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Sequential planting cool season crops in a hoophouse 2019 dawling

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Which factors should you consider when planning how to keep your hoophouse filled with productive food crops in the cool seasons? Suitable crops, cold-hardiness, deciding which crops to grow, deciding how much to harvest and how much to plant, crop rotation, mapping and scheduling, month by month planting, seasonal transitions, packing more in with succession planting, interplanting and follow-on cropping.

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Sequential planting cool season crops in a hoophouse 2019 dawling

  1. 1. Sequential Planting of Cool Season Crops in a Hoophouse ©Pam Dawling, 2019 Author of Sustainable Market Farming and The Year-Round hoophouse SustainableMarketFarming.com facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming
  2. 2. 1. Overview of cool seasons in the hoophouse. 12 planning steps. 2. Which Crops to Grow. Suitable crops from various crop families. Cold-hardiness table. Crop Value Rating (comparing different crops) 3. How much to harvest and plant. Seasonal transitions. Crop rotation. Maps and schedules, Month-by-month planting and harvesting 4. Packing More In: Succession crops, Follow on crops, Interplanting, Filler crops 5. Record-keeping 6. Resources What’s in This Presentation
  3. 3. I live and farm at Twin Oaks Community, in central Virginia. We’re in zone 7, with an average last frost April 30 and average first frost October 14. Our goal is to feed our intentional community of 100 people with a wide variety of organic produce year round. www.twinoaks.org
  4. 4. Our Hoophouse at Twin Oaks • We have one 30’ x 96’ FarmTek ClearSpan gothic arch hoophouse, with two layers of plastic. • We put it up in 2003, and like many growers we had the primary goal of growing more winter greens, early tomatoes and peppers. • We grow many different crops, rotating them as best we can. • We divided our hoophouse lengthwise into five 4’ beds and a 2’ bed along each edge. • Our paths are a skinny 12” wide - maximum growing space.
  5. 5. Manual work, no-till • We decided to use a no-till system with all manual work in our hoophouse. • We wanted to try intensive no-till practices in a small well-defined area. • We did not want to subject ourselves or our vegetables to gasoline fumes. • We value the small peaceful paradise we have created. • We like how few weeds we have as a consequence of not inverting the soil.
  6. 6. 1. Overview of Winter Hoophouse Crops  Night-time protection of two layers of plastic and an air gap – 7F warmer than outside!  Growth rate is faster inside than out  Plants tolerate 14F colder than they do outside, without extra rowcover  Double plastic hoophouse in zone 7, without inner rowcover, salad greens survive when it’s 14F (-10C) outside.  With thick rowcover for an inner tunnel, they can survive when it’s -12F (-24C) outside For details, see my slideshows Hoophouse in Fall and Winter and Hoophouse Cool Season Crops on SlideShare.net Photo Wren Vile
  7. 7. Persephone Days and Scheduling Winter Hoophouse Crops  When the daylight length is below 10 hours, little growth happens.  The dates depend on your latitude. At 38° N, it’s Nov 20–Jan 20  Dates are modified by the time it takes to cool the soil and the air.  In practice, the effective dates for us are Dec 15–Feb 15.  To harvest in mid-winter, plan to grow a good supply of mature crops before this period. They will provide most of your harvests.  For most of our winter, the hoophouse plants are actively growing, not merely being stored for harvest (as happens in colder climate zones and outdoors)  We continue sowing new crops even in December and January. For details, see my slideshows Hoophouse in Fall and Winter and Hoophouse Cool Season Crops on SlideShare.net. They Include info on minimizing nitrate accumulation in leafy greens
  8. 8. Planning is Circular, Just Like Farming 1. How much money do you need to earn? 2. Which markets to sell at 3. Which crops to grow 4. How much of what to harvest when: Harvest Schedule 5. How much to grow to achieve your harvest goals 6. Calculate sowing dates to meet harvest dates: Field Planting Schedule7. When to sow for transplants: Seedlings Schedule 8. Where to plant each sowing of each crop: Maps 9. Packing more in: succession plantings, intercropping, relay planting, double cropping 10. Adjust to make your best possible plan 11. What to do if something goes wrong: Plan B 12. Record results for next year’s Better Plan See my slideshow Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production
  9. 9. 2. Which Crops to Grow Skipping over the issues of money and markets (see Resources), we’ll go to Which crops to grow? Aspects: • Which Crops Suit the Conditions? • Cold-hardiness table • How to Decide Which Crops to Grow – Quick Crops and Steady Crops – Crop Value Rating • Which Crops are Most Profitable? • Which Crops Sell for High Prices? • Which Crops are Easy to Grow? Also see my slide show Cold-Hardy Winter Vegetables on SlideShare.net Also see my slide show Diversify Your Vegetable Crops on SlideShare.net Planning Step 3
  10. 10. Which Crops Suit the Conditions? A. Lettuce: Leaf lettuce, baby lettuce mix, small leaf lettuces B. Other salad greens: spinach, brassica salad mix C. Cooking greens: Asian greens, beet greens, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, chard, collards, endives and chicories, kale D. Root crops: beets, carrots, bulb fennel, kohlrabi, radishes, turnips E. Alliums: garlic, garlic scallions, leeks, onion scallions, bulb onions F. Legumes: fava beans, peas G. Bare root transplants: bulb onions, spinach, brassicas H. Seed crops I. Unusual crops In early spring comes the “Hungry Gap” when the supply of winter roots and leafy greens dwindles and people hanker for some fresh produce with different flavors
  11. 11. A. Lettuce Varieties for Fall and Winter Particularly cold- hardy for outdoors:  Brune d’Hiver  Buckley  Ezrilla  Green Forest  Hampton  Lollo Rossa  Merlot  North Pole  Red Tinged Winter  Revolution  Rouge d’Hiver  Tango  Winter Marvel Rouge d’Hiver Lettuce Credit Southern Exposure Seed Exchange The Salad Bowls are not so good outdoors in cold weather but do well under cover. Icebergs do not survive frost. Lettuce heads may survive much colder temperatures than you ever imagined! 15-20F (-9.5 to -7.5C)
  12. 12. Small-leaf lettuces: Johnny’s Salanovas, Osborne’s and High Mowing’s Eazyleaf; Tango, Oscarde, Panisse. Photo Osborne Seeds A. Baby Lettuce & Small Leaf Lettuces Baby lettuce mix Sow 10/23, harvest 12/4, dtm 42 Sow 12/31, harvest 2/21, dtm 52 Sow 2/1, harvest 3/18, dtm 45 Sow 2/15, harvest 3/25, dtm 38 For details, see my slideshow Lettuce Year- Round on www.slideshare.net
  13. 13. B. Other Salad Greens  Several small greens are very hardy: • Arugula (particularly Sylvetta, Surrey and Astro) • Corn salad/Mache • Miners Lettuce/Claytonia/ winter purslane • Upland Cress, • Minutina • Parsley, • Salad burnet • Sorrel, • Saltwort Many cooking greens can be used as salad while small Photo Wren Vile
  14. 14. B. Spinach Spinach works for salad or cooking Spinach is a challenge to start in hot weather! Optimum germination temperature 70°F (21°C) Max 85°F (29°C). Wait for soil temperature to drop. Use a soil thermometer. For earlier planting, pre-sprout seeds one week. Cold hardy to 0°F (–18°C) Spinach grows whenever the temperature is above 40°F (5°C). Spinach Photo Kathryn Simmons
  15. 15. • Interesting mustard mixes are sold for salad mixes • We often mix our own Brassica Salad Mix from leftover random brassica seeds. For a single cut, almost all brassicas are suitable – just avoid turnips and radishes with prickly leaves! • We sow between 10/2 and 11/14 for winter harvest and from 12/4 to 2/12 for March and early April harvests. B. Brassica (Mustard) Salad Mixes Wild Garden Pungent Mix. 40 days to harvest. Pink Petiole Mix, Ready in 40 days. Photos Wild Garden Seed
  16. 16. B. Microgreens Photo Andrew Mefferd www.chelseagreen.com For clear instructions on efficiently growing microgreens for sale, see Andrew Mefferd’s Greenhouse and Hoophouse Grower's Handbook – Organic Vegetable Production Using Protected Culture
  17. 17. C. Leafy cooking greens Spinach and brassicas are the most productive crops in winter (more so than lettuce) Asian greens Chard and beet greens Endives and chicories Photo Tatsoi, Wren Vile
  18. 18. C. Kale Harvesting Russian kales in the hoophouse in late winter. Photo Wren Vile Germination temperatures 41°-95°F (5°-35°C) Russian kales (napus varieties) grow better in the hoophouse than Vates (blue curled Scotch oleracea type). Grow at lower temperatures than Vates will, although they are not as cold–tolerant. Red Russian bolts before White Russian. We tried Black Magic Lacinato kale but it didn’t do as well. Cold hardy to 0°F (–18°C) Sow 9/24, harvest 12/8 Days to maturity 75
