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Visual Architecting

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How we think of architecture shapes what we do as architects, and what we do, shapes how we think of architecture. We will explore our conception of architecture in this dual sense, with an emphasis on visualization and visual expression of design (intention and reflection).

Presented at SATURN 2017

How we think of architecture shapes what we do as architects, and what we do, shapes how we think of architecture. We will explore our conception of architecture in this dual sense, with an emphasis on visualization and visual expression of design (intention and reflection).

Presented at SATURN 2017

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Visual Architecting

  1. 1. Ruth Malan Visual Architecting Ruth Malan
  2. 2. Talk Outline
  3. 3. ’92
  4. 4. ’03
  5. 5. Title: short noun phrase Context: describe the forces at play, probably in tension Decision: describe our response to these forces Status: proposed, accepted, deprecated or superseded Consequences: describe the resulting context, after applying the decision — Michael Nygard, Documenting Architecture Decisions, Nov 2011 Decision Template
  6. 6. Architecturally Significant Decisions! @RuthMalan #SATURN17
  7. 7. @RuthMalan #SATURN17 “If you think good architecture is expensive, try bad architecture” – Brian Foote
  8. 8. Big Ball of Mud Architecture “Big Ball of Mud”, Brian Foote and Joseph Yoder http://www.laputan.org/mud/ @RuthMalan #SATURN17
  9. 9. Big Ball of Mud Architecture “You reach for the banana, and get the entire gorilla” – Michael Stahl
  10. 10. Actually, it looks more like this
  11. 11. • Isolate impact of change • Isolate arenas of uncertainty and experiment • Increase reversibility, replaceability, • Increase responsiveness/adaptability • Reduce complexity – Divide and conquer – we have to keep it crisp, disentangled, and simple if we refuse to be crushed by the complexities of our own making...” – Dijkstra Modular Structure(s):  Cost of Change!
  12. 12. ’03
  13. 13. ’92
  14. 14. @RuthMalan #SATURN17 Software architecture refers to the high level structures of a software system [..] Each structure comprises software elements, relations among them, and properties of both elements and relations. — wikipedia/Clements et al
  15. 15. “Everything that needs to be said has already been said. But since no one was listening, everything must be said again. — André Gide @RuthMalan #SATURN17
  16. 16. We design to get more what we want!
  17. 17. So about those elements and relations and those (much maligned) box and line diagrams… How do we design (Better) Boxes?
  18. 18. “I go along with the natural makeup”… “when I come to the tricky parts, I slow down” — Chuang Tzu: “The Dexterous Butcher” @RuthMalan #SATURN17 Finding the (Natural) Shape
  19. 19. — Ambrose Bierce, Devil’s Dictionary ABATIS, n. [1.] Rubbish in front of a fort, to prevent the rubbish outside from molesting the rubbish inside. Image: Engineering and the Mind’s Eye “Design things to make their performance as insensitive to the unknown or uncontrollable external influence as practical.” — Eb Rechtin
  20. 20. Image: alistair.cockburn.us/Hexagonal+architecture Separation of Concerns Hexagonal Architecture Ports and adapters
  21. 21. As programmers we deal with abstractions all the time and we have to invent them in order to solve our problems — Michael Feathers Abstractions
  22. 22. Image: martinfowler.com/bliki/BoundedContext.html Bounded Contexts in DDD Separation of Concerns
  23. 23. Components and Responsibilities 27 @RuthMalan #SATURN17
  24. 24. Factor and Refactor “The responsibility of architecture is the architecture of responsibility.” — Jan van Til/Tom Graves @RuthMalan #SATURN17 Does this component have a cohesive identity or purpose — a single responsibility at the level of abstraction of the abstraction?
  25. 25. The architect’s SCARS: • Separation of Concerns • crisp and resilient Abstractions • balanced distribution of Responsibilities • strive to Simplify — Grady Booch Booch #SATURN16Fundamentals that remain fundamental
  26. 26. “disorder is easier and more permanent than order, which is difficult and temporary” — Jeremy Campbell Separate Concerns — and keep separate
  27. 27. Boundaries: Conway’s Law “Any organization that designs a system (defined broadly) will produce a design whose structure is a copy of the organization's communication structure.” —Melvyn Conway (in 1968!) Keep Concerns Separate
