • Losers on CVR: long-season and low yield/ linear foot crops such as onions, potatoes, cabbage, winter squash, melons, sweet corn, garlic
  84. 84. Putting together these various ideas, here's my list of possible factors. Loosely speaking, there are 6 categories: A. time involved (#1-4), B. yield (5-8), C. likely income (9-10), D. likely demand (11-15), E. strategic importance (16-20) F. complexity (21-25). Fast-maturing tatsoi Photo Wren Vile Time 1. Is it labor efficient? (Some space-hogging crops like sweet corn are not labor intensive) 2. Does the intense work for this crop come in at a less-busy time of year? 3. Is this crop fast-maturing? (If labor is short, weed control might be an issue for a slow-growing crop, even if space isn't) 4. Is it high yielding for the labor intensiveness? (Okra doesn't provide much food for the space or the time) Factors in DIY crop value rating
  85. 85. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Yield 5. Is it high yielding for the space occupied (does it produce one vegetable head or 1 pound of produce, per square foot or1/2 pound/row foot)? 6. Is it high-yielding for the time it occupies the ground? (if land is short) 7. Does it provide multiple harvests from a single planting? 8. Does it provide a single bulk harvest of a storable crop? Bulk harvest of long-storing sweet potatoes. Photo Nina Gentle
  86. 86. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Likely income 9. If you are selling produce, does it bring a high price, above $4 per pound? 10.If you are growing for a household, or a non- profit, or considering buying wholesale from another farmer for your CSA: Is it expensive to replace?
  87. 87. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Likely demand 11.Is it popular (do you have a good market for it)? 12.Is it a staple? 13.Does it store well/easily? 14.Does it provide harvests at times of year when other crops are scarce? 15.Does it provide appealing diversity for your booth or CSA boxes?
  88. 88. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Strategic importance 16. Is it a resilient "insurance crop" (forgiving of difficult weather) which provides harvests even if other crops fail (chard, storage root vegetables)? 17. Does it help provide your land with a good crop rotation? 18. Is it in the Dirty Dozen? (What are the pesticide levels in the non- organic crop, if that's the alternative source for your customers?) 19. Are you relying on this crop for personal sustenance? 20. Is it nutritionally dense or important (a protein crop, an oil crop, a mid-winter crop?) Chard is an important Insurance Crop. Photo Wren Vile
  89. 89. Factors in DIY crop value rating: Complexity 21.Is it reliably easy to grow? Or fun or pleasantly challenging to grow? 22.Is there minimal wastage/maximum saleable yield of the harvested crop? 23.Does the crop require minimal processing to be ready for sale? 24.Is its peak period for water use at a time when you have plenty of water? 25.Will it grow without a fence for deer/rabbit/bird protection? Frosty fall cabbage – cut and sell Photo Lori Katz
  90. 90. Customize and chart the most relevant factors • Rearrange the list of factors to suit your farm • Select 6-10 of the most important factors and make up a chart. • List all the crops you are growing (or might grow). • Assess the crops as objectively as you can. • Award each crop a point for each check mark. • Knock out the crops with fewest points. • If you need a tie-breaker, you could use secondary factors from the list.
  91. 91. Beets, both greens and roots, whether spring or fall, scored well for us. Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  92. 92. Resources cited (I have reviewed many of these books on my blog at www.sustainablemarketfarming.com)  The Market Gardener: A Successful Grower’s Handbook for Small-Scale Organic Farming, Jean- Martin Fortier, New Society Publishers  Gardening When it Counts, Steve Solomon, New Society Publishers  The 43560 Project, Clifton Slade http://www.slideshare.net/LoudounBiz/clifton-slade-43560- project, https://vabf.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/clif-slade-43560-demo-project.pdf www.markklingman.com/docs/43560_Project_Overview.pptx  The Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook, Richard Wiswall, Chelsea Green  Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market, Vern Grubinger, NRAES http://host31.spidergraphics.com/nra/doc/fair%20use%20web%20pdfs/nraes-104_web.pdf  The Lean Farm, How to Minimize Waste, Increase Efficiency, and Maximize Value and Profits with Less Work Ben Hartman  The Urban Farmer, Curtis Stone, New Society Publishers  High-Yield Vegetable Gardening, Colin McCrate and Brad Halm, Storey Publishers  Greenhouse and Hoophouse Grower's Handbook – Organic Vegetable Production Using Protected Culture, Andrew Mefferd, Chelsea Green  Market Farming Success: The Business of Growing and Selling Local Food, Lynn Byczynski  Perennial Vegetables, Eric Toensmeier, Chelsea Green  Growing and Marketing Ginseng, Goldenseal and other Woodland Medicinals, Jeanine Davis and W. Scott Persons  Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation, Tradd Cotter  Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms, Paul Stamets  Mycelial Mayhem, David and Kristin Sewak  Cultivating Mushrooms, Stephen Russell
