Presented by: God’s Property Ian Morris Leonard Northe Derrick Thompson Keisha Shantel WilliamsWeb Link
The Purpose of all writing is to elicit a response
Literature Review Peer ReviewedEmpirical Studies Journal White Paper Journal Annotated Bibliography News Paper
Empirical Studies An empirical study, is the use of statisticsobtained from observation, experiment andexperience “to make an indisputable point[emphasis added] , rather than quoteexperts” (n.d.)." …make men thinkers of their own thoughts and not mere reflectors ofother mens thoughts…". (White, 1973 ,p. 18) Table of Content
Empirical Studies It looks at expected relationshipsthrough “systematic study ofrelationships between scores obtainedfrom cases on measures” (Schwab,1999, p. 4).
Empirical Studies Three key elements are used todefine empirical research. They are:cases, measures and sores.
Empirical Research Components •Cases are entities •Measures are instruments •Scores (or data) represent investigated in research. used to obtain scores on the information obtained from•For example, individuals cases studied. cases on the measures •For example, items or employed. interacting in organizations questionnaires that •Researchers use these individuals complete scores to identify whether relationships exist as expected. Cases Measures Scores
Empirical Studies Empirical studies also use threeactivities which are necessary toconduct empirical research. Theseactivities are: measurement, designand analysis (Schwab, 1994, pp. 4-8).
Research Activities Measurement • Obtains scores on measures that correspond to the concepts studied. Analysis Design • Describe scores on single •Establishes procedures to measures to identify obtain cases for study and to relationships that may exist determine how scores will be between scores across different obtained from those cases. measures.
Literature Review A literature review “Surveys scholarlyarticles, books and other sources…relevant to a particular issue, area ofresearch, or theory, providing adescription, summary, and criticalevaluation of each work” (n.d.).
Literature Review Although it can be written in theform of an annotated bibliography it“Is more than an AnnotatedBibliography” (2011).
Literature Review According to Dena Taylor (n.d), “Moreoften it is part of the introduction toan essay, research report, or thesis.Literature review helps one develop“Information seeking” and “Criticalappraisal skills (n.d.).
A Good Literature Review must: “Be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question you are developing Synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known Identify areas of controversy in the literature Formulate questions that need further research” (Taylor n.d.).Ask how does this literature promote the principles of true education?
Journals Journals are regular periodicpublications, usually dedicated to aspecific profession or discipline.
Peer-reviewed Journals According to : “Peer-reviewed journals (alsocalled refereed journals) are scholarly journalsthat only publish articles that have passedthrough this review process”. These reviewers(scholars, experts, or academics), must agreethat the article represents properly conductedoriginal research or writing before it can bepublished. (Cornell University Library)
Peer Review Journal Peer-reviewed is a process that journalsuse to ensure the articles they publishrepresent the best scholarship currentlyavailable. “The review process helpsensure that the published articles reflectsolid scholarship in their fields” RobertE. Kennedy Library (2011).
Peer Review Journal When an article is submitted to a peerreviewed journal, the editors send it out toother scholars in the same field (the authorspeers) to get their opinion on the quality of thescholarship, its relevance to the field, itsappropriateness for the journal, etc
The Peer-reviewed Process If standards are met, the article Comment and is then suggestions are published. The scholars made and are review the article sent back for for scholarly adaptation ifArticles are writing, original needed.submitted to research, properseveral other representation ofscholars, the content in the field, ethicalexperts, or issues, biases,academics relevance, validity,(peers) in the etc.field for reviewand comment.
Peer-reviewed Journal For example Harvard Law Review has a 7 daywindow to receives submissions from that starts inApril, where scholarly legal arguments arereviewed and published (Harvard 2011). thesejournals must be no more than 25, 000 words(articles more than 30, 000 are not reviewed) manysubmissions are received but after rigorousexamination only a few are published.
Elements of a Peer- reviewed Journal 1• Scholarly journal articles often have an abstract, a descriptive summary of the article contents, before the main text of the article. 2• Scholarly journals generally have a sober, serious look. They often contain many graphs and charts but few glossy pages or exciting pictures.
Elements 3•Scholarly journals always cite their sources in the form of footnotes or bibliographies. These bibliographies are generally lengthy and cite other scholarly writings. 4•Articles are written by a scholar in the field or by someone who has done research in the field. The affiliations of the authors are listed, usually at the bottom of the first page or at the end of the article--universities, research institutions, think tanks, and the like. 5•The language of scholarly journals is that of the discipline covered. It assumes some technical background on the part of the reader.
Elements 6• The main purpose of a scholarly journal is to report on original research or experimentation in order to make such information available to the rest of the scholarly world. 7• Many scholarly journals, though by no means all, are published by a specific professional organization.
