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  1. 1. Tissues <ul><li>Groups of cells that are similar in structure </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a common function </li></ul><ul><li>4 types: epithelial, muscle, nervous, connective </li></ul>Epithelia , Nerve , Connective , Muscle , Credits
  2. 2. Nerve <ul><li>Makes up the brain, spinal cord, and nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate and control body functions </li></ul><ul><li>Branching cells </li></ul><ul><li>Long cell processes </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors </li></ul>Tissues , Neurons
  3. 3. Neurons <ul><li>Branching cells </li></ul><ul><li>Extended cell processes </li></ul><ul><li>Generate and conduct nerve impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of supporting cells </li></ul>Nerve
  4. 4. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Found everywhere in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Originate from mesenchyme </li></ul><ul><li>Have varying degrees of vascularity </li></ul><ul><li>Largely nonliving extra cellular matrix </li></ul>Tissues , Proper , Blood , Bone , Cartilage
  5. 5. Bone (Osseous Tissue) <ul><li>Hard, calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Osteocytes lie in lacunae </li></ul><ul><li>Very well vascularized </li></ul>Connective , Blood , Proper , Cartilage
  6. 6. Blood <ul><li>Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Contained within blood vessels </li></ul>Connective tissue , Bone , Proper , Cartilage
  7. 7. Proper <ul><li>Two subclasses: loose connective tissues and dense connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Type of connective tissue </li></ul>Connective , Bone , Blood , Cartilage , Loose , Dense
  8. 8. Loose Connective Tissue <ul><li>Three subclasses: areolar, adipose, and reticular </li></ul><ul><li>Type of proper connective tissue </li></ul>Connective , Proper , Dense , Areolar , Adipose , Reticular ,
  9. 9. Areolar Connective Tissue <ul><li>Gel-like matrix with all three fiber types </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white blood cells </li></ul>Connective , Proper , Loose , Adipose , Reticular
  10. 10. Adipose Connective Tissue <ul><li>Matrix like areolar </li></ul><ul><li>Very sparse </li></ul><ul><li>Closely packed adiposities </li></ul>Connective , Proper , Loose , Areolar , Reticular
  11. 11. Reticular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Network together in a typical loose ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular cells lie on the network </li></ul>Connective , Proper , Loose , Areolar , Adipose
  12. 12. Dense Connective Tissue <ul><li>Consists of two subclasses: dense regular and dense irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Type of loose tissue </li></ul>Connective , Proper , Loose , Dense regular , Dense irregular
  13. 13. Dense Regular <ul><li>Primarily parallel collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Few elastin fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Major cell type is the fibroblast </li></ul>Connective , Proper , Dense , Dense irregular
  14. 14. Dense Irregular <ul><li>Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Some elastic fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Major cell type is the fibroblast </li></ul>Connective , Proper , Dense , Dense Regular
  15. 15. Cartilage <ul><li>Stands up to both tension and compression </li></ul><ul><li>Has qualities intermediate between dense connective tissue and bone </li></ul>Tissues , Connective , Hyaline , Elastic , Fibrocartilage
  16. 16. Hyaline Cartilage <ul><li>Amorphous but firm matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Collagen fibers form an imperceptible network </li></ul><ul><li>Chondroblasts produce the matrix and when mature lie in lacunae </li></ul>Connective , Cartilage , Elastic , Fibrocartilage
  17. 17. Elastic Cartilage <ul><li>Very similar to hyaline </li></ul><ul><li>Has more elastic fibers in its matrix </li></ul>Connective , Cartilage , Hyaline , Fibrocartilage
  18. 18. Fibrocartilage <ul><li>Matrix similar to but less firm than in hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Thick collagen fibers predominate </li></ul>Connective , Cartilage , Hyaline , Elastic
  19. 19. Muscle <ul><li>Highly cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Well vascularized tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Possess my filaments </li></ul>Tissues , Skeletal , Smooth , Cardiac
  20. 20. Skeletal Muscle <ul><li>Long, cylindrical, multinucleate cells </li></ul><ul><li>Obvious striations </li></ul>Cardiac , Smooth , Muscle
  21. 21. Smooth <ul><li>Spindle-shaped with central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>No striation </li></ul><ul><li>Cells arranged closely to form sheets </li></ul>Skeletal , Cardiac , Muscle
  22. 22. Cardiac <ul><li>Branching, striated, generally uninucleate cells that interdigitate at specialized junctions </li></ul>Muscle , Skeletal , Smooth
  23. 23. Epithelia <ul><li>Classified by the number of cell layers present and shape of its cells </li></ul>Tissues , Stratified , Simple
  24. 24. Simple Epithelia <ul><li>Single cell layer </li></ul><ul><li>Subclasses: Columnar, Squamous, Cuboidal, Pseudostratified </li></ul>Tissues , Epithelia , Stratified , Simple Columnar , Simple Cuboidal , Simple Squamous , Pseudostratified
  25. 25. Simple Columnar Epithelium <ul><li>Single layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Some cells bear cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Layer may contain mucus-secreting unicellular glands </li></ul>Tissues , Epithelia , Simple , Simple Columnar , Simple Cuboidal , Simple Squamous , Pseudostratified
  26. 26. Simple Squamous Epithelium <ul><li>Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Sparse cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest of the epithelia </li></ul>Epithelia , Simple , Simple Columnar , Simple Cuboidal , Pseudostratified
  27. 27. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium <ul><li>Single layer of cube like cells with large, spherical central nuclei </li></ul>Epithelia , Simple , Simple Columnar , Simple Squamous , Pseudostratified
  28. 28. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium <ul><li>Single layer of cells of differing heights </li></ul><ul><li>Some not reaching the free surface </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclei seen at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>May contain goblet cells and bear cilia </li></ul>Epithelia , Simple , Simple Cuboidal , Simple Columnar , Simple Squamous
  29. 29. Stratified Epithelia <ul><li>Two or more cell layers </li></ul><ul><li>Subclasses: Stratified Cuboidal, Stratified Columnar, Stratified Squamous, Transitional </li></ul>Epithelia , Simple , Stratified Cuboidal , Stratified Columnar , Stratified Squamous , Transitional
  30. 30. Stratified Cuboidal <ul><li>Very rare </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the ducts of glands </li></ul>Epithelia , Simple , Stratified , Stratified Columnar , Stratified Squamous , Transitional
  31. 31. Stratified Columnar <ul><li>Limited distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the pharnyx, male urethra, and the lining of some glandular ducts </li></ul>Epithelia , Stratified , Stratified Cuboidal , Stratified Squamous , Transitional
  32. 32. Stratified Squamous <ul><li>Thick membrane composed of several cell layers </li></ul><ul><li>Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active </li></ul><ul><li>Surface cells are flattened </li></ul>Epithelia , Stratified , Stratified Cuboidal , Stratified Columnar , Transitional
  33. 33. Transitional Epithelium <ul><li>Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal </li></ul><ul><li>Basal cells cuboidal or columnar </li></ul><ul><li>Surface cells dome shaped or squamous like </li></ul>Epithelia , Stratified , Stratified Cuboidal , Stratified Squamous , Stratified Columnar
  34. 34. Credits <ul><li>Neurons picture- </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue- </li></ul><ul><li>Proper ct slide- </li></ul><ul><li>Loose ct- </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular ct- </li></ul><ul><li>Dense ct- </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Dense ir- </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle- </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified cuboidal- </li></ul><ul><li>Peace sign- </li></ul>Tissues