  19. 19. C. Asian Greens • Faster growing than lettuce. Some are ready for transplanting 2 weeks after sowing in fall (or you can direct sow them) • Keep a flat of seedlings ready, pop plugs into empty spaces as they occur, where other crops have failed or finished early. • Easier to germinate in hot weather than lettuce. • Cold hardy to 12°F (–11°C) or even 10°F (-12°C) outdoors, colder indoors • 50–80 days to maturity for winter hoophouse crops Credit Ethan Hirsh For more details, see my slidehow Producing Asian Greens on SlideShare.net
  20. 20. C. Asian Greens – many types • Napa Chinese Cabbage • Pak Choy • Tokyo Bekana • Maruba Santoh • Tatsoi • Yukina Savoy very • Senposai cold-hardy • Komatsuna • Mizspoona • Toraziroh • Thick-stemmed mustard • Yokatta-na • Hon Tsai Tai • Mizuna • Ruby Streaks, Scarlet Frills & other frilly mustards • Chrysanthemum greens
  21. 21. C. Chard • Chard germinates best at 85°F (29°C) - useful as a substitute when it is too hot to sow spinach. • Most chard is hardy outdoors without rowcover to 15°F (–10°C). • 12°F (–11°C) indoors without rowcover, 0°F (–18 °C) with. • Green chard is hardier than the multi-colored types • Days to maturity: 61 – 103 days – Sow 9/15, harvest 11/15 – 5/10 – Sow 10/26, harvest 2/6 – 5/10 Fordhook Giant chard. Photo Bridget Aleshire
  22. 22. C. Endives and chicories Related to wild chicory and dandelions, naturally bitter. 3 main species: endive, wild endive and common chicory Endives and Chicories Common Chicory SugarloafRadicchio Belgian endive Wild Endive The weeds Endive Escarole (Batavian endive) Frisée (curly endive)
  23. 23. C. Endives Frisée endive is the most bitter. Normally it is blanched before eating. Upper photo Hudson Valley Seed Library Escarole is the least bitter member of the family and looks like a sturdy lettuce. Although it can be eaten in hearty salads, it is generally sautéed or braised, which brings out the sweetness and mutes the bitterness. Lower photo Van Geest Inter- national Photo NPR Kitchen Window
  24. 24. C. Heading chicories • Chicories develop peak flavor and sweetness as temps drop in the fall • Hardier than lettuce • Hold well in the cooler, much better than lettuce, especially when harvested slightly immature with an inch of root attached • 2 main types of radicchio (storing chicories) - Chioggia (round and red), and Treviso (oblong and red). • Slower maturing varieties are more cold tolerant, faster maturing ones are more heat tolerant. • Sugarloaf chicory is one of the sweetest, least bitter types, but is also the least cold hardy. Photo www.growitalian.com
  25. 25. D. Root Crops: Beets • Beets prefer soil temperatures of 50°F–85°F (10°C–29°C) • Only 3.5 days to emerge at 86°F (30°C), but 14.6 days at 50°F (10°C). • In late summer, you can maintain a soil temperature below 86°F for a few days using shadecloth. • Hand-sowing pre-sprouted seed is an option if the season is relentlessly hot. • Sow 1/2″-1″ deep, tamp the soil, and keep the surface damp with daily watering until they emerge. Crosby Egyptian Beet. Credit Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  26. 26. D. Root Crops: Carrots • Carrots prefer soil temperatures of 45°F–85°F (7°C–29°C), • They germinate in 4 or 5 days at 80°F (27°C). • Keep the soil surface damp until they come through. • For winter hoophouse growing, try Napoli or Mokum. Nelson is no longer available. • Sow fall carrots outdoors very early in August, to store or harvest all winter. Photos Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  27. 27. D. Bulb Fennel The crunchy white “bulb” consists of the swollen stem bases of the leaves. Has a vaguely licorice-like flavor. • Cool-weather short-lived perennial grown as an annual in zone 6 and warmer. • In zone 7, two seasons for planting: March-April and July-August • In zones 2-5 it grows as a biennial. • Depending on your climate, sow in early spring, mid-spring, late summer or early fall. • Can be sown when the danger of hard frost (28°F) is over • Grow the plant fast, provide plenty of water and harvest before flower stems form • Sensitive to day-length and sudden chilly spells • Fall crops are likely to be more successful than spring ones. • If your spring crop bolts before forming a good bulb, your weather is too hot for spring planting - stick to fall crops in future, or start earlier in the spring
  28. 28. D. Radishes • Radishes germinate at temps 41°F–95°F (5°C–35°C) • Small radishes take 27–52 days to maturity • Don’t sow large winter radish types before August – they bolt. – Harvest before temperatures drop to 20°F (-7°C) – Store well in plastic bags under refrigeration – Popular for making Kim Chee, salads and stir-fries.
  29. 29. D. Turnips • Turnips + greens excel in the hoophouse. • We sow our first ones Oct 15 (around our first frost date) for harvest from Dec 4. • We do a second sowing Oct 24-Nov 9 and a small third sowing Dec 10. • We like Red Round and Hakurei and have tried Oasis and White Egg to find a cheaper replacement for Hakurei (Oasis is closer). • Hakurei is delicious, but is one of the least cold-tolerant, and does not survive dips below 10 °F (-12 °C) very well, as almost the entire root is above the soil. • In cold climates, try Purple Top White Globe • Germination 41°–104°F (5°–40°C) • Days to maturity 52 – 99 days. Scarlet Ohno Revival turnip. Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange White Egg turnip. Photo Wren Vile
  30. 30. E. Alliums: Scallions (Bunching Onions, Spring Onions)Scallions • We sow 9/6 for harvest 12/1 - 3/1; 11/18 (following radishes) for harvest in early spring. Trying 10/20 in 2018 • Evergreen Hardy White and White Lisbon scallions are hardy down to 0°F (-18°C) Photo Southern Exposure Seed Exchange Bulbing onions • We have sown for growing to maturity in the hoophouse • We have grown seedlings for planting outdoors. Onions planted in front of peppers Photo Kathryn Simmons
  31. 31. F: Legumes • Peas such as dwarf snap peas, or pea shoots • Photo Bridget Aleshire • Fava beans, • Photo Kathryn Simmons
  32. 32. G. Bare-root Transplants • Plants dug up from a nursery seedbed and transplanted elsewhere. • Save time and money, compared to growing starts in flats. • Save on greenhouse space. • Very sturdy plants - full depth of soil to develop big roots • Little extra care needed - less prone to drying out than seedlings in flats. Photo credit Ethan Hirsh In October we sow “filler” greens and lettuce to use in the hoophouse during the winter In November we sow bulbing onions to plant outdoors 3/1 Jan 24 we sow kale, collards, spinach to plant outdoors in Mar.
  33. 33. H. Seed Crops • Clifton Slade in Virginia overwintered collard greens for a seed crop the next spring. He is in zone 7b. He grew a whole tunnel full. • Clif direct seeded Champion collards 12/1. • On 2/15 he started rolling up the side curtains every day, to vernalize the plants. • 90 days from sowing, 3/1, he had greens. • Although he had not intended to sell greens, he did sell about 1000 lbs (450 kg). • On 3/10, the plants flowered. Seed matured earlier than outdoors. • Clif harvested the tops of the plants into totes, using pruners. He had 100 lbs (45 kg) of pods, which gave 30 lbs (14 kg) of cleaned seed. • The yield was double that grown outdoors. • Seeds were bigger than outdoor-grown seed, with good germination • After pulling the collard seed crop, Clif transplanted okra
  34. 34. I. Unusual Crops or Varieties Miniature crops, unusual varieties Gourmet high value crops Jerusalem artichokes Crosnes Edible flowers Garlic scapes, garlic scallions Green garlic Herbs Photo simpleseason al.com
  35. 35. Winter-Kill Temperatures – Frosty Weather – 35° to 25°F (2°C to -4°C) Some starting numbers of killing temperatures outdoors (without rowcover unless otherwise stated). Your results may vary! Let me know! In a double-layer hoophouse (8F/5C warmer than outside) plants can survive 14F/8C colder than outside, without extra rowcover; at least 21F/12C colder than outside with thick rowcover (1.25 ozTypar/Xavan). See the handout for more variety names. • 35°F (2°C): Basil. • 32°F (0°C): Cucumbers, eggplant, melons, okra, peppers, tomatoes. • 27°F (–3°C): Many cabbage, Sugarloaf chicory. • 25°F (–4°C): Some cabbage, chervil, chicory roots for chicons and hearts, Chinese Napa cabbage, dill, endive (more frost-hardy than lettuce), some fava beans, annual fennel, some Asian greens (Maruba Santoh, mizuna, most pak choy, Tokyo Bekana), some onion scallions (many varieties are hardier), radicchio.