  28. 28. “The defining properties of any system, are properties of the whole, which none of the parts have. If you take the system apart, it loses its essential properties” — Russell Ackoff
  29. 29. trying to be an airplane” — Wim Roelandts
  30. 30. Minimalist Architecture 35 Decisions that must be made from a system perspective • system outcomes • across boundaries Dana Bredemeyer
  31. 31. Structure and Behavior Posit structure Explore behavior Revise structure
  32. 32. Structure and Behavior Posit structure Explore behavior Revise structure How will this work? What is it made (up) of? How does this contribute to/inhibit desired properties?
  33. 33. Remember! Responsibilities! 38 Posit responsibilities Refine as explore behavior and different views Patterns Metaphors Experience Existing stuff
  34. 34. “at least they’re looking at it” • sketch prototype • try alternatives on the cheap • “mob modeling” • “test drive” @RuthMalan #SATURN17 Visual models
  35. 35. “Architects must have self-repairing egos” — Dana Bredemeyer @RuthMalan #SATURN17
  36. 36. “A change of perspective is worth 80 IQ points” — Alan Kay
  37. 37. “You don't understand something until you understand it more than one way” — Marvin Minsky Image: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marvin_Minsky#/media/File:Marvin_Minsky_at_OLPC b.jpg
  38. 38. “If you haven’t thought of three possibilities, you haven’t thought enough.” — Jerry Weinberg Rule of Three
  39. 39. What ARCHITECTURE STRUCTURE Logical Conceptual Execution
  40. 40. Design across “Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.” — Steve Jobs
  41. 41. What ARCHITECTURE STRUCTURE interfaces elements and relationships How BEHAVIOR Logical Conceptual
  42. 42. What (system view) HowWhat (user view) SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE STRUCTURALBEHAVIORAL CAPABILITIESCONTEXT Why v v How well FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES architecturally significant mechanisms “Design quality is not a property of the code. It's a joint property of the code and the context in which it exists.” – Sarah Mei
  43. 43. Architecturally significant? The demands (forces, properties, …) on the system that are challenging, push the limits, require design attention
  44. 44. Source: Martin Fowler http://martinfowler.com/articles/lmax.html LMAX Disruptor Mechanism Challenges: A trading platform needs very low latency - trades have to be processed quickly because the market is moving rapidly. A retail platform adds complexity because it has to do this for lots of people.
  45. 45. “The Federalist Papers are arguments that support different parts of the design of the Constitution.” – Alan Kay, 1995
  46. 46. Federalist 51 addresses • separation of powers • checks and balances
  47. 47. 52
  48. 48. 53
  49. 49. Take note(s)! Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks Develop and share theory • of operation (interactions, resolution of forces, outcomes) • of relation of structure to function/properties
  50. 50. 55 System Design Intention (what should be) System Design Reflection (what is)
  51. 51. Static structure
  52. 52. from Pollock
  53. 53. to Kandinsky?
  54. 54. Your Code as a Crime Scene http://www.adamtornhill.com
  55. 55. Your Code as a Crime Scene http://www.adamtornhill.com
  56. 56. 61 System Design Intention (what should be) System Design Reflection (what is)
  57. 57. Context System-in-Context (use, dev, ops) System (Ecosystem) Architecture structure and mechanisms “Requirements” design of system capabilities Strategy ecosystem interventions "Always design a thing by considering it in its next larger context" —Eliel Saarinen
  58. 58. Architecturally Significant — also: Structurally significant • Organizing structure • Architecturally significant mechanisms • Structural integrity and sustainability Strategically significant • game shapers and game changers What is make or break? What impacts how we compete? "I wasn't the one pushing things in the wrong direction, but I should have been the one to stop it." — Chad Fowler
  59. 59. Just enough • Not “big design” that we just spread out over time • using judgment, assessing what’s architecturally significant • where do we need “cognitive assist” • to “see,” to draw out (assumptions, relationships,…) • try out alternatives cheaply to decide where to run code experiments to test out ideas • where do we need to work together • involve others, convey and persuade, inform and coach by showing how we resolve interplay of forces and context to create solutions, …
  60. 60. SATURN 2017 Visual Architecting @RuthMalan Bredemeyer Consulting

