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Architectural Design Concepts
Approaches
Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
Feb. 4, 2017
Definition
• A simple definition of a concept suggests that
concepts are ideas that integrate various elements
into a whol...
Definitions of Concept
• Idea
• Theory
• Notion
• Parti (French)
• Conception
• Opinion
• Abstraction
• Philosophy
• Belie...
Introduction
• Concept formulation is not an automatic
activity; it takes a concentrated effort to
develop a concept that ...
Introduction
• Concept formulation is an unfamiliar activity
for most people, and students of architecture
have as much tr...
Generating Hierarchies
6
Vision
Values
Concepts
Ideas
Solutions
Problems
Inductive Deductive Reasoning
Philosophy
Meaning
Socio-Culture
Experiential
Function
Form
Structure
Materials
Lighting
Ven...
Introduction
• Inductive reasoning or inductive logic,
is a type of reasoning which involves
moving from the specific to t...
Introduction
• The design process works with information and
ideas simultaneously on many levels.
• Designing is a recipro...
FORM &
SPACE
Exterior Form
&
Interior Space
CONTEXT
Site
NEED
Program
ConceptSolution
Site
Climate
Building
Sun
Wind
Topog...
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Introduction
• Creativity comes into play and the efforts to find
approaches that will be original, aesthetically
satisfyi...
Steps of the BASED Design Process
• BRIEFING
• Site selection, Program formulation, Data collection, Examples, ...
• Analy...
Introduction
• The design process works with information and
ideas simultaneously on many levels.
• Designing is a recipro...
Introduction
• One assembles the puzzle
picture by searching for fits;
piece after piece is picked up,
tried, and found to...
Introduction
• Creativity comes into play and the
efforts to find approaches that will
be original, aesthetically satisfyi...
Levels of Expression
The concept should be appeal to both:
• The Normal Layman
• The Professional Specialist
Dimensions of Concepts
Any building concept should provide:
• Exterior Expression
• Interior Experience
Interior
Elements of Concept Generation and Expression
Function
Form
Materials
Structure
Lighting
Ventilation
Socio-Cultural
Experi...
Concepts Translations – Visual and Verbal
Design Forces
Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
Design Forces
• Designs are generated by considering the
forces that are affecting the project.
• A meaningful or “Fitting...
Design Forces
• Types of forces include:
• External Forces can generate from: urban
context (buildings, heights, condition...
Design Forces
Design
A
B
C
D
External Forces affecting the design
Design Forces
• Internal Forces can generate from: required
functions and needs, orientation
requirements, view, internal ...
Design Forces
C
B
A
Internal Forces generating the design
Design Forces
• Generated Forces: Designs also generates
forces that are expected to affect its
surrounding after its comp...
Design with Forces
Design
A
B
C
D
Forces Generated from the design
Generating Concepts and Design
Ideas
Architectural Design Approaches
• The common problem right after every project
brief for all students are:
– Where should ...
Architectural Design Approaches
Architectural Design Approaches
Design Approach 1: Concepts
Concept - Difficulty level : Beginner
Design Approach 1: Concepts
• This method is called 'Concept'.
• It is commonly used throughout the design world.
• Titles...
Design Approach 1: Concepts
• For example, after a brief visit to the site, you’ve overheard an
information that the site ...
Design Approach 1: Concepts
• However, here is where the problem comes in.
• You didn't venture further in to find out wha...
Design Approach 2 : An Issue Based
Design to solve current problem at site. Difficulty level : Intermediate
Design Approach 2 : An Issue Based
• If we began to address the flooding or any other problems in
the proposed site and to...
Design Approach 2 : An Issue Based
• To achieve the solution, we could began by comparing current
ideas and solutions from...
Design Approach 3: Design Theory & Philosophies
Difficulty level : Intermediate Hard
Design Approach 3: Design Theory
& Philosophies
• Design Theory approach is based on an architects design
philosophies and...
Design Approach 3: Design Theory
& Philosophies
• Consider yourself as a disciple to these philosophies because
we are bor...
