INTRODUCTION Various writing types/styles may be used in Academia.At the Undergraduate Level: Less formal types, e.g.Expository NarrativeDescriptive PersuasiveAt the Graduate Level: Formal analytic styles, e.g.oAPA – American Psychological AssociationoMLA – Modern Language AssociationoCMS – Chicago Manual of Style “I write lustily and humorously. It isnt calculated; its the way I think. Ive invented a writing style that expresses who I am.” Erica Jong (American writer and feminist, 1942)
What separates graduate level writing from the undergraduate level? The written style of the paper is important. Style refers both to conventions of arrangement and layout, and to conventions of written language. Dirks (2005)A student’s writing is considered to be at graduate level if criteria such as the following aremet:The work is not just a rehashing of the research. Graduate level writing is meant to be anexercise in critical thinking and personal analysis on the part of the studentThe reason for writing is stated early and as much space as possible is used to solidify thestatementThe writing is clear and unambiguous. The reader walks away with a full understandingof the topicThe writing exhibits good mechanical skills – grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentenceconstruction, flow of ideasQuotes are used correctly Graduate writing: Taking writing to a higher level http ://custompapers.com.essays-articles/graduate-writing/
Writing at the Graduate Level Graduate Level Research Papers The most common type of research project at the graduate level is the written research paper – usually aformal essay based on an accumulation of facts gathered in the research process There is still an element of originality in that the researcher uses the available information to present a new view of the topic. “The most original authors are not so because they advance what is new; but because they put what they have to say as if it had never been said before” Johann Wolfgang Van Goethe
Important Steps in Preparing a Research Paper 1. Selecting a topic 2. Formulating a thesis 3. Preparing an outline 4. Finding information (the search strategy) 5. Evaluating resources 6. Writing the text of the paper and formulating a conclusion 7. Documenting the sources (citations) (#4, 5, 7 are important elements of this presentation)
Resources:Information for writing research papers can be found in: Academic journals Peer-review journals/articles White papers Newspapers Empirical studies Literature reviews Book review Annotated bibliographies *all of these sources are accessible on the Internet and in online courses
The Academic JournalCommonly described as:a peer-review periodical in which scholarship relating to aparticular academic discipline is publisheda forum for the introduction and presentation for scrutiny ofnew researcha forum for the critique of existing research Articles printed in academic journals typically present original research, along with review articles and book reviews. (Wikipedia)
Peer-reviewed Journal Articles Available in scholarly periodicals Are published only after rigorous scrutiny (review) by an independent panel of experts in the particular field of study, followed by the approval of a majority of these peers Alternately referred to as “refereed articles”• Note: The approval is stated in the article or is available in Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory electronic resources site. (Wikipedia)
Empirical Study A way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience, analyzed quantitatively or qualitatively Alternately referred to as “refereed articles” Characteristics of an Empirical Article:e) Empirical articles will include charts, graphs, or statistical analysis.f) Empirical research articles are usually substantial, are likely to be from 8-40 pages long.g) There is always a bibliography found at the end of the article. Empirical research articles are published in scholarly or academic journals. These journals are also called “peer-reviewed,” or “refereed” publications.
BOOK REVIEW A descriptive, critical analysis and evaluation on the quality, meaning and significance of a book. It focuses on the book’s purpose, content, and authority. (Los Angeles Valley College Library, 2011) A review is a critical evaluation of a text, event, object, or phenomenon. It makes an argument. It is a commentary that allows you to enter into dialogue and discussion with the work’s creator and with other audiences. (The Writing Center , 2011)Common Features: Gives a concise summary including perspective, argument or purpose Gives reaction to the work Suggests whether or not the audience would appreciate the work
Annotated Bibliography A list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy and quality of the sources cited. (Engle, Blumenthal, and Cosgrave, 2011)An example:Huth. E.J. (1991). How to write and publish papers in the medical sciences. 2nd ed. London: Williams and Wilkins. This compact work offers practical advice on how to make decisions about what to write and what to leave out for both novice and experienced researchers. A highly readable source
Newspaper A serial issued at stated, frequent intervals (usually daily, weekly, or semiweekly), containing news, opinions, advertisements, and other items of current, often local, interest” (Young, 1983, p.153).Characteristics of a Newspaper: General audience interested in news and• Audience current events• Print APPeArAnce Inexpensive paper, generally recycled material Current events in: politics, business, sports,• content/Focus leisure, etc. Syndicate columnists, local staff, and• Author newswire services Usually name sources• documentAtion Generally common words and simple• LAnguAge sentence structure (Valencia College, (n.d.)).