Editor's Notes

  • I can only say that in accepting this award, I am standing in for and on behalf of everyone who partnered and worked with me over the years I In particular, share this recognition with Dana Bredemeyer, and with everyone who recommended me for this award, for each has worked with me, and so contributed immensely to my experience and what I bring to others.
  • we’re going to talk about architecture from the inside out — defining concerns at center of how we think about architecture — and while 30 minutes is way too long to listen to me talk, it’s also not nearly long enough to back out to a fully encompassing view of architecture and what architects do, especially since I also promised to relate our discussion to visual architecting and how we give ourselves a visual boost to our embodied cognition and team cognition in the wild

    wind back time to 1992
  • asks Ralph Johnson
  • we know what to do with decisions — or we will after Michael Keeling and Joe Runde’s talk at 1:00
    very much like the patterns template that Chris Richardson described so well yesterday
  • <sumptuous emoluments>
    and if you want to know how much the software community cares about architects and/or architecturally significant decisions, we see it quantified there — it’s 35 retweets
  • significant — cost of change — Kevlin drew our attention to this in the opening keynote on Tuesday
  • if you haven’t read it, go there, print it off — leave it conspicuously on
  • protect by not naming the source!
  • isolation zones — uncertainty and experiment
    "The price of reliability is the pursuit of the utmost simplicity” – Hoare
  • “I define architecture as a word we use …when we want to puff it up to sound important” — Martin Fowler

    Ralph Johnson: architecture is shared understanding among the developers which includes

    Sometimes we just need to get a clue, and this talk has a bucket full. Ruth Malan explores the playful idea of a clue bucket (so that we can reach in and get a clue when we need one). Ruth considers sources of design inspiration—along with a collection of design guides, principles, tips, and heuristics—which she contextualizes by outlining the kinds of challenges the architect addresses.
  • Sometimes we just need to get a clue, and this talk has a bucket full. Ruth Malan explores the playful idea of a clue bucket (so that we can reach in and get a clue when we need one). Ruth considers sources of design inspiration—along with a collection of design guides, principles, tips, and heuristics—which she contextualizes by outlining the kinds of challenges the architect addresses.
  • That’s an accent, honey
  • more than we get by default; when we aren’t paying attention; don’t bring experience to bear
  • Boxes — how we render abstractions that are key building blocks / architectural elements or significant chunks or components that give shape to our system

    one design will meet a set of goals better than another design
  • better design intuition

    natural structures — like rivers and mountains, or organs like heart and lungs — don’t give us “obvious boundaries” — we have to invent them… but there are clues … where the landscape or terrain shifts …

    Maps... navigation; location; planning
    But we are designing; shaping; deciding
    Not simply cartographers of a landscape; deciding where to create boundaries -- sure, trying to find the natural contours; but we're assessing alternatives and thinking them up!

    Natural fit - to context (seams and cleavages in host systems; looking at distribution -- physical world is real af ,.. latency, intruders; failures….

    Zhuang Zhou, often known as Zhuangzi, was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought.
    leading philosopher representing the Taoist strain in Chinese thought.

    Cook Ting was cutting up an ox for Lord Wen-hui. As every touch of his hand, every heave of his shoulder, every move of his feet, every thrust of his knee — zip! zoop! He slithered the knife along with a zing, and all was in perfect rhythm, as though he were performing the dance of the Mulberry Grove or keeping time to the Ching-shou music.
    “Ah, this is marvelous!” said Lord Wen-hui. “Imagine skill reaching such heights!”
    Cook Ting laid down his knife and replied, “What I care about is the Way, which goes beyond skill. When I first began cutting up oxen, all I could see was the ox itself. After three years I no longer saw the whole ox. And now — now I go at it by spirit and don’t look with my eyes. Perception and understanding have come to a stop and spirit moves where it wants. I go along with the natural makeup, strike in the big hollows, guide the knife through the big openings, and following things as they are. So I never touch the smallest ligament or tendon, much less a main joint.
    “A good cook changes his knife once a year — because he cuts. A mediocre cook changes his knife once a month — because he hacks. I’ve had this knife of mine for nineteen years and I’ve cut up thousands of oxen with it, and yet the blade is as good as though it had just come from the grindstone. There are spaces between the joints, and the blade of the knife has really no thickness. If you insert what has no thickness into such spaces, then there’s plenty of room — more than enough for the blade to play about it. That’s why after nineteen years the blade of my knife is still as good as when it first came from the grindstone.
    “However, whenever I come to a complicated place, I size up the difficulties, tell myself to watch out and be careful, keep my eyes on what I’m doing, work very slowly, and move the knife with the greatest subtlety, until — flop! the whole thing comes apart like a clod of earth crumbling to the ground. I stand there holding the knife and look all around me, completely satisfied and reluctant to move on, and then I wipe off the knife and put it away.”
    “Excellent!” said Lord Wen-hui. “I have heard the words of Cook Ting and learned how to care for life!”
  • “Yeah -- best case you have 1 place to change instead of N, worst case you have N + 1 places ;-)” -- @schmonz on adapters

