Class - X D
Natural resources are the resources
available in a nature like air, water,
sunlight, soil, minerals, forests, wild
Natural resources are of two main
types. They are renewable and nonrenewable natural resources
Those resources which cannot
Those resources which can
be replenished in a short period be replenished in a short
of time like minerals (coal,
period of time like air, water,
petroleum, natural gas, metals
sunlight, forests etc.
etc.) because they take millions
of years to be formed.
Human activities produce
a lot of waste materials which
are thrown away into the
environment. These wastes
cause pollution of natural
resources like air, water and
The Three R’s to save the environment
The three R’s to save the environment are
Reduce, Recycle and Reuse
Using less of natural resources and avoiding
wastage of natural resources.
The materials like
paper, plastic, glass, met
als etc used for making
things can again be used
for making new things
instead of synthesizing
or extracting new
paper, plastic, glass or
Using things again and
again like the plastic
bottles in which we buy
jams, pickles etc can be
again used for storing
things in the kitchen.
Need for management of natural resources
The proper management of natural resources
Judicious use of natural
resources and avoiding wastage
of natural resources.
While extracting and using
natural resources we should also
plan for the safe disposal of
wastes so that no damage is
caused to the environment
Long term planning for the use of
natural resources so that it last not
only for the present but also for
The exploitation of natural resources
should not be for the benefit of a few
people but should be distributed
equally for all.
Large number of species
Large area of land on which trees and plants grow naturally
Which live in
Animals and Birds
One of the main aim of the management of
forests and wildlife is to conserve the
biodiversity which we have inherited because
the loss of biodiversity leads to the loss of
ecological stability of the forest ecosystem.
Nature and wild life
organizations who want
to conserve and preserve
People who are
or indirectly are
Industrialists who use the
raw materials from forests
for manufacturing paper,
medicines, furniture etc.
Forest Department of the
Government who owns the
forests and controls the
resources from the forests.
People living in
forests depend on
forests for their
Importance of wildlife
i) Wildlife helps to preserve biodiversity.
ii) Wildlife helps to maintain food chains and food web.
iii) We get useful products from wildlife like food, medicines, leather,
bones, honey, lac etc.
Conservation of wildlife
i) Preserving the natural habitats of animals.
ii) Banning poaching of animals.
iii) Protecting endangered species of animals.
iv) Setting up of wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, biosphere
Sustainable development refers to a mode of
human development in which resource use
aims to meet human needs while ensuring the
sustainability of natural systems and the
environment, so that these needs can be met
not only in the present, but also for generations
The process of dealing
with or controlling
things or people.
• Reni in Garhwal, high-up in the Himalayas
during the early 1970s.
There was a dispute between the local villagers and a logging
contractor who had been allowed to fell trees in a forest close
to the village.
On a particular day, the contractor’s workers
appeared in the forest to cut the trees while
the men folk were absent.
Undeterred, the women of the village
reached the forest quickly and clasped the
tree trunks. this prevented the workers
from felling the trees. Thus the contractor
had to withdraw.
Participation of the local
people can indeed lead to the
efficient management of
The Chipko movement quickly spread
across communities and media, and forced
the government, to whom the forest
belongs, to rethink their priorities in the use
of forest produce. Experience has taught
people that the destruction of forests
affected not just the availability of forest
products, but also the quality of soil and the
sources of water.
An Example of People’s Participation in
the Management of Forests
Traditional methods of surveillance and policing had led to a complete alienation
of the people from the administration
This led to forest and land related disputes
Forest department changed it’s strategy
villagers were involved in the protection of
1,272 hectares of badly degraded sal forest.
Most of the energy needs that started with the industrial
revolution some 250 years ago have been met by the reserves of
coal and petroleum. The use of coal and petroleum and their
products in the world economy is immense. Coal is an important
fuel source as its energy is converted into other forms of energy
such as electricity, steam and coal gas.
Fuel is most commonly used in internal combustion engines for
Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels formed by the decomposition of dead plants
and animals inside the earth after several millions of years. They are non-renewable
sources of energy.
Petroleum reserves may last for about 40 years and coal reserves may last for
about 200 years.
Coal and petroleum contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. When they
are burnt, they release carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen and sulphur.
Carbon dioxide is a green house gas which causes global warming.
Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur combines with moisture in the air and produces
Fossil fuels, like, coal, lignite, petroleum and
natural gas are non renewable natural
resources. Both have an organic origin and
are called hydrocarbon fuels. Coal was
formed in nature as a solid from the remains
of the trees buried deep inside the earth,
some 500 million years ago.
Hydrocarbon fuels take millions of years to
form and because they are depleting at a
very fast rate coal and petroleum reserves
will be exhausted in the future no matter
how carefully we use them.
• The oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and carbon
monoxide are poisonous at high concentrations
and carbon dioxide is a green-house gas.
• Another way of looking at coal and petroleum is
that they are huge reservoirs of carbon and if all
of this carbon is converted to carbon dioxide,
then the amount of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere is going to increase leading to
intense global warming.
Thus, we need to use these resources judiciously.
Uses of water
Water is a basic necessity for all living things. We use
water for our daily needs, for
agriculture, transportation, construction of
buildings, roads, dams etc. Water is a natural habitat for
Human activities are affecting the availability of water
and causing pollution of water bodies.
Different methods of water harvesting
Digging pits, Ponds, lakes, Building small earthen dams or concrete check dams,
dykes, reservoirs, rooftop collecting units in houses.
The traditional rainwater harvesting method used in
Rajasthan is based on the principle of harvesting rainwater
In this method, saturated water is used for crop production
and the surface run-off water is harvested for agriculture.
This method mainly consists of an earthen embankment
(known as khadin), built across the lower slopes of the hills.
A cemented wall (known as khadin bund) is built to hold the
water in the khadin.
Water does not evaporate. Instead, it percolates into the ground
thereby resulting in the recharging of wells.
The stored water provides moisture to the vegetation in and
around the area.
Rainwater harvesting improves the quality of groundwater
by the process of natural filtration of fluorides, nitrates, and
This method of storing and utilizing water prevents soil erosion
and flooding. Thus, it is an eco-friendly method.
The stored water does not provide a breeding ground for mosquitoes
and microorganisms, unlike the stagnant water in ponds and lakes.
i) Irrigation of crops.
ii) Producing electricity.
iii) Supplying water to towns and
iv) To control floods.
displaces a large number of
people who have to be
ii) It is expensive and uses a huge
amount of public money.
iii) It causes deforestation and loss of
One of the most important river of India
Forest and wild life
Highest population of Tigers
Endangered species of Animals and
Life's of Peoples
Basic need of Water
Dam and hydropower
Causes of Pollution in river Ganga
The “holy dips” and bathes in the river.
The cremated and uncremated dead bodies.
Sewage from many cities along the river's course.
Religious offerings wrapped in non-degradable plastics.
Domestic and industrial wastes, especially from leather factories.
The Ganga Action Plan or GAP was a program launched by
RajivGandhi in April 1986 in order to reduce the pollution load
on the river. It also included the tributaries of the Ganges namely
Yamuna, Gomati, Damodar and Mahanada.
The GAP was not able to achieve its objectives, despite a
total expenditure of Rs 901.71 crore over a period of
Reasons for failure:
Inappropriate Environmental Planning.
Insignificant cooperation between Central, State and Local
Lack of local technical expert committees for monitoring
Improper mass awareness and involvement of Ganga users
in different projects.
Least political dedication and vision to save Ganga U.P.
and Bihar were not able to provide uninterrupted electricity
for running the facilities.