  36. 36. Colder from 22°F down to 15°F • 22°F (–6°C): Some arugula (some varieties are hardier), Bright Lights chard, large leaves of lettuce (protected hearts and small plants will survive colder temperatures), rhubarb stems. • 20°F (–7°C): Some beets, broccoli heads (maybe OK to 15°F/ -9°C), Brussels sprouts, some cabbages (the insides may still be good even if the outer leaves are damaged), celeriac, celtuce (stem lettuce), some head lettuce, some mustards/Asian greens, flat leaf parsley, radishes, most turnips . • 15°F (–9.5°C): Some beets, beet greens, some broccoli, some cabbage, rowcovered celery, red chard, cilantro, endive, some fava beans, Russian kales, kohlrabi, some lettuce, especially small and medium-sized plants with 4-10 leaves, curly parsley, rutabagas if not covered, broad leaf sorrel, turnip leaves, most covered turnips, winter cress.
  37. 37. Colder Still down to 10°F • 12°F (–11°C): Some beets, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, some cabbage, carrots, most collards, some fava beans, garlic tops if fairly large, most fall varieties of leeks, large tops of potato onions, covered rutabagas, Senposai leaves - the core of the plant may survive 10°F (–12°C), some turnips. • 10°F (–12°C): Covered beets, Purple Sprouting broccoli for spring harvest, a few cabbages, green chard (hardier than multi-colored types), some collards, Belle Isle upland cress, some endive, young bronze fennel, Blue Ridge kale, probably Komatsuna, some leeks, some covered lettuce, covered Asian winter radish (including daikon), large leaves of savoyed spinach (more hardy than flat leafed varieties), tatsoi, Yukina Savoy.
  38. 38. Coldest down to 0°F • 5°F (–15°C): Garlic tops even if small, some kale, some leeks, some bulb onions, potato onions and other multiplier onions, smaller leaves of savoyed spinach and broad leaf sorrel, many Even’ Star greens varieties are OK down to 6°F (-14°C), some unprotected small lettuces. • 0°F (–18°C): Chives, some collards (Blue Max, Morris Heading, Winner), corn salad (mâche), garlic, horseradish, Jerusalem artichokes, Even’ Star Ice-Bred Smooth Leaf kale, a few leeks (Alaska, Durabel), some bulb onions, some onion scallions (Evergreen Hardy White, White Lisbon), parsnips, salad burnet, salsify, some spinach (Bloomsdale Savoy, Olympia).
  39. 39. Unthinkably Cold • -5°F (-19°C): Leaves of overwintering varieties of cauliflower, Vates kale survives although some leaves may be too damaged to use. • -10°F (-23°C): Reputedly, Walla Walla onions sown in late summer • -30°F to -40°F (-34°C to -40°C): Narrow leaf sorrel, Claytonia and some cabbage (January King?) are said to be hardy in zone 3 • Use this table to decide what to grow and when to harvest it.
  40. 40. How to Decide Which Crops to Grow • Some crops offer more money for the area • Some are more profitable in terms of time put in • Crops which quietly grow all season from a single planting can be an advantage. • If the same plants provide multiple harvests, this can be great value for time. Leafy greens are the best example. • In High-Yield Vegetable Gardening, Colin McCrate and Brad Halm point out that when planning what to grow, it's important to consider how long the crop will be in the ground, especially if you have limited space
  41. 41. McCrate and Halm distinguish between • Fast Growing Crops (25-60 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown arugula, baby lettuce mix, mustard greens, some Asian greens, radishes, spinach, turnips; transplanted head lettuce, endive, heading Asian greens. • Half Season Crops (50-90 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown beets, carrots, corn salad, snap peas, snow peas, shelling peas, scallions; transplanted broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, chard, kale, kohlrabi, radicchio. • Long Season Crops (70-120 days from sowing or transplanting) Direct sown fava beans, parsnips, rutabagas; transplanted Brussels sprouts, bulb fennel, garlic (longer), leeks, bulb onions. Here I only include cool weather crops Curtis Stone, in The Urban Farmer, distinguishes between Quick Crops (maturing in 60 days or less) and Steady Crops (slower maturing, perhaps harvested continuously over a period of time). Quick Crops and Steady Crops
  42. 42. Crop Value Rating Curtis Stone designed a Crop Value Rating system based on 5 factors. • Decide if each particular crop gets a point for that factor or not. • Then look for the crops with the highest number of points. Spinach gets all 5 points; cherry tomatoes only 3. • The smaller your farm, the more important to choose high-scoring crops. His 5 are: 1. Shorter days to maturity (fast crops = chance to plant more; give a point for 60 days or less) 2. High yield per linear foot (best value from the space; a point for1/2 pound/linear foot or more) 3. Higher price per pound (other factors being equal, higher price = more income; a point for $4 or more per pound) 4. Long harvest period (= more sales; a point for 4 months or longer) 5. Popularity (high demand, low market saturation)
  43. 43. Clifton Slade at Virginia State University in his 43,560 Project (how to earn $43,560 from one acre), recommends choosing crops which produce one vegetable head or stalk, or 1 lb of produce, per square foot. Leafy crops feature prominently. Morris Heading Collards, Photo Kathryn Simmons Which Crops are most Profitable?
  44. 44. Which Crops are Most Profitable? Richard Wiswall Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook • Leafy greens, parsley and basil earn more than fruiting crops. • Outdoor kale can produce $2463 from 1/10 acre, and of the crops he compared, only parsley and basil earned more. • Field tomatoes came in at $1872, and several vegetables (bush beans, sweet corn, peas) made a loss. • You have to crunch the numbers to know! Vates kale. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  45. 45. Which Crops Sell for High Prices (not necessarily easy to grow) • microgreens, • Heirloom vegetables • baby vegetables, • salad mix, • lettuce, • arugula, • herbs, • edible flowers, • storage crops, • garlic, • fruits, • container grown salad • unusual crops • out-of-season crops, • bedding plants and transplants, • cut flowers, • ornamental crops This list is from Market Farming Success by Lynn Byczynski Photo: John Everett, for The Chronicle
  46. 46. Which Crops are Easy to Grow? Steve Solomon in Gardening When it Counts provides tables of vegetable crops by the level of care they require. Your results may vary! Onion bed. Photo Kathryn Simmons • His Easy List includes these possible cool weather hoophouse crops: kale, collards, endives, chicories, spinach, cabbage, beets, chard, all legumes. • His Harder to Grow List: lettuce, arugula, parsley, carrots, parsnips, broccoli, radishes, kohlrabi, turnips, rutabagas, mustards, non-heading Asian greens, scallions, potato onions, garlic. • His Difficult List: bulb onions, leeks, Chinese cabbage, asparagus, celery, celeriac, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, early cabbage.