    Fort design evolved as canon firing range and other weapons capabilities evolved… and with each advance in one, pressure was on to advance the other, to gain advantage…

    why resilience is a watch word for us… ability to sense recover respond and out maneuver
  • Our Abstractions are well abstract… so we draw them as boxes and these boxes get their meaning from what we mean by them

    “Programming is the breaking of one big impossible task into several very small possible tasks.” - Jazzwant

    “Software is built on abstractions. Pick the right ones, and programming will flow naturally from design; modules will have small and simple interfaces; and new functionality will more likely fit in without extensive reorganization. Pick the wrong ones, and programming will be a series of nasty surprises”
    — Daniel Jackson

  • ddd domain driven design
    how do we do that? Look for the natural structure, the natural interstices — and “when I come to the tricky parts, I slow down”

    As you try to model a larger domain, it gets progressively harder to build a single unified model. Different groups of people will use subtly different vocabularies in different parts of a large organization. The precision of modeling rapidly runs into this, often leading to a lot of confusion. Typically this confusion focuses on the central concepts of the domain. Early in my career I worked with a electricity utility - here the word "meter" meant subtly different things to different parts of the organization: was it the connection between the grid and a location, the grid and a customer, the physical meter itself (which could be replaced if faulty). These subtle polysemes could be smoothed over in conversation but not in the precise world of computers. Time and time again I see this confusion recur with polysemes like "Customer" and "Product".
    DDD recognizes that we've learned that "total unification
    of the domain model for a large system will not be
    feasible or cost-effective" [1]. So instead DDD divides
    up a large system into Bounded Contexts, each of
    which can have a unified model - essentially a way of
    structuring MultipleCanonicalModels.
    -- Martin Fowler

    Implementing Domain-Driven Design(Hardcover)
    by Vaughn Vernon

    http://martinfowler.com/bliki/BoundedContext.html

    Sun Tsu Art of War
  • Our Abstractions are well abstract… so we draw them as boxes and these boxes get their meaning from what we mean by them

    so we need to write down what we mean by them

    amazed that we think we agree, when we use a named abstractions, but our assumptions and mental model can differ substantively…

    CRCs 89 Beck and Cunningham
  • fundamentals remain fundamental mne·mon·ic — scars

    SCARS — what we get from experience, “You have a point, you can take it out of my back now!”

    and in particular, architecting impacts many people, who’ll all have a better idea


    In 1982, Edsger Dijkstra wrote another classic paper entitled On the role of scientific thought. in which he introduced the term: The Separation of Concerns.
    http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/EWD/ewd04xx/EWD447.PDF



  • Jeremy Campbell, GRAMMATICAL MAN: Information, Entropy, Language and Life

    Systems evolve – we’re constantly adapting them.
    Complexity from accrual
    Complexity from mess

    Accidental complexity
    Versus inherent complexity
  • paraphrase as “if the org arch and the system arch are at odds, the org architecture wins — overrides architect’s intent and determines actual structure of the system
    let your team boundaries underscore the natural and determined/imposed boundaries of the system; if you want to separate and keep them separate, give them to different teams

    Isolation is the most important trait. It is the foundation for many of the high-level benefits in microservices. But it is probably also the trait that has the biggest impact on your design and architecture. It will, and should, slice up the whole architecture, and therefore it needs to be considered from day one. It will even impact the way you break up and organize the teams and their responsibilities, as Melvyn Conway discovered and was later turned into Conway’s Law in 1967
    https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/defining-a-reactive-microservice


    “in technology we rarely start from zero. The choices we make persist in the software we create.  As long as that software exists, it’s organizational memory. It makes some things easy and other things hard. Software isn’t a mechanical thing. In an odd way it’s alive. It grows. When we modify it, it reacts to us. Because of its presence, its value, and its constraints, we react to it.
     
