CELL STRUCRURE

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This slideshow shows the cell structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

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CELL STRUCRURE

  1. 1. Prokaryotic Cells <ul><li>Believed to be the first cells to evolve. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack a membrane bound nucleus and organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic material is naked in the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are only organelle. </li></ul><ul><li>Http.micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells.html </li></ul>
  2. 2. Cell Wall <ul><li>Rigid peptidoglycan - polysaccharide coat that gives the cell shape and surround the cytoplasmic mem-brane. Offers protection from environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html </li></ul>
  3. 3. Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Layer of phospho-lipids and proteins that separates cytoplasm from external environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates flow of material in and out of cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Also known as proto-plasm is location of growth, metabolism, and replication. Is a gel-like matrix of water, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, and gases and contains cell structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ribosomes <ul><li>Translate the genetic code into proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Free-standing and dis-tributed throughout the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nucleoid <ul><li>Region of the cytoplasm where chromosomal DNA is located. Usually a singular, circular chromosome. Smaller circles of DNA called plasmids are also located in cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/bacteriacell.html </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mesosome <ul><li>Infolding of cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Possible role in cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases surface area. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic pigments or respira-tory chains here. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://www.med.sc.edu:85/fox/protobact.jpg </li></ul>
  8. 8. Eukaryotic Cells <ul><li>“ True nucleus”; contained in a mem-brane bound structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane bound organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought to have evolved from prokaryotic cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Http:micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animalcell.html </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ribosomes <ul><li>Translate the genetic code into proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Found attached to the Rough endoplasmic reticulum or free in the cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>60% RNA and 40% protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/ribosomes.html </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ribosome Http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/ribosome.htm
  11. 11. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Network of continuous sacs, studded with ribosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactures, pro-cesses, and transports proteins for export from cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous with nuclear envelope. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cels/animal/endoplasmicreticulum.html </li></ul>
  12. 12. Endoplasmic Reticulum Http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/ribosome.htm
  13. 13. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Similar in appearance to rough ER, but without the ribosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in the production of lipids, carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification of drugs and poisons. </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolizes calcium. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/endoplasmicreticulum.html </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lysosome <ul><li>Single membrane bound structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains digestive enzymes that break down cellular waste and debris and nutrients for use by the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/lysosome/html </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lysosome Http://anatomy.med.unsw.edu.au/teach/phph1004/1998/WWWlect3/sld005.htm
  16. 16. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Modifies proteins and lipids made by the ER and prepares them for export from the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Encloses digestive enyzymes into membranes to form lysosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/golgiapparatus.html </li></ul>
  17. 17. Golgi Apparatus Http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/golgi.htm
  18. 18. Mitochondrion <ul><li>Membrane bound organelles that are the site of cellular respiration (ATP production) </li></ul><ul><li>http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/mitochondrion/html </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mitochondrion Http://anatomy.med.unsw.edu.au/teach/phph1004/1998/WWWlect3/sld005.htm
  20. 20. Nucleus <ul><li>Double membrane-bound control center of cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Separates the genetic material from the rest of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/nucleus/html </li></ul>
  21. 21. Nucleus Http://cellbio.utmb.edu/cellbio/nucleus.htm
  22. 22. Parts of the nucleus: <ul><li>Chromatin - genetic material of cell in its non-dividing state. </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus - dark-staining structure in the nucleus that plays a role in making ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope - double membrane structure that separates nucleus from cytoplasm. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Plasma Membrane <ul><li>Phospholipid bi-layer that separates the cell from its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable to allow substances to pass into and out of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Http:micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animal/plasmamembrane.html </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>External appendages from the cell membrane that aid in locomotion of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia also help to move substance past the membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/ciliaandflagella.html </li></ul>
  25. 25. Centrioles <ul><li>Found only in animal cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-replicating </li></ul><ul><li>Made of bundles of microtubules. </li></ul><ul><li>Help in organizing cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/animas/centrioles.html </li></ul>
  26. 26. Microfilaments <ul><li>Solid rods of globular proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Important component of cytoskeleton which offers support to cell structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/animals/microfilaments.html </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cell Wall <ul><li>Protects and gives rigidity to plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Formed from fibrils of cellulose molecules in a “matrix” of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/cellwall.html </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chloroplast <ul><li>Site of photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane bound structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/chloroplast.html </li></ul>
  29. 29. Chloroplast Www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/C/Chloroplasts.html
  30. 30. Vacuole <ul><li>Plants have large central vacuoles that store water and nutrients needed by the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Help support the shape of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/plants/vacuole.html </li></ul>
  31. 31. Animal Vacuole Www.puc.edu/Faculty/Bryan_Ness/vacuole_TEM.htm
  32. 32. Plant Cell Vacuole Www.bio.mtu.edu/campbell/plant.htm
  33. 33. Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell Http://:micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/html
  34. 34. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells.html

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