  47. 47. 3. How Much to Harvest, How Much to Plant • How Much to Harvest: what do you have markets for? • Your Harvest Schedule: which crops you want to harvest when, how often and over what length of time, including how much of each • How Much to Plant to Achieve Your Harvest Goals: add 10% margin (for culls and failures) to your desired harvest quantity Planning Steps 4-5
  48. 48. Maps and Planting Schedule • We plan September-March in early-mid August. • We plan March-September in February Gather your information:  First possible planting date  Last worthwhile planting and harvesting dates  Everything in between!  Decide on harvest dates,  Calculate planting dates  Draw up a planting schedule  Plan follow-on crops where possible. Tatsoi Photo Wren Vile Planning Steps 6-8
  49. 49. When to Plant - Days to Maturity Find the number of days to maturity (from the catalog). Is that number from seeding to harvest or transplant to harvest? Work back from each target harvest date, subtracting days to maturity, to give the planting date. Days to maturity in catalogs are generally for spring planting once conditions have warmed to the usual range for that crop. When growing in late fall, winter or early spring add about 14 days - seedlings grow slower when chilly. In winter when the temperature is below 40F (4C), plants don’t grow much at all – ignore those days from your calculations. “Days to Maturity” usually means “Days to First Harvest” which may not be the same as “Days to Full Harvest”. With carrots it doesn’t matter exactly what size they are, but an immature Chinese cabbage is just no good. Planning Step 6
  50. 50. Germination Temperatures • Will your crop actually germinate at the prevailing temperature? Don’t waste space and time. • How many days does your chosen crop need to germinate in your conditions? • Use a soil thermometer, and consult charts. • The Year-Round Hoophouse, • Knott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers (the 2012 edition is online) • Nancy Bubel’s New Seed Starter’s Handbook. • Lettuce seedlings emerging. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  51. 51. Crop Rotations Lettuce, chicories Brassicas Spinach, chard and beets  Cool weather crops mostly fall into 3 crop families Lettuce and chicories Brassicas Spinach, chard and beets.  2 other families are grown in smaller amounts Legumes Alliums  Rotate the main families each cool season.  Use the less common families to fill out the space, ad hoc.
  52. 52. FEDCBA 92'88'88'88'92'96' dy10/1Ready10/2Ready10/24Ready10/24Ready9/6Ready9/16 Cowpeas d36ftTomatoes6/1-9/15 to9/15GherkinsTomatoesSquashBuckwheat8/9-9/6 Cowpeas7/23-10/23Cowpeas6/30-10/23 56'4/7-9/23 Rad#210/1follbyBrass Sal#22/1-11/23 ler#110/10BrassSal#110/2follby Rad#512/23-4/`15 er#210/20 iller#110/23 filler#211/9Radish#310/30-1/30 h#411/29 Chinese Cabbage Pak Choy 10/3 - 1/23 4 x 11' foll by Chard #1 10/16 - 5/1 Spinach#311/9-filler 12rowscrosswisein3' Tatsoi #2 11/15 - 3/1 8 rows x 7' Yukina Savoy #1 10/6 - 2/10 4 rows x 12' Mizuna #1 10/20 - 1/25 6 rows x 8' Russian kales 10/22 - 4/17. Red kale on south, White on north 4 rows x 52' Yukina Savoy #2 10/24 - 3/2 4 rows x 8' Mizuna #2 11/9 -3/24 6 rows x 6' Turnips #1, 10/14 - 2/10 3 rows x 96': Red Round to North, Hakurei to south East end, south side followed by 3 rows x26' Lettuce Mix #3, 2/1 - 4/30 Wheat (and Mustard?) Spinach #1 9/6 - 2/15 8 rows x 56' West end, south side followed by 3 rows x31' Lettuce Mix + arugula #2 12/31 - 3/20 West end North side followed by Snap Peas 2/1 - 5/31 x Tatsoi #1, 9/7 - 12/31 8 rows x 16' followed by Spinach #4 1/15 - 5/7, 12 rows x16' Bull's Blood Beets, 9/7 - 4/25 10 rows x 9' Tokyo Bekana Scallions #1 9/6- 3/1, 7 x 7' Radishes #1 9/6-11/7 5 x 7' then Scallions #2 Lettuce #2, 10/25 - 3/1 4 rows x 50' Senposai, 10/24 - 2/28 4 rows x 38' Lettuce Mix+ Arugula #1, 10/24 - 2/28 9 rows x 30' Spinach #2, 10/24 - 3/14 8 rows x 18' Turnips #2, 10/26 - 3/22 6 rows x 21' Chard #2 10/26 - 5/1 8 rows x 9' CBA 88'92'96' Ready9/6Ready10/12Ready10/24,11/29 8Tomatoes3/24- /23B&S7/31-9/1 Radish#210/1-12/312' BrassFill#110/101.5' BrassFill#210/201.5' FillLett#110/232' Spinach #1 9/6 - 2/15 56' x 8 rows (5 rows Tyee, 1.5 rows Avon, 1.5 rows Chevelle) West end, S side foll by Lettuce Mix #2 12/31-3/20 32'x3 rows West end North side followed bySnap Peas 2/1 - 5/31 56' x 1 row Tatsoi #1 9/7 - 1/14 16' x 8 rows foll by Spinach #4 1/15 - 5/7 16' x 15 rows Bull's Blood Beets 9/7 - 4/25 9' x 10 rows Scallions #1 (North) 9/6- 3/1, 7' x7 r ---------------- Radishes #1 9/6-11/7 7' x 5r then Scall #2 11/18 7'x 5 r Tokyo Bekana 10/1-1/14 11' x 4 r then Spinach #5a 1/16 11'x15 r Filler Lett #2 11/9 4' Spin #3 11/9 6' Tatsoi #2 11/15 - 3/12 14' x 4 rows Rad#4 11/29-2/254' Brass Sal Mix #2 12/18-3/29 8'x8r Spinach #2 10/24 - 5/1 36' x 4 rows (2T, 1 A, 1 C) Peppers 4/11-10/31 W:Cowpeas6/1-9/15 E:Beans,Cowpeas6/28-10/12 Spinach #5b 1/16 24' x 8 rows Lettuce #1 10/15 - 3/1 48' x 4 rows BrassSalad#1 10/2-12/224'thenRad#5 Pak Choy 10/3-1/23 11' x 4 rows then Collards/Brass Sal #3 1/24 1'/10' x 15 r Chinese Cabbage 10/2-1/23 11' x 4 r then Kale/Collards 1/24 8'/3' x 15r September 2015- March 2016 September 2016-March 2017 Real Life Crop Rotations Two beds in our hoophouse in two consecutive cool seasons
  53. 53. HoopHouse Map March-September 2015 Pam 27 Dec 2014 → North G F E D C B A 96' 92' 88' 88' 88' 92' 96' Make a Blank Map • We use spreadsheets, you choose computer or paper • We have 5 beds 4’ (1.2 m) wide, 2 edge beds 2’ (0.6 m) wide • Make your map to scale • Work from last year’s map, if you have one. • Write in last winter’s crops, for each bed, in small print at one end. • Write in the summer crops in each bed, and their finish dates (when the bed will become available.)