    I see our relationship to software as a symbiotic relations”
    —Michael Feathers

    Homomorphism?

    “The odd thing about this split between business and development is that you can see it in the code. One of the key insights in software development is Conway’s Law. It states that the structure of what we produce ends up mirroring the structure of the organizations that produce it. Conway’s Law is a deep insight and there is much more to say about it but with regard to the business/development split it tells us that we should expect poor quality software when there’s a handoff or any gap in knowledge between groups.

    Once you understand the Conway’s Law many things that seem surprising about software development make sense. When many teams work in the same code base, able to touch any part of it, there’s a tendency toward the Tragedy of the Commons. When individual teams concentrate on their own area of the code, the code reacts by modularizing over time.  Process impacts code too. Frankly, everything does. This makes it important for us to have awareness of these effects. “
    http://www.r7krecon.com/#!provocation/gfqa5

    Code adjusts to us and we adjust to code. Code tends to mirror our team structure, and we create structures to deal with the effects of code - we create customer support, quality assurance and maintenance organizations. If code and organization interact at this deep level, the way we form teams and the way we work are vitally important.
     
    When we ask what the code needs, we arrive at the insight that it needs different expertise at different times.
    http://www.r7krecon.com/#!implications/t2tbw

    “You always ship your organization” — feathers
  • you for example are a system, a biological organism, and you consist of parts, your heart, your lungs, stomach, pancreas, and so on, each of which can affect your behavior or your property

    each part of the system, when it affects the system, is dependent for its effect on some other part, in other words, the parts are interdependent
    no part of a system, or collection of parts of a system, has an independent effect on it. the way the heart affects you depends on what the lungs are doing and the brain and so forth. the parts are all interconnected. Therefore, the system is a whole that cannot be divided into independent parts

    very important implications that are generally overlooked

    the essential or defining properties of a system are properties of the whole which none of its parts have
    for example, car — essential property is it can carry you from one place to another; not part of a car can do that — the wheel can’t, the axle can’t, the motor can’t even carry itself from one place to another, but the car can

    you have life, none of your parts live; you can write, your hand can’t write — that’s easy to demonstrate — cut off your hand and see if it can write

    when a system is taken apart, it loses its essential properties


    if disassemble car in this room, even though have every part, its not a car, because system isn’t sum of behavior of its parts, it’s a product of their interaction

    and properties emerge from parts and interactions














  • “Defining identity not in any one of parts” — Russell Ackoff

    If achieve a nirvana of decoupling and independence, we dont have a system — or you have micro services that have grown into their ambitions to be systems


    Laugh at microservices integrated at enterprise database but
    Ddd 360 view of customer--because we had independently evolving views of "the customer" which flommuxes customers
  • trying to get more what we want, while doing as little as possible!!
    Why? Enable; teams; cognitive traction; organizational traction; isolation zones - experiment; scale; fail;
    Address challenges; desired outcomes - how are we going to do that? How do we convince ourselves it is worth trying? How do we make it better? What even is better? What do we have to give up to get that? Is it worth it? How will we convince ourselves? How will we know?
    What forces do we need to take into account? How do they shape space? Resolve tensions; balance; tradeoffs
    How does this change across contexts?
    How do we make it simpler? Do we need to do this? What if we just not? If we do this, what could we remove?
  • stake in ground — revisit and refactor and revise and try out other alternatives

    when assemble IKEA or potter Barn shelves or what have you, don’t tighten first screw put in; put a set in and move to fit before tighten, and tighten all somewhat rather than just one

    design across the views; we’re just looking at a simplified pass through architecting here, but we’ll come back and update as we learn from other views, too

