Structure What is a paragraph? A combination of related sentences which aim to develop the key idea of the paragraph. What types of paragraphs are there in an academic essay? Introductory, body, concluding paragraphs What is the function of the first paragraph? -to paraphrase the rubric -outline the plan of the essay -present the writer’s position, point of view or thesis
Structure What is the thesis statement in the essay? Such films make violence appear entertaining, exciting and even something to be copied. What do we call the key idea of the paragraph? Topic sentence Are topic sentences general or specific? They tend to be general Where does it go in the sentence? It can come at the beginning, the end and even at the middle? Identify topic sentences in every paragraph
Structure What are supporting sentences? specific and detailed, providing facts and example, evidence. they answer the questions the reader will develop in their mind after reading your topic sentence Is the whole essay a logical transition from one paragraph to another or just a group of non-related paragraphs? Logically-related whole
Structure How can we link all the paragraphs in a logical sequence? That depends on the position of the topic sentence Let’s read the first paragraph where the topic sentence comes first How are the first and second paragraphs connected in this case? With the last sentence of the first paragraph that acts as a connection to link the information with that coming up in the next paragraph Let’s read the paragraph where the topic sentence comes last Supporting sentences build up arguments and examples to make a case for the main idea contained at the end
Content All the questions raised in the rubric are to be answered, otherwise the essay will leave a feeling of being incomplete.
Register-Academic style Formal words Major cities Passive constructions Violence is shown in films, to be copied, heroes are shown to be copied, what is needed, must be prevented General nouns concern, trend, development, problems, reality action
Register-Academic style Noun phrases with prepositions -cause of concern, sense of reality -consequences of violent acts Hedging language It seems to be increasingly clear The government should regulate the films industry Producers must be prevented from Films could emphasise the tragic consequences of violent acts This would educate people Violence can bring serious social problems
Register-Academic style Signposting However, it seems to be increasingly clear; First of all They therefore lose their sense of reality Heroes are shown as people to be admired even though they are very violent characters and so the levels of violence increase, especially in major cities throughout the world The government should regulate the films industry on the one hand, and provide better education on the other To conclude Attributive adjectives real consequences, worrying trend, violent characters, impressionable people, aggressive behaviour, tragic consequences serious social problems
Register-Academic style Noun phrases with the main headword After the headword Violence in films (where) problems in our society. people to be admired, Such films make violence appear entertaining, exciting and even something to be copied the only way to improve this situation
Criteria Structure (5 points) Does it follow a clear plan of organization? Does it offer effective support for the ideas it puts forward? Is there a clear relationship between all the parts and the whole essay? Content (5 points) Does it answer the question that is asked? Accuracy (5 points) Does it use appropriate and accurate grammatical constructions, and vocabulary Register (5 points) Is it written in an informal style? Variety of the language used (5 points) Does it use varied and ambitious grammar and vocabulary?
Presentations /Essays Many bad presentations have too much repetition or unnecessary information. All irrelevant information must be cut down Successful presentations are easy to follow because they are well organised Effective presentations have their main ideas organised into three or four points/in essay into three or 4 paragraphs The main points/topic sentences can be framed as questions to which both readers and listeners ( if the questions are good ones) will want to know the answers. Both good presentations and essays don’t end abruptly. They should leave their readers and listeners with a clear summary of everything you have covered.