  93. 93. Other good books The Complete Know and Grow Vegetables, J K A Bleasdale, P J Salter et al. Knott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers, Donald N. Maynard and George J. Hochmuth. The 2012 edition is free online from Missouri Extension The New Seed Starter’s Handbook, Nancy Bubel, Rodale Books The New Organic Grower, Eliot Coleman, Chelsea Green Crop Planning for Organic Vegetable Growers, Daniel Brisebois and Frédéric Thériault (www.cog.ca) Turn Here Sweet Corn, Atina Diffley Wholesale Success, Atina Diffley, Jim Slama http://www.familyfarmed.org/publications/wholesalesucce ss/
  94. 94. Resources – books and articles  Root Cellaring, Nancy and Mike Bubel (for construction details and advice)  Growing Great Garlic, Ron Engeland, 1991, Filaree  Growing for Market Nov/Dec 2016 “How to grow heading chicories” Josh Volk SlowHandFarm.com  Decision Innovation http://www.decision-making-solutions.com  Holistic Management from ATTRA: https://attra.ncat.org/attra- pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=296  Holistic Management Test questions: http://managingwholes.com/test-questions.htm  Holistic Management International http://holisticmanagement.org/
  95. 95. Resources for Ginger and Turmeric Alison and Paul Wiediger http://aunaturelfarm.homestead.com/High-Tunnel- Ginger.html Reza Rafie and Chris Mullins at Virginia State University https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=auayx8l_M04 http://www.vsuag.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Ginger- Day-Presentation-2014.pdf College Of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai’i at Manoa http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/scm-8.pdf Puna Organics and Biker Dude to buy seed ginger in November http://www.hawaiianorganicginger.com/how-to-order. Turmeric and galangal also available Growing For Market August 2008, November 2011 www.quallaberryfarm.com in NC for info and supplies of ginger and turmeric
  96. 96. Resources – websites  ATTRA attra.ncat.org: Scheduling Vegetable Plantings for a Continuous Harvest, Season Extension Techniques for Market Farmers. Organic Pumpkin and Winter Squash Production.  SARE www.sare.org A searchable database of research findings. Season Extension Topic Room www.sare.org  extension.org/organic_production The organic agriculture community with eXtension. Publications, webinars, videos, trainings and support. An expanding, accessible source of reliable information.  Growing Small Farms: growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu/ Click Farmer Resources  2012 Production Guide for Storage of Organic Fruits and Vegetables, Cornell https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/42885/organic- stored-fruit-veg-NYSIPM.pdf?sequence=1
  97. 97. Resources - season extension  www.hightunnels.org  Penn State Center for Plasticulture http://extension.psu.edu/plants/plasticulture  U of MN High Tunnel Production http://www.extension.umn.edu/garden/fruit-vegetable/#high-tunnel  The Winter Harvest Handbook, Eliot Coleman  Extending the Season: Six Strategies for Improving Cash Flow Year-Round on the Market Farm, a free e-book download for online subscribers to Growing for Market magazine  The Hoophouse Handbook, 2nd edition, Lynn Byczynski  Walking to Spring, Paul & Alison Weidiger http://aunaturelfarm.homestead.com/  The Northlands Winter Greenhouse Manual, Carol Ford & Chuck Waibe  Cold Climate Greenhouse Resource www.extension.umn.edu/rsdp/community-and-local-food/production- resources/docs/cold-climate-greenhouse-resource.pdf
  98. 98. Resources - storage  Johnnys Storage Recommendations http://www.johnnyseeds.com/t- storage-crops.aspx  Washington State University Extension, Storing Vegetables and Fruits at Home pubs.wsu.edu/ListItems.aspx?Keyword=EB1326E  USDA Agriculture Handbook 66: The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks. https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/oc/np/CommercialStorage/Comme rcialStorage.pdf Revised Feb 2016  UMass Extension Post-harvest and Storage Resources https://ag.umass.edu/vegetable/resources/winter-production- storage/storage  UMass Extension Harvest, curing and storage conditions for fall and winter vegetables. https://ag.umass.edu/sites/ag.umass.edu/files/pdf-doc- ppt/harvest_and_storage_chart_winter_sare_project.pdf  Vegetable Harvest and Storage. http://extension.missouri.edu/p/g6226
  99. 99. Resources - slideshows Many of my presentations are available at www.Slideshare.net. Search: Pam Dawling.  Cold-hardy Winter Vegetables  Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production  Crop Rotations  Fall and Winter Hoophouses  Fall Vegetable Production  Growing Great Garlic  Growing Sweet Potatoes from Start to Finish  Producing Asian Greens  Succession Planting for Continuous Vegetable Harvests Other slide shows I recommend:  Mark Cain Planning for Your CSA: www.Slideshare.net (search for Crop Planning)  Tom Peterson Farm Planning for a Full Market Season vabf.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/tom-peterson-farm-planning-for-a-full-market- season.pdf  Brad Burgefurd, Cultural Practices And Cultivar Selections for Commercial Vegetable Growers. www.slideshare.net/guest6e1a8d60/vegetable-cultural- practices-and-variety-selection
  100. 100. Diversify Your Vegetable Crops ©Pam Dawling 2017 Twin Oaks Community, Virginia Author of Sustainable Market Farming Published by New Society Publishers SustainableMarketFarming.com facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming

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