  • When to Model?
    To support reasoning:
    limitations of the human mind/complexity of the subject of inquiry
    difficult to keep track of all dimensions/variables at the same time
    make relationships among factors/variables explicit
    reveal the structure
    explore and illuminate dynamics
    draw on analogies and models or theories from other domains
    To support collaboration:
    facilitate understanding
    lead more structured discussions
    discuss specifics in the context of the "big picture"
    To support experimentation:
    modeling effort is small, in comparison with the magnitude of the outcome
    perform sensitivity analysis
    test assumptions/beliefs
    To support persuasion and influence (visual rhetoric):
    improves confidence (team: "we can do it"; stakeholders: "they demonstrate they know what they're up against/need to do")
    the power has influenced our idiom: "I see what you mean," "it draws people in"
    interesting


    To observe (more attentively)
    To study, think, reason, to puzzle things out
    To record
    to think longer, harder
    to show, to teach
    To invent, to combine, to make (new) connections
    To test ideas
    thought experiments
    To persuade

  • “Good judgment comes from experience, and experience comes from bad judgment.”  -- Rita Mae Brown (The same or a closely similar quote is attributed to too many earlier writers to list, including Will Rogers.)
  • What do we do — selective attention and bubbles?

    move to different PoV — value of the process! not to be a big framework thing but scaffolding; and reminder of where we can go (next) to take a different look, etc.
    Also, a matter of discipline — self-discipline, and discipline of engineering — probe, criticism, come up with alternatives, model, reason, come up with counter arguments

    pick another property as driving requirement,pick a trend and see what new requirements come up, change an assumption,
    switch views
    bring on other people — diversity; also stakeholders outside team

    sequence to communication diagram — emphasizes/punches up topology

  • We see things not as they are, but as we are”
    — Anais Nin
  • Commitment to making other people successful
  • Simon Brown’s components and containers in context
    Simon: By "container" I mean something like a web server, application server, desktop application, mobile app, database, file system, etc. Essentially, what I call a container is anything that can host code or data.
  • Neely cartoon — used by Richard Cook at Velocity
  • Neely cartoon — used by Richard Cook at Velocity
  • LMAX is a retail financial trading platform.

    Its business innovation is that it is a retail platform - allowing anyone to trade in a range of financial derivative products

    Challenges: A trading platform like this needs very low latency - trades have to be processed quickly because the market is moving rapidly. A retail platform adds complexity because it has to do this for lots of people. So the result is more users, with lots of trades, all of which need to be processed quickly.

    Given the shift to multi-core thinking, this kind of demanding performance would naturally suggest an explicitly concurrent programming model - and indeed this was their starting point. But the thing that got people's attention at QCon was that this wasn't where they ended up. In fact they ended up by doing all the business logic for their platform: all trades, from all customers, in all markets - on a single thread. A thread that will process 6 million orders per second using commodity hardware.


    Although the business logic occurs in a single thread, there are a number tasks to be done before we can invoke a business object method. The original input for processing comes off the wire in the form of a message, this message needs to be unmarshaled into a form convenient for Business Logic Processor to use. Event Sourcing relies on keeping a durable journal of all the input events, so each input message needs to be journaled onto a durable store. Finally the architecture relies on a cluster of Business Logic Processors, so we have to replicate the input messages across this cluster. Similarly on the output side, the output events need to be marshaled for transmission over the network.

    Figure 2: The activities done by the input disruptor (using UML activity diagram notation)
    The replicator and journaler involve IO and therefore are relatively slow. After all the central idea of Business Logic Processor is that it avoids doing any IO.

    At a crude level you can think of a Disruptor as a multicast graph of queues where producers put objects on it that are sent to all the consumers for parallel consumption through separate downstream queues.

    http://martinfowler.com/articles/lmax.html



    CQRS ( Command Query Responsibility Segregation)
  • Powerful Ideas need love too, Alan Kay
  • The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, is an essay by James Madison, the fifty-first of The Federalist Papers.