  54. 54. HoopHouse Map Pam 10 August 2015 Bed Prep Over- view → North G F E D C B A 96' 92' 88' 88' 88' 92' 96' Beets, Cowpeas Edamame Nemaland 36 ft Tomatoes 6/1-9/15 6/23-9/23 Solarize to 9/15 Gherkins Tomatoes Squash Buckwheat 8/9-9/6 Cowpeas 7/23-10/23 Cowpeas 6/30-10/23 Peppers 56 ft 4/7-10/31 September 2015 - March 2016 WheatandMustard9/15 Greens9/16 By 9/6 1 bed for bbb, scallions #1, radish #1, spin #1, tatsoi #1 By 9/30 1/2 bed for Tokyo Bekan/Maruba Santoh, Chines cabbage, Pak Choy, brass fill #1 By 10/13 1/4 bed for chard #1; 1/2 bed for turnips #1; 1/2 bed for lett #1 By 10/21 1/2 bed for kale (the ex-Nema bed, with Yukina Savoys, Mizunas, radishes?) By 10/23 1/2 bed for lett #2; 1/2 bed for sps; 1/4 bed for spin #2; 1/4 bed for lett mix #1; 1/4 bed for turnips #2; 1/4 bed for tatsoi #2; Greens9/24 LateGreens11/1 Nema-ResistantGreens10/2-10/22startdates RussianKale10/22,YukinaSavoy10/6,Mizuna10/2 Greens10/24 Greens10/24 EarlyGreens9/7 Make an Overview Map 1. List all the crops to be grown, and quantities. 2. First figure out which bed can be the Early Bed, then the others. 3. Decide which main crop family could go in each bed, considering crop rotations, edge beds being narrow and colder, dates of availability. Tomatoes Buckwheat 8/9-9/6 Early Greens 9/7
  55. 55. Make a Final Map 1. Start with the crops needing most space - leaf lettuce, spinach, kale, turnips, and large Asian greens. Find a home for each crop in a space available timewise and suitable rotation-wise 2. Pencil each crop in, showing how much space it needs 3. Write in the planting dates and finish dates 4. Note remaining space left in the bed, available for minor crops. 5. Then fit everything else in, in a way that works with your planting dates (one or two beds at a time, September – October, or the whole hoophouse at once?) HoopHouse Map Sept 2017 - March 2018 B+W 2 Aug 2017 → North G F E D C B A 96' 92' 88' 88' 88' 92' 96' "NEMA YEAR 3" NEMA YEAR 1 Rad #2 10/1-12/31 2' Brass Fill #1 10/10 1.5' Brass Fill #2 10/20 1.5' Lett Fill #1 10/23 2' Rad #3 10/30-1/30 Spinach#210/24-5/136'x4rows LettuceMix#2.5 11/1624'x3rowsthen Spinach#5b1/1624'x8 BrassSalMix #212/18-3/29 8'x8r Rad #4 11/29-2/25 4' Tatsoi#2 11/15-3/12 14'x4rows Spin#3 11/96' Fill Lett#2 11/94' Lettuce#110/15-3/143'x4rows Squash 4/1-7/16 Cowpeas 7/14-8/30 W B + S 7/21=10/8 E Cowpeas 5/1- 8/18 Spinach#1 9/6-2/1556'x8rows 4rowsAvon,4rowsReflect WestendSsidefollbyLettuceMix#212/31-3/2032'x3rows WestendNsidefollbySnapPeas2/1-5/3156'x1row Senposai10/24- 2/2838'x4rows Tomatoes 3/17-7/30 Bkwt 8/6-9/1 Lettuce#210/25-3/150'x4rows RussianKaleWhiteonNRedonS 10/22-4/1752'x4rows B + S 7/17-10/1 or sooner Brass Salad #1 10/2-12/22 4'then Rad #5 PakChoi10/3- 1/2311'x4 rowsthen BrassSal#3 10'x15rows 1/27 Chinese Cabbage 10/2-1/2311' x4rthen Kale 8'/Collards3' x15r1/24 Tokyo Bekana 10/1-1/1416' x4rthen Spinach#5a 1/1611'x15r Cowpeas 6/1-9/15 Turnips#110/14-2/1096'x3rowsthenLettuceMix#32/126ftx5rowsatEastend Chard#1 10/16-5/10 13'x4rows Turnips#2b10/25-3/1329'x6rows Peppers 4/11-10/31 Turnips#2a 10/25-3/13 11'x6rows Chard#2 10/26-5/1 9'x8rows LettuceMix#1 10/24-2/28 30'x10rows Rad#1(S)9/6- 11/77'x5r thenScall#2 11/187'x5r 9/6-3/17'x7r ------------ Scall#1(N) Bull's Blood Beets 9/7-4/259' x10rows Tatsoi#1 9/7-1/1416'x8rows thenSpinach#41/15-5/7 16'x15rows Tomatoes 3/15-7/30 Bkwt 8/6-9/1 Mizuna#1 10/20-1/25 8'x6rows YukSavoy#1 10/6-1/25 12'x4rthen Mizuna#32/1 12'x6rows Mizuna #2 11/9- 3/24 6'x6r Yukina Savoy#2 10/24- 3/2 8'x4 rows
  56. 56. Make a Planting Schedule 1. Set up the framework for a planting schedule (modify last year’s?) 2. Enter a row for each planting of each crop, including planting date, bed, row length, number of rows, space between rows, in-row space of transplants, variety name, expected harvest start and end dates 3. Watch out for changes between growing something in a 2ft edge bed or a 4ft middle bed. Twice as many rows in a middle bed, rows only half as long as in an edge bed. Date Done Plan Date Bed Sow /Tpl Row length in feet Row space in inches #Rows Plant space in inches Crop Notes Harvest Start Harvest Finish Success? 4. Plan follow-on crops where possible. To plan successions or follow-on crops, it is important to get an idea of how long the first round of crops will be in the ground. Photo Wren Vile
  57. 57. Make a Final Planting Schedule 1. Check any changes needed compared to last year 2. Be sure to follow all changes through to both the map and the schedule. 3. Check: add total row feet assigned to each bed - make sure it fits! 4. Sort the planting schedule by date order. 5. Have 2 people proofread for sense and for compatibility with map. 6. Make any needed corrections. 7. Make final versions of map and schedule Photo Wren Vile
  58. 58. Transition to cool weather crops • We clear a bed • Add compost • Broadfork • Rake • Sow or transplant Seasonal transitions Transition from cool to warm weather crops • We flag planting spots every 2’ (60 cm) down the mid-line of the bed • Clear crops that are too close • Dig holes • Add a shovelful of compost in the hole • Plant the warm weather crop • Over the next few weeks, harvest to the south of the new plants, and anything between them that’s too close • Over the following few weeks, harvest the rest of the greens between the new plants and then crops to the north. Broadfork from Way Cool Tools
  59. 59. • By 9/6: 1 bed for Bulls Blood beets, scallions #1, radish #1, spinach #1, tatsoi #1 • By 9/30: 1/2 bed for Tokyo Bekana/Maruba Santoh, Chinese cabbage, Pak Choy, brassica fillers #1 • By 10/13: 1/4 bed for chard #1; 1/2 bed for turnips #1; 1/2 bed for lettuce #1 • By 10/21: 1/2 bed for kale (plus Yukina Savoy, mizunas, frilly mustards, radishes?) {RKN} • By 10/23: 1/2 bed lettuce #2; 1/2 bed senposai; 1/4 bed for spinach #2; 1/4 bed for lettuce mix #1; 1/4 bed for turnips #2; 1/4 bed for tatsoi #2 Bed Prep Over-view
  60. 60. • Sept 15 and Sept 24: We make outdoor sowings of crops to later transplant into the hoophouse at 2–4 weeks old. We use hoops and ProtekNet, and water frequently • Sept 15: 10 varieties of hardy leaf lettuce and romaines; pak choy, Chinese cabbage, Yukina Savoy, Tokyo Bekana, Maruba Santoh, chard ProtekNet and hoops. Photo Wren Vile Sept 24: another 10 varieties of lettuce; Red and White Russian kales, Senposai, more Yukina Savoy, mizuna and arugula Fall Sowings to Transplant Inside
  61. 61. September Hoophouse Planting Early September : We clear and add compost to one of the beds and sow sprouted spinach seed, radishes, scallions, Bulls Blood beet greens and tatsoi. At the end of September we clear summer crops from one more bed, add compost. We transplant Tokyo Bekana and Maruba Santoh at 2 weeks old, Chinese cabbage, pak choy and Yukina Savoy at 3 weeks. Spinach in September. Photo Pam Dawling
  62. 62. Early October Planting Early October, we sow more radishes and some “filler” greens, (spinach, lettuce and Asian greens) to fill gaps later. By mid-October we clear and prepare another bed and transplant lettuce at 10" (25 cm) apart, and chard. We sow our first turnips. Mizuna Photo Ethan Hirsh
  63. 63. Late October Planting We clear and prepare more beds and transplant the kale, Senposai, mizuna, arugula and Yukina Savoy at 4 weeks old and the 2nd lettuce. We sow more “filler” greens, our first baby lettuce mix, our second spinach, turnips and chard, and more radishes. Young Senposai plants. Photo Ethan Hirsh
  64. 64. November Planting Nov 10 we sow more turnips, mizuna and arugula, more filler lettuce and spinach, and our first bulb onions for field transplanting as early as possible in March. We then have a fully planted hoophouse. From Nov 10 on as each crop harvest winds down, we immediately replace that crop with another. Nov 11-20 we sow scallions, tatsoi, radishes, more bulb onion starts. Bed of tatsoi. Photo Ethan Hirsh
  65. 65. December Planting • During December we use the “Filler” greens plants to replace casualties and harvested heads of Tokyo bekana, Maruba Santoh, Chinese cabbage, Pak choy, Yukina Savoy daily. • We sow our fifth radishes and our second baby lettuce mix. • Pak Choy replacing Yukina Savoy here. Photo Ethan Hirsh