Design Approach 4: 2+3
Difficulty level :Expert
Design Approach 4: 2+3
• The fourth is a combination of approach no.2 and 3.
• It is an attempt to solved site issues with...
Solution Finding Methods
Solution Finding Methods
52
53
Solution Finding Methods
54
Solution Finding Methods
55
Solution Finding Methods
56
Solution Finding Methods
57
Solution Finding Methods
58
Solution Finding Methods
59
60
Solution Finding Methods
61
Solution Finding Methods
62
Solution Finding Methods
Elements and Principles of
Design
E L E M E N T S P R I N C I P L E S
Background Balance
Colour Contrast
Foreground Direction
Form Dominance
Grid Economy
Li...
Concepts Criteria Summary
Concepts Criteria
Summary
Mood or Inspirational Board
Mood or Inspirational Board
Concept Generators
Site Determinants
• Topography
• Climate
• Geography
• Demographic
• Geology
• History
• Social characteristics and condit...
Physical Concepts
• Location
 View
 Harmony with nature
 Underground architecture
Cultural Factors
• Historical factors
• Religious factors
• Social factors
• Economic factors
• Political factors
• Functi...
Spatial Relations
 The pragmatic space
 The perceptual space
 The existential space
 The cognitive space
 The abstrac...
Qualities of Space
 Proportion
 Scale
 Form
 Definition
 Color
 Texture
 Pattern
 Enclosure
 Light
 View
Visual Design Factors: Form Characteristics
• Continuity
 Sequence
 Repetition and Rhythm
 Balance: Symmetrical & Asymm...
Visual Design Factors: Visual factors
• Visual perception:
– Structural approach
– Evaluative approach
– Orientation
– Spa...
Visual Design Factors: Visual Organization
Gestalt Theory (Proximity, similarity,
continuity, closure)
 Law of Proximity
...
Visual Organization
• Figure/Ground
 Surface/Edge
 Outline/Object
 Autonomous figures
Architectural Compositions
• Unity
• Coherence
• Incoherence
Visual fields
 Minimal heterogeneity
 Proximity
 Resemblance
 Enclosure
 Common orientation
 Symmetry
 Repetition
Shape, Pattern, and Form
• Linear shape
 The circle
 The ring
 The organic shape
 The square
 The ellipse
 Star shap...
Size (Scale)
• Monumental
• Bulky
• Minimal
• Human
• Vehicular
Color
• Theory of colors
• Formal organization
• Properties
• Perception
Age: The traditional and the modern
 ignore
 respect
 imitate
 copy
 contrast
 hide away
 integrate
Construction
• Materials
 Methods
 Systems
 Cast-in-situ
 Pre-cast
 Lift-slab
 Tunnel form
 Flying shutters
 Pre-s...
Structure System
• Bearing walls
 Skeleton
 Shell and Vault
 Space truss
 Space frame
 Geodesic dome
 Tent Structure...
Arabic/Islamic Design Ideas
• The Courtyard
• The alleyway and the courtyard
• Al Saha
• Al Qasabah
• Al Mafrouka
• The Is...
Other Ideas
• Using the hard line
 Using straight and hard lines
 Using straight and curved lines
 The curved paths
 T...
Other Ideas
• Shifting the center of the shape
 The arcade
 The crack
 The podium
 The layers
 The cluster
 The orga...
Other Ideas
• The frame
 The rounded corners
 The muqarnass
 The triangle
 Parts of the octagon
 Square with a circle...
Creativity & Innovation
Introduction
• Creativity consists of looking at situations
from a different perspective
• Most of us have a creative elem...
The Creative Process
• Accumulate background information and
knowledge
• Mental incubation - doing unrelated things
• Deve...
Types of creativity
• Invention - the creation of a completely new
product
• Extension - expansion of an existing product
...
Characteristics of Creative People
• Bright, not brilliant
• Good at idea generation
• Positive self-image
• Motivated by ...
Developing Creativity
• Left side of brain:
– rational
– linear thought
– mathematical
– controls speech
– analytical
– co...
Developing Creativity (ctd)
• Right side of the brain:
– imaginative
– lateral