White PaperA White Paper:• Is a persuasive document that usually describes problems and how to solve them.• Is a crossbreed between a magazine article and a brochure.• Takes the objectives and educational approach of an article and weaves in persuasive corporate messages typically found in brochures• Is fact driven and contain useful information, expert opinions and iron clad logic (Sielzner, 2007).
A White Paper Allows its readers to look at that which is factual as opposed to that which is opinion. Is also an article that states an organization’s position, philosophy about a social, political ‘or other subject, or a nottoodetailed technical explanation of an architecture, framework, or product technology. Explains results or conclusions based on research methods.
Evaluating Sources(In academic writing, sources must be evaluated for suitability and reliability)Why are books and peer-reviewed articles the most preferred written sources in graduate writing?Reasons:4.More credence is given in academia to these two sources. Books and peer-reviewed articlesassure quality works consistent with the standards of the field.5.Prevent the promotion of untrue hypotheses. Other sources may have inaccurate,unproven or over-simplified information.6.Verify that a source is scholarly. This develops critical thinking skills.7.Guard against plagiarism8.They are heavily reviewed and revised by experts before being accepted for publication9..They save the graduate student research time“Determining what is scholarly is going to be a much more important issue as technology continues to be integrated in the learning environment. (Hoffman, n.d.)
Comparing Books and Peer-reviewed Articles Books Peer-reviewed ArticlesUsually an extended time for Greater speed of release forpublication – can take months, but journal articles; although severalusually takes years rewritings may be involved – usually only monthsMay sometimes not have‘current’ information. The pace of Information enclosed is usuallytechnology moves rapidly; books current – “cutting edge”may be outdated before they areprinted“Write, therefore, what you have seen, what is now and what will take place later” Rev. 1:19, NIV
REFERENCES2.Burns, C. (2007). Empirical Research: How to Recognize and Locate. Paulina June & George PollakLibrary, California State University, Fullertonhttp://users.library.fullerton.edu/cbruns/empirical_research.htm3.Engle, M., Blumenthal, A., and Cosgrave, T. (2011). How to prepare an annotated bibliography. CornellUniversity Library4.Stelzner, Michael. A. (2007) Writing white Paper’s: how to capture readers and keep them engaged.Retrieved from http://www.wringwhitepapers.co5.Valencia University (n.d.). Newspapers. Retrieved September 14th, 2011 fromhttp://faculty.valenciacollege.edu/infolit/tutorial1/formats/newspapers.htm6.Young, H. (1983). The ALA glossary of library and information science. Chicago: American LibraryAssociation.7.Hoffman, L. (n.d.) Determining Scholarly Resources. Retrieved from:http://www.louis-hoffman-virtualclassroom.com?Psychologh%20Resources/Writing%20Resources?Determini _Scholarly_Resources.htm8.Lauer, J.M., & Asher, W.J. (1988). Composition Research: Empirical Design. New York: OxfordUniversity Press.9.Los Angeles Valley College Library. (2011). How to write a book review. Retrieved fromhttp://www.lavc.edu/library/bookreview.htm10.Shuttleworth, M., (2009) What is a literature review? Experiment-Resources.com11.The Writing Center. (2011). Book reviews. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved fromhttp://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb , 9 September, 201112.Wikipedia