  66. 66. January and February Planting We fill gaps with Asian greens, spinach or lettuces as appropriate, until Jan 25 From Jan 25 to Feb 20 we fill all gaps everywhere with spinach transplants From Feb 20, we only fill gaps on the outer thirds of the beds, leaving centers free for tomatoes, etc. “Filler” transplants. Photo Ethan Hirsh
  67. 67. March Planting After 2/20, we harvest the winter crops from the center rows first, plant the new early summer crops down the center, then harvest the outer rows bit by bit as the new crop needs the space or the light. This overlap allows the new crops to take over gradually. Our winter and spring crops end in April Tomatoes transplanted in the middle of a lettuce mix bed. Photo Kathryn Simmons
  68. 68. Winter Hoophouse Harvest Dates • October: beet greens, radishes, spinach, tatsoi. • From November onwards: As October plus arugula, brassica salad mix, chard, lettuce leaves, mizuna, frilly mustards and scallions. • From December: As November plus kale, senposai, turnips, and Yukina Savoy. • During December: whole plants of Tokyo Bekana, Maruba Santoh. • During January: heads of Chinese cabbage, pak choy. • Having the heading crops in December and January gets us through the slow-growth period. • Most loose-leaf crops last until mid-March or later. • Yukina savoy. Credit Ethan Hirsh
  69. 69. For details, see my slideshow Hoophouse in Fall and Winter on SlideShare.net 4. Packing more in  Keep the space filled with useful crops.  Important to know when crops will bolt, and how to plant sensible quantities  3 techniques: – succession planting, – interplanting, – follow-on cropping December harvests Photo Wren Vile Planning Step 9
  70. 70. Succession Planting for Continuous Harvests  Typically, plants mature slower in colder weather  To get harvests starting an equal number of days apart, vary the interval between one sowing date and the next according to the season  Length of time from sowing to harvest varies according to day length in some cases  Keep records and use info from other local growers to fine-tune your planting dates For all the details, see my slideshow Succession Planting for Continuous Harvests on SlideShare.net Tatsoi. Photo Ethan Hirsh
  71. 71. Succession Crop Planning Approaches 1. Rough plans: “every 2 weeks for crop x, 3 weeks for crop y”, don’t work well in winter because days to maturity vary so much. 2. “No paperwork” methods 3. Sow several varieties on the same day 4. Plan a sequence of sowings to provide an even supply, using graphs Ruby Streaks, mizuna, lettuce mix. Photo Kathleen Slattery
  72. 72. “No Paperwork” Methods Sow more lettuce when the previous sowing germinates (lettuce mix or lettuce to transplant)  Photo young lettuce Wren Vile
  73. 73. Sow Several Varieties on One Day • Use varieties with different days-to-maturity sown on the same day. • We do this with lettuce, turnips, mizuna-type mustards. • It would work for broccoli • Photo Lettuce seedlings Bridget Aleshire
  74. 74. For details of this method see Succession Planting on SlideShare.net Making a Close-Fit Plan Using Graphs • Succession crop graphs can be used for winter hoophouse crops • Keep good records and eliminate sowings that are too late to give a harvest – some crops bolt in January (Tokyo bekana and Maruba Santoh), some in February (tatsoi) Cherry Belle radishes. Photo by Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
  75. 75. Make a Graph - 6 Steps 1. Gather sowing and harvest start and finish dates for each planting of each crop 2. Make a graph for each crop: sowing date along the horizontal (x) axis; harvest start date along the vertical (y) axis. Mark in all your data. Join with a line. Smooth the line. 3. From your first possible sowing date find the first harvest start date. 4. Decide the last worthwhile harvest start date, mark that. 5. Divide the harvest period into a whole number of equal segments, according to how often you want a new patch. 6. Mark in the harvest start dates and see the sowing dates that match those harvest dates Next we’ll take one step at a time
  76. 76. For each sowing of each crop, collect 1. Sowing date 2. Date of first harvest 3. Date of last worthwhile harvest of that sowing  Compared to spring and summer plantings, the results for winter plantings can look quite wacky.  Spinach, lettuce and kale grow every time the temperature in your hoophouse is 40F (4.5C) or more,  Some other crops need warmer temperatures to make any growth, and will “sit still” when it’s too cold.  Here’s the first part of our data. Sowing Date Harvest Start Harvest End 6-Sep 30-Sep 7-Nov 6-Sep 3-Oct 10-Nov 6-Sep 7-Oct 7-Nov 1-Oct 2-Nov 17-Dec 1-Oct 10-Nov 25-Dec 5-Oct 9-Nov 2-Jan Radishes Step 1 Gather Sowing & Harvest Dates
  77. 77. Step 2 Make a Graph X axis = Sowing Date, across the bottom • Mark in all your data, and join with a line. • Graphs can be made by hand or using a spreadsheet program such as Excel, which calls them charts. This type of graph is called a “scatter chart.” 9/7/2016 9/27/2016 10/17/2016 11/6/2016 11/26/2016 12/16/2016 1/5/2017 1/25/2017 2/14/2017 3/6/2017 3/26/2017 4/15/2017 8/18/2016 9/7/2016 9/27/201610/17/201611/6/201611/26/201612/16/2016 1/5/2017 1/25/2017 2/14/2017 Harveststartdate Sowing date Ser… Yaxis=HarvestStartDate Radishes - several years’ data
  78. 78. Step 3 From your First Possible Sowing Date find the First Harvest Start Date Draw a line up from your first possible sowing date on the x axis to the graph line. 9/7? Draw a horizontal line from the point on the graph line to the y axis. This is your first harvest date. Ours is around 10/1. Harvest date varies according to temperature. 9/7/2016 9/27/2016 10/17/2016 11/6/2016 11/26/2016 12/16/2016 1/5/2017 1/25/2017 2/14/2017 3/6/2017 3/26/2017 4/15/2017 8/18/2016 9/7/2016 9/27/2016 10/17/2016 11/6/2016 11/26/2016 12/16/2016 1/5/2017 1 Harveststartdate Sowing date
  79. 79. Step 4 Decide your Last Worthwhile Harvest Start Date • Decide your last worthwhile harvest start date 3/18? • Draw a line across from this date on the y (harvest) axis to the graph line • Draw a line from this point on the graph line down to the x axis to show when to sow. 1/26? 9/7/2016 9/27/2016 10/17/2016 11/6/2016 11/26/2016 12/16/2016 1/5/2017 1/25/2017 2/14/2017 3/6/2017 3/26/2017 4/15/2017 8/18/20169/7/20169/27/201610/17/201611/6/201611/26/201612/16/20161/5/20171/25/20172/14/2017 Harveststartdate Sowing date S…
  80. 80. Smoothing the Graph Line • The line joining the points on the graph is often jagged, due to differences in weather from year to year, and to growing varieties with differing maturity dates. • Smooth the jaggedness by drawing a smooth line hitting most of your points, with equal numbers of points above and below it, equally distributed over time. • Practice with a pencil, drawing a line in the air just above the graph. • When you’re fairly confident, draw a smooth line. • With radishes the curve is slight, but it’s there.
  81. 81. Radish Succession Crops Graph with Smoothed Line
  82. 82. Step 5 Divide the Harvest Period into a whole Number of Segments  Count the days from first harvest of the first sowing to the first harvest of the last sowing:10/1–3/18=30+30+31+31+28+18=168  Use the harvest end dates to see roughly how long a patch of radishes lasts (how often you want a new patch coming on line)  Divide the harvest period into a whole number of equal intervals of that length. If we want new radishes every 34 days, we’ll need 5 equal intervals between plantings (34 x 5 = 170).  Five intervals means 6 plantings. (P-I-P-I-P-I-P-I-P-I-P)  The harvest start dates will be 10/1, 11/4, 12/8, 1/11, 2/14,3/20  Draw a horizontal line from each harvest start date to the graph line – see next slide
  83. 83. Radish Succession Crops Harvest Start Dates
  84. 84. Radish Succession Crops Sowing Dates
  85. 85. Step 6 Determine the Sowing Dates to Match your Harvest Start Dates  Drop a vertical line down to the horizontal axis from each place that a horizontal line meets your smoothed curve.  Read the date on the horizontal axis at this point  Write these planting dates on your schedule: 9/7, 9/30, 10/28, 11/22, 12/20, 1/27  Sowing intervals are 23, 28, 25, 28, 38 days – longer in Dec-Jan.  If your hoophouse planting plans exceed the space you’ve got, simply tweaking to a less frequent new harvest start could free up space to grow something else.  Also consider a gap in radish supply, if other crops could make better use of the space.