White Paper Description and Purpose“A white paper is a certain type of report that is distinctive in terms of purpose, audience,and organization.” Sakamuro & Stolley 2010Use of White Paper “Originally, the term white paper was used as shorthand to refer to an officialgovernment report, indicating that the document is authoritative and informative in nature.Writers typically use this genre when they argue a specific position or propose a solution to aproblem, addressing the audience outside of their organization.” Sakamuro & Stolley 2010History and Synthesis of White Paper This term has historically been used to describe a report that states the social orpolitical position of an organization. In recent years, however, the IT industry has adoptedthe term to describe articles that explain a certain technology or product. For example, acompany may release a white paper to the public in order to educate consumers about one oftheir products.
Types of White Paper Solutions White Paper: The solution-oriented White Paper is aimed mostly at higher management and business leaders. It describes the advantages of implementing certain solutions. Technical White Paper: The technical White Paper is aimed mainly at engineers and technicians. It describes products, technologies or processes down to the last detail. Strategic White Paper: The strategic White Paper serves the purpose of introducing new technologies, processes or research fields to decision makers so that they are well-informed about the respective advantages and disadvantages.
White Paper Government White Paper This is an example of awhite paper for Europe, apolicy on thetransportation system (YouTube, 2011)
News Paper What is it? It is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features and advertising. It Purpose: The newspaper has played an important role in keeping the public informed on current events. It gleans information from many sources, some public, such as police records, and others private, such as a government and reports it to the public.
Newspaper Editorial Pages: Editorials pages are found withinthe news paper. They do not contain news, butrather reasoned opinion based on facts.Newspapers Should be Judged not by the amount of sensational articles they produce,but by how strict they are in the promotion of truth.
Annotated Bibliography “An annotated bibliography is a list ofcitations to books, articles, anddocuments. Each citation is followed by abrief (usually about 150 words)descriptive and evaluative paragraph, theannotation.”
It Purpose The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader ofthe relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sourcescited” (Cornell University Library, 2011).
Books and Peer- reviewed Journal Why Books and Peer Review Journals Books and Peer review Journals are great sources of scholarship. One “can find a list of extremely useful books on research, scientific ethics, writing, dissertations, and scientific careers” (Honavar, 201). In Journals, one can find an incredible source of valuable information for scholarly research.
Roles and Responsibilities of Group Members Members Roles and Responsibilities Assumed1. Ian D. Morris academic journal, peer-reviewed journal/article2. Derrick Thompson white paper, newspaper3. Keisha Shantel Williams book review, and annotated bibliography.4. Leonard Northe empirical study, literature review
References Cornell University Library (2011).,Distinguishing Scholarly Journals from Other Periodicals. Retrieved September 04 2011 from http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill20.htmlWhite, E.G. (1973), Education, 55 W. Oak Ridge Drive Hagerstown, Maryland. Review and Herald Publishing Association 1861.Honavar, V. (2011). Graduate research Writing and careers in computer science, Retrieved September 16 2011 from, http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~honavar/grad-advice.htmlLibrary Services (2011),Finding Peer-reviewed or Refereed Journals, San Luis Obispo, CA. Schwab, D. P. (1999). Research Methods for Organizational Studies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Publishers. Retrieved September 03, 2011, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook/nlebk_19423_AN?sid=ce3cf 93e- ecb0-4be2-97b5-a1266642d8d5@sessionmgr104&vid=2&ppid=pp_10Staffwriter (2011) .Submission, Cambridge, MA. Harvard Law Review. Massachusetts Ave Cambridge, MA.
References Stelzner, M. (2006). Writing White Papers: How to capture readers and keep them engaged. Poway, California: WhitePaperSource Publishing. pp. 214. ISBN 9780977716937Sakamuro S. & Stolley K., White Paper: Purpose and Audience, Retrieved September 18, 2011, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/546/1/Taylor, D. (n.d.). The Literature Review: A Few Tips on Conducting it. Retrieved September 03, 011,from http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specifi c- types-of-writing/literature-review.
References Rispens S. I., Three Types of White Papers – An Overview, Retrieved September 03, 2011, from, http://www.knowledgeatwork.eu/library/file/whitepapertypes.pdfWrite a literature review. (n.d.). Retrieved September 03, 2011, from http://library.ucsc.edu/help/howto/write-a- literature-review.Writing a Literature Review. (2011, August). Patrick Power Library. Retrieved September 03, 2011, from http://www.smu.ca/administration/library/litrev.html.
References Wallace S. (2009)., A Dictionary Education, Brisbane, Australia. Australia UniversityWhat is an Empirical Study. (n.d.). Retrieved September 03, 2011, from http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid =20081209132529AA4WXZi.YouTube. (2011). White paper on the future of the European transit policy. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fnH84_DTP28