    In this Federalist Paper, James Madison explains and defends the checks and balances system in the Constitution. Each branch of government is framed so that its power checks the power of the other two branches; additionally, each branch of government is dependent on the people, who are the source of legitimate authority.
    “It may be a reflection on human nature, that such devices [checks and balances] should be necessary to control the abuses of government. But what is government itself, but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary.
    — Billofs=RightsInstitute.org
  • Theory of Operation
    How does it work (together) to create system capabilities (function and properties)
    illuminates relationships

    about building a theory of how things work — how forces impinge;

    presenting the design in terms of forces and outcomes — our reasoning, connecting dots to goals and drivers, identifying constraints, etc

    in so presenting the design (fragment), communicate — inform and coach— help others build up theory of this system — intent and realization; and bag theory for next system
  • notes — what we intend
    and reflection of code

    Da vinci with notebook -- always learning; share notes;
    Draw -- use uml; umlish; ad hoc; annotate/accompanying notes; model to learn/see (better); to inform; to create shared thoughtspace; modelstorm; model out loud; in pairs and mobs... to explore... to test!! To try ideas out; to "run" changes across existing system and see what is impacted; to try alternatives and see which are promising enough to try in code. Can we afford to? Can we afford not to??! recall these are make or break! Can we afford to only try things in code??? Cheapest experiments to decide which experiments! Not just diverge and converge with "requirements"
  • "But the brain does much more than just recollect It inter-compares, it synthesizes, it analyzes it generates abstractions ... The brain has it's own language For testing the structure and consistency of the world”
    — Carl Sagan
    -- Carl Sagan 'A Glorious Dawn' ft Stephen Hawking (Cosmos Remixed) by John Boswell
  • A hotspot is complicated code that you have to work with often. Hotspots are calculated from two different data sources:
    1 We use the lines of code as a simple proxy for complexity.
    2 We calculate the change frequency of each file by mining their version-control history.

    As you see in the picture above, the prioritized Hotspots only make up 2-3% of the total code size. Yet there’s a disproportional amount of development activity in that small part with 11-16% of all commits touching those Hotspots. This means any code improvement to a prioritized Hotspot is time well-invested.
  • Changing; evolving; reflection of design as built; check code against models; throw changes at evolving models; probes in code -- operational concerns; scale; attacks; also code health monitoring; code counting -- not nirvana but not going to lie to itself…

    Not just what it looks like; how it works -- at every scope and scale... not just early. Throughtout... not just ci/cd ... lifecycle ...,
  • All design -- system in its context? That's design too.... what does it offer? What "job" does it do? How does it relate to other systems? Outcomes -- capabilities and properties; Trans contextual

    Does architect do this? In building architecture but not generally in software....What do we gain when architect is involved? Feasibility/viable/desirable -- customer/technology/business(ecosysyems; value flows; differentiation)
    Better decisions -- product/outward design and system/internal design; innovation

    Evolutionary landscape -- capabilities evolve; landscapes are co-evolving; shifts in one can send ripples and waves of change; smart phones and uber; what does machine learning/ai unleash?

    3x explore expand extract
    Pioneer settler city planner
    Ecosystems that coevolve;

    Throw away good ideas – p28, p26 of 101 Things

    Say No – steve jobs



    "#Microservice architecture moves complexity to the area we are good at automating: operations“
    https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/microservices-shift-complexity-to-where-it-belongs


    Chad Fowler https://twitter.com/chadfowler/status/646624348028190720

  • what will break in production? break code? break user experience?
    make viable, feasible, desirable

    Make -- pressure to make it can warp integrity

    Uber - gaming the ecosystem in some sinister ways
    But can be strategic and steer away from doing active harm -- ecosystem and notions of commons
    Win by any means -- breaking laws; intentionally misleading/betraying public trust; -- ecosystem health is not optional
    Study ecosystem for what need to put in place to make system viable/healthy; some of that is business relationships; some is technology ... good to have architects as technical strategists and designers involved

    So architect has a foot in where system is and how to do that better... business and tech... strategy and tactics; culture snd conversation/attention

    And from time to time... heads up? What's changing? What does that mean for system?

    So how about those emoluments?? :)

    Fractals and scopes of influence and "authority" (feather)

    Kodak -- booch -- future depends on people in this room
    We build it -- the future, that is
    We better get more strategic about it! The people we lead are responsible for all the good they build, but we, leaders, shape direction/enable and constrain... so we need to feel responsible, to feel responsible for, where that goes...

    What is better? How do we get more of that?
    What is integrity? Structural and design?
    Sustainability ... in all its forms

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