  86. 86. Our Radish Succession Dates 1. Radish #1, sown 9/6, harvested 10/5- 11/15. 2. #2, sown 10/1, harvested 11/6-12/25. 3. #3, sown 10/30, harvested 12/16-2/7. 4. #4, sown 11/29, harvested 1/16-2/25. 5. #5, sown 12/23, harvested 2/19-3/16 Our harvest intervals are uneven: 31-40 days. This fits better with our other crops. Cherry Belle radishes. Credit Southern Exposure Seed Exchange After many calculations and too many radishes, we cut back to 5 sowings of 32' (10 m) each. We reduced the amount we sow each time as a result of evening out our supply.
  87. 87. Hoophouse Succession Planting 2 sowings of chard, scallions, tatsoi, yukina savoy 3 sowings of mizuna, turnips, bulb onions 4 sowings of baby lettuce mix, brassica salad mix 5 sowings of spinach, radish Crop Planting Date Harvest Dates Notes Brassica Salad Mix #1 sown 10/2 10/29 – 12/22 #2 sown 12/18 ? – 4/20 11 days to germinate. #3 sown 1/27 4/15 – 5/15? Only 2 cuts #4 sown 2/1 2/12 is last sow date Chard #1 transplanted 10/16 12/11 - 4/9 #2 sown 10/26 2/6 - 5/1 Lettuce Mix #1 sown 10/24 12/14 - 3/15 Up to 8 cuts #1.5! sown 11/16 ? New this year #2 sown 12/31 2/21 - 3/31 (4/15?) 3 cuts if we’re lucky #3 sown 2/1 3/18 - 4/30 3 cuts if we’re lucky #4 sown 2/15 3/25? - 5/15 Only sow if spring outdoor lettuce is late Lettuce heads until October 11/16 - 2/20 Harvest leaves from the mature plants 2/21 - 3/31 Cut the heads Mizuna #1 transplanted 10/20 11/25 - 1/25 Includes other frilly mustards #2 sown 11/9 2/26 - 3/24 #3 sown 2/1 3/24 – 5/23 Scarlet Frill, Golden Frills outlive mizuna and Ruby Streaks Onions (bulbing) #1 sown 11/10 Transplanted outdoors as early as possible in March#2 sown 11/22 #3 back-up sown 12/6 Radish #1 sown 9/6 10/3 - 11/16 #2 sown 10/1 11/10 - 12/25 #3 sown 10/30 12/15 - 1/31 #4 sown 11/29 ? Records lacking #5 sown 12/23 2/13 - 3/30? Scallions #1 sown 9/6 12/8 - 2/1 #2 sown 11/18 3/19 - 5/15 Following radish #1 Spinach #1 sown 9/6 10/30 - 2/15 or later Sprouted seeds sown #2 sown 10/24 11/25 - 5/7 #3 sown 11/9 These later sowings are harvested until 5/7 We keep planting to fill gaps and pulling up finished plants#4 sown 1/16 #5 sown 1/17 Until mid-May To transplant outdoors in February Tatsoi #1 sown 9/7 10/30 - 12/31 9 weeks of harvest #2 sown 11/15 2/12 - 3/12 4 weeks of harvest Turnips #1 sown 10/14 12/5 - 2/20 Thinnings11/29 #2 sown 10/25 2/1 - 3/13 Thinnings 1/11 #3 sown 12/10 3/5 - 3/20 Only worthwhile if thinned promptly and eaten small. Yukina Savoy #1 transplanted10/6 12/5 - 1/25 #2 transplanted 10/24 1/8 - 2/1 or so Only one week extra
  88. 88. • Chard #1, transplanted 10/15, harvest 12/11-4/9. – #2, sown 10/26, harvested 3/6-4/9 • Lettuce Mix #1, sown 10/24, harvest 12/11-2/21. – #2, sown 2/1, harvest 3/20-4/20 (3 cuts if we’re lucky) • Lettuce heads: Succession planting is practical only until October. From November to February, harvest leaves from the same mature plants. Harvest 12/6-3/31 • Mizuna (and other ferny mustards) #1, transplanted 10/24, harvest to 1/25. – #2, sown 11/10, harvest 1/27-3/6, – #3 ??? • Onions (bulbing) #1, sown 11/10. – #2, sown 11/22. – #3, sown 12/6 as back-up. Transplanted outdoors as early as possible in March. • Scallions #1, sown 9/6, harvest 12/25-3/20. – #2, sown 11/13, following radish #1, harvest 3/19-5/15. Our Other Succession Crops C-S
  89. 89. More Succession Crops S-Y • Spinach #1, sown as sprouted seeds 9/6, harvest 10/30-4/9. • #2, sown 10/24, harvest 11/20-5/7. • #3, sown 11/10 as gap-filler. • #4, sown12/27. • #5, sown 1/17, as gap filler. All the later sowings are harvested until 5/7. We plant to fill gaps, and pull up finished plants. • #6, sown 1/24, primarily to transplant outdoors. • Tatsoi #1, sown 9/7, harvest 10/30-12/28. • #2, sown 11/15, harvest 2/15-2/28. • Turnips #1, sown 10/15, harvest 12/4-2/20. • #2, sown 11/10, harvest 2/25-3/10 (thinnings 1/11). • #3, sown 12/10, harvest until 3/20. This sowing is only productive if thinned promptly and eaten small. Turnip greens are very worthwhile - the foliage is not weather-beaten, is very sweet, beautiful, and becomes available when veggie-lovers are hankering for some good fresh flavor. • Yukina Savoy #1, transplanted 10/10, harvest 12/30-1/22. • #2, sown 10/24, harvest until 1/29 (only one week extra)
  90. 90. • Some people use the term “Succession Planting” to refer to a sequence of different crops occupying the same space over time. • We follow our 1st radishes with 2nd scallions on 11/17 • 1st baby brassica salad mix with 5th radishes on 12/23 • Some of our 1st spinach with our 2nd baby lettuce mix on 12/31 • Our 1st tatsoi with our 4th spinach on 1/15 • Our Tokyo Bekana on 1/16 with spinach for planting outdoors • Our pak choy and Chinese cabbage on 1/24 with kale for outdoors • Our 2nd radishes with our 2nd baby brassica salad mix 2/1 • Our 1st Yukina Savoy with our 3rd mizuna on 2/1 • Some of our 1st turnips with our 3rd baby lettuce mix on 2/1 • More of our 1st spinach with dwarf snap peas on 2/1 Follow-on Winter Hoophouse Crops
  91. 91. Interplanting • Fast growing crops like lettuce, radishes and greens can be planted between or alongside slower- growing crops to generate more income and diversity • Interplanting lettuce and tomatoes is 39% more efficient than growing each crop individually. (Statistic and photo thanks to Alison and Paul Wiediger) • We have grown peas with spinach Planning Step 9
  92. 92. Fast Filler Crops Tatsoi. Credit Wren Vile Ready in 30–35 days in fall, longer in winter: • kale, arugula, radishes (both the fast small ones and the larger winter ones). • many Asian greens: Chinese Napa cabbage, Komatsuna, Maruba Santoh, mizuna, pak choy, Senposai, tatsoi, Tokyo Bekana and Yukina Savoy. • spinach, chard, salad greens (lettuce, endives, chicories) and winter purslane. • brassica salad mixes Ready in 35–45 days in fall: • corn salad, land cress, sorrel, parsley and chervil. Ready in 60 days in fall: • beets, collards, kohlrabi, turnips and small fast cabbage Some cool-weather crops mature in 60 days or less. Mostly these are greens and fast-growing root crops. Useful if a crop fails, or you have a small empty space.
