Writing Types


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Writing Types

  1. 1. Presented by: Ian Morris Leonard Northe Derrick Thompson Keisha Shantel Williams
  2. 2. Literature Review Peer ReviewedEmpirical Studies Journal White Paper Journal Annotated Bibliography News Paper
  3. 3. Empirical Studies An empirical study, is the use ofstatistics obtained from observation,experiment and experience “to makean indisputable point [emphasisadded] , rather than quote experts”(n.d.). Table of Content
  4. 4. Empirical Studies It looks at expected relationshipsthrough “systematic study ofrelationships between scoresobtained from cases on measures”(Schwab, 1999, p. 4).
  5. 5. Empirical Studies Three key elements are used todefine empirical research. They are:cases, measures and sores.
  6. 6. Empirical Research Components •Cases are entities •Measures are instruments •Scores (or data) represent investigated in research. used to obtain scores on the information obtained from•For example, individuals cases studied. cases on the measures •For example, items or employed. interacting in organizations questionnaires that •Researchers use these individuals complete scores to identify whether relationships exist as expected. Cases Measures Scores
  7. 7. Empirical Studies Empirical studies also use threeactivities which are necessary toconduct empirical research. Theseactivities are: measurement, designand analysis (Schwab, 1994, pp. 4-8).
  8. 8. Research Activities  Measurement • Obtains scores on measures that correspond to the concepts studied. Analysis Design • Describe scores on single •Establishes procedures to measures to identify obtain cases for study and to relationships that may exist determine how scores will be between scores across different obtained from those cases. measures.
  9. 9. Literature Review A literature review “Surveys scholarlyarticles, books and other sources…relevant to a particular issue, area ofresearch, or theory, providing adescription, summary, and criticalevaluation of each work” (n.d.).
  10. 10. Literature Review Although it can be written in theform of an annotated bibliography it“Is more than an AnnotatedBibliography” (2011).
  11. 11. Literature Review According to Dena Taylor(n.d), “More often it is part of theintroduction to an essay, researchreport, or thesis. Literature reviewhelps one develop “Informationseeking” and “Critical appraisal skills(n.d.).
  12. 12. A Good Literature Review must:  “Be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question you are developingSynthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known Identify areas of controversy in the literatureFormulate questions that need further research” (Taylor n.d.).
  13. 13. Journals  Journals are regular periodicpublications, usually dedicated to aspecific profession or discipline.
  14. 14. Peer-reviewed Journals According to : “Peer-reviewed journals (alsocalled refereed journals) are scholarly journalsthat only publish articles that have passedthrough this review process”. These reviewers(scholars, experts, or academics), must agreethat the article represents properly conductedoriginal research or writing before it can bepublished. (Cornell University Library)
  15. 15. Peer Review Journal Peer-reviewed is a process that journalsuse to ensure the articles they publishrepresent the best scholarship currentlyavailable. “The review process helpsensure that the published articles reflectsolid scholarship in their fields” RobertE. Kennedy Library (2011).
  16. 16. Peer Review Journal When an article is submitted to a peerreviewed journal, the editors send it out toother scholars in the same field (the authorspeers) to get their opinion on the quality of thescholarship, its relevance to the field, itsappropriateness for the journal, etc
  17. 17. The Peer-reviewed Process  If standards are met, the article Comment and is then suggestions are published. The scholars made and are review the article sent back for for scholarly adaptation ifArticles are writing, original needed.submitted to research, properseveral other representation ofscholars, the content in the field, ethicalexperts, or issues, biases,academics relevance, validity,(peers) in the etc.field for reviewand comment.
  18. 18. Peer-reviewed Journal For example Harvard Law Review has a 7 daywindow to receives submissions from that starts inApril, where scholarly legal arguments arereviewed and published (Harvard 2011). thesejournals must be no more than 25, 000 words(articles more than 30, 000 are not reviewed) manysubmissions are received but after rigorousexamination only a few are published.
  19. 19. Elements of a Peer- reviewed Journal  1• Scholarly journal articles often have an abstract, a descriptive summary of the article contents, before the main text of the article. 2• Scholarly journals generally have a sober, serious look. They often contain many graphs and charts but few glossy pages or exciting pictures.