  93. 93. Filler Greens • As well as scheduled plantings, sow a few short rows of lettuce, spinach, Senposai, Yukina Savoy, Maruba Santoh, Tokyo Bekana to transplant and fill gaps as soon as they occur. • Peashoots can be grown as a gap-filling crop if there is unexpected open space in late winter. We have used leftover soaked seed from our spring outdoor planting in early-mid March. We harvest 4/10-5/5. Large transplants of filler greens. Photo by Ethan Hirsh
  94. 94. 5. Record Results for Next Year’s Better Plan • Make recording easy to do • Have a daily practice of writing down what was done that day • Allow time to do that, without losing your lunch break • Minimize the paperwork. Record planting dates and harvest start and finish dates on the planting schedule. • If your records suggest adjusting a date next year, adjust it to halfway between last year’s plan and what seems ideal - gradually zero in on the likely date without wild pendulum swings based on variable weather. Planning Step 12
  95. 95. Advantages of Planning and Record-Keeping 1. Use all the space to best advantage 2. You may find you don’t need to sow as often or as soon as you had thought. 3. Your records may show up the chanciness of certain sowing dates, particularly crops that will bolt soon after sowing. See our example of turnips #3. You may choose a better idea. 4. Your record keeping may show up some other ways to increase the harvest period (eg pay attention to aphids in February), and remove the need to resow so soon.Chard Photo Kathryn Simmons
  96. 96. Resources - Books  The Market Gardener, Jean-Martin Fortier, New Society Publishers  The Complete Know and Grow Vegetables, J K A Bleasdale, P J Salter et al.  Knott’s Handbook for Vegetable Growers, Maynard and Hochmuth  The New Seed Starter’s Handbook, Nancy Bubel, Rodale Books  Greenhouse and Hoophouse Grower's Handbook – Organic Vegetable Production Using Protected Culture, Andrew Mefferd, Chelsea Green  Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market, Vern Grubinger, http://host31.spidergraphics.com/nra/doc/fair%20use%20web%20pdfs/n raes-104_web.pdf NRAES  The New Organic Grower, Eliot Coleman, Chelsea Green  The Winter Harvest Handbook, Eliot Coleman  Extending the Season: Six Strategies for Improving Cash Flow Year-Round on the Market Farm a free e-book for online subscribers to Growing for Market  Gardening When it Counts, Steve Solomon , New Society Publishers
  97. 97. More Books (I have reviewed some of these books on my blog at www.sustainablemarketfarming.com)  The Lean Farm, How to Minimize Waste, Increase Efficiency, and Maximize Value and Profits with Less Work Ben Hartman  The Urban Farmer, Curtis Stone, New Society Publishers  High-Yield Vegetable Gardening, Colin McCrate and Brad Halm, Storey Publishers  Market Farming Success: The Business of Growing and Selling Local Food, Lynn Byczynski  The Organic Farmer’s Business Handbook, Richard Wiswall, Chelsea Green  Crop Planning for Organic Vegetable Growers, Daniel Brisebois and Frédéric Thériault (Canadian Organic Growers www.cog.ca)  Nature and Properties of Soils, fourteenth edition, Nyle Brady and Ray Weil  Garden Insects of North America, Whitney Cranshaw  Managing Weeds on your Farm: A Guide to Ecological Strategies. Charles Mohler and Antonio DiTommaso. SARE. In prep.(not yet published)  SARE Crop Rotations on Organic Farms, A Planning Manual, Charles Mohler, Sue Ellen Johnson, editors
  98. 98. Resources – General  Penn State Extension High Tunnels site: extension.psu.edu/plants/plasticulture/technologies/high-tunnels  HighTunnels.org: hightunnels.org/category/for-growers/growing-in-high- tunnels  ATTRA attra.ncat.org Market Farming: A Start-up Guide, Plugs and Transplant Production for Organic Systems, Scheduling Vegetable Plantings for a Continuous Harvest, Intercropping Principles and Production Practices (mostly field crops, but the same principles apply to vegetable crops), Season Extension Techniques for Market Farmers, and more  SARE www.sare.org A searchable database of research: see Season Extension Topic Room  extension.org/organic_production The organic agriculture community with eXtension. Publications, webinars, videos, trainings and support.  Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, www.imok.ufl.edu/programs/veg-hort/transplant (Information on age of transplants, container size, biological control for pests, diseases, hardening off, plant size, planting depth and temperature. )
  99. 99. Resources – My Slideshows Many of my presentations are on www.Slideshare.net. Search for Pam Dawling  Cold-hardy Winter Vegetables  Crop Planning for Sustainable Vegetable Production  Crop Rotations for Vegetables and Cover Crops  Diversify your Vegetable Crops  Fall and Winter Hoophouses  Fall Vegetable Production  Feed the Soil  Producing Asian Greens  Production of Late Fall, Winter and Early Spring Vegetable Crops  Seed Growing  Spring and Summer Hoophouses  Succession Planting for Continuous Vegetable Harvests  Sustainable Farming Practices  Also cover crops, garlic, sweet potatoes, storage vegetables
  100. 100. Resources – More Slideshows and Sites Other slide shows I recommend:  Alison and Paul Wiediger : www.slideshare.net/aunaturelfarm/high- tunnel-1-why-grow-in-high-tunnels and at least 11 more.  Mark Cain Planning for Your CSA: www.Slideshare.net (search for Crop Planning)  Brad Bergefurd, Cultural Practices And Cultivar Selections for Commercial Vegetable Growers. www.slideshare.net/guest6e1a8d60/vegetable-cultural-practices-and- variety-selection Other sites I recommend:  www.johnnyseeds.com. Winter growing guide  www.motherofahubbard.com Winter Vegetable Gardening  www.averagepersongardening.com info on winter gardening
  101. 101. Resources – Asian Greens  Grow Your Own Chinese Vegetables, Geri Harrington, 1984, Garden Way Publishing. Includes the names for these crops in different cultures.  Growing Unusual Vegetables, Simon Hickmott, 2006, Eco-Logic books, UK.  Oriental Vegetables: The Complete Guide for the Garden and Kitchen, Joy Larkham, revised edition 2008, Kodansha, USA  Kitazawa Seeds kitazawaseed.com/ & Evergreen Seeds have the most choices.  Evergreen’s helpful clickable list. evergreenseeds.com/asveglis.html  Fedco Seeds fedcoseeds.com/ and Johnny’s johnnyseeds.com/ have a good range.  Wild Garden Seed has many interesting home-bred varieties. Search under Mustard. wildgardenseed.com  Even’ Star Farm Ice-bred Seeds localharvest.org/even-star-organic-farm-M9994  ATTRA Cole Crops and Other Brassicas: Organic Production attra.ncat.org/attra- pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=27  Saving Our Seed Project carolinafarmstewards.org/wp- content/uploads/2012/05/BrassicaSeedProductionver1_1.pdf an excellent 24- page guide on organic brassica seed production
  102. 102. Resources - Planning  AgSquared online planning software: agsquared.com  COG-Pro record-keeping software for Certified Organic Farms: cog-pro.com  Free open-source database crop planning software code.google.com/p/cropplanning.  Growing Small Farms: growingsmallfarms.ces.ncsu.edu click Farmer Resources. Click Farm Planning and Recordkeeping to download Joel Gruver’s spreadsheets. Debbie Roos keeps this site up to the minute.  Mark Cain www.drippingspringsgarden.com under the CSA tab, you can download their Harvest Schedule. Notebook-based system.  Jean-Paul Courtens , Roxbury Farm www.roxburyfarm.com. Information for Farmers tab, 100 Member CSA Plan, including a Weekly Share Plan, Greenhouse Schedule, and Field Planting and Seeding Schedule (with charts of possible crop yields). Courtens is also willing to send you their 1,100- member schedule.  John Jeavons How to Grow More Vegetables has charts: Pounds Consumed per Year by the Average Person in the US & Average US Yield in Pounds per 100 Square Feet
  103. 103. Resources – Detailed Planning  Tables of likely crop yields johnnyseeds.com/assets/information/vegetablecharts.pdf  gardensofeden.org/04%20Crop%20Yield%20Verification.htm two charts, one of organic crops from The Owner-Built Homestead by Ken & Barbara Kern, one from California.  Determining Prices for CSA Share Boxes Iowa State U extension.iastate.edu/agdm/wholefarm/pdf/c5-19.pdf  New England Vegetable Management Guide Crop Budgets http://nevegetable.org/cultural-practices/crop-budgets  Clifton Slade’s 43560 Project: Virginia Association for Biological Farming newsletter vabf.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/clif-slade-43560-demo-project.pdf http://www.slideshare.net/LoudounBiz/clifton-slade-43560-project, www.markklingman.com/docs/43560_Project_Overview.pptx  USDA annual vegetable consumption www.usda.gov/factbook/chapter2.pdf  The Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems at the UC Santa Cruz Crop Plan for a Hundred-Member CSA, for a range of 36 crops in Unit 4.5 CSA Crop Planning:casfs.ucsc.edu/documents/Teaching%20Direct%20Marketing/4.5_CSA_cr op_plan.pdf
  104. 104. Sequential Planting of Cool Season Crops in a High Tunnel ©Pam Dawling, 2019 Author of Sustainable Market Farming and The Year-Round Hoophouse SustainableMarketFarming.com facebook.com/SustainableMarketFarming

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