  20. 20. Elements  3•Scholarly journals always cite their sources in the form of footnotes or bibliographies. These bibliographies are generally lengthy and cite other scholarly writings. 4•Articles are written by a scholar in the field or by someone who has done research in the field. The affiliations of the authors are listed, usually at the bottom of the first page or at the end of the article--universities, research institutions, think tanks, and the like. 5•The language of scholarly journals is that of the discipline covered. It assumes some technical background on the part of the reader.
  21. 21. Elements  6• The main purpose of a scholarly journal is to report on original research or experimentation in order to make such information available to the rest of the scholarly world. 7• Many scholarly journals, though by no means all, are published by a specific professional organization.
  22. 22. White Paper Description and PurposeA white paper is an authoritative report or guide that helps solve a problemUse of White Paper "White Papers are used as a means of presenting government policypreferences prior to the introduction of legislation"; as such, the "publication ofa White Paper serves to test the climate of public opinion regarding acontroversial policy issue and enables the government to gauge its probableimpact".History and Synthesis of White Paper Since the early 1990s, the term white paper has also come to refer todocuments used by businesses and think tanks as marketing or sales tools.White papers of this sort argue that the benefits of a particular technology,product or policy are superior for solving a specific problem.
  23. 23. Types of White Paper  Commercial White Papers Business benefits: Makes a business case for a certain technology or methodology. Technical: Describes how a certain technology works. Hybrid: Combines business benefits with technical details in a single document. Policy: Makes a case for a certain political solution to a societal or economic challenge. Government White Papers
  24. 24. News Paper  What is it? It is a scheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features and advertising. It Purpose: The newspaper has played an important role in keeping the public informed on current events. It gleans information from many sources, some public, such as police records, and others private, such as a government and reports it to the public.
  25. 25. Newspaper Editorial Pages: Editorials pages are foundwithin the news paper. They do not containnews, but rather reasoned opinion based onfacts.
  26. 26. Annotated Bibliography “An annotated bibliography is a list ofcitations to books, articles, anddocuments. Each citation is followed by abrief (usually about 150 words)descriptive and evaluative paragraph, theannotation.”
  27. 27. It Purpose The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader ofthe relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sourcescited” (Cornell University Library, 2011).
  28. 28. Books and Peer- reviewed Journal Why Books and Peer Review Journals Books and Peer review Journals are a great sources of scholarship. One “can find a list of extremely useful books on research, scientific ethics, writing, dissertations, and scientific careers” (Honavar, 201). In Journals, one can find an incredible source of valuable information for scholarly research.
  29. 29. References Cornell University Library (2011).,Distinguishing Scholarly Journals from Other Periodicals. Retrieved September 04 2011 from http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill20.htmlHonavar, V. (2011). Graduate research Writing and careers in computer science, Retrieved September 16 2011 from, http://www.cs.iastate.edu/~honavar/grad- advice.htmlLibrary Services (2011),Finding Peer-reviewed or Refereed Journals, San Luis Obispo, CA.Schwab, D. P. (1999). Research Methods for Organizational Studies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Publishers. Retrieved September 03, 2011, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/ebookviewer/ebook/nlebk_19423_AN?sid=ce3cf 93e-ecb0-4be2-97b5-a1266642d8d5@sessionmgr104&vid=2&ppid=pp_10Staffwriter (2011) .Submission, Cambridge, MA. Harvard Law Review.
  30. 30. References Stelzner, M. (2006). Writing White Papers: How to capture readers and keep them engaged. Poway, California: WhitePaperSource Publishing. pp. 214. ISBN 9780977716937Taylor, D. (n.d.). The Literature Review: A Few Tips on Conducting it. Retrieved September 03, 011,from http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specifi c-types-of-writing/literature-review.
  31. 31. References Write a literature review. (n.d.). Retrieved September03, 2011, from http://library.ucsc.edu/help/howto/write-a- literature-review. Writing a Literature Review. (2011, August).Patrick Power Library. Retrieved September 03,2011, from http://www.smu.ca/administration/library/litrev.html.
  32. 32. References Wallace S. (2009)., A Dictionary Education, Brisbane, Australia. Australia UniversityWhat is an Empirical Study. (n.d.). Retrieved September 03, 2011, from http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid =20081209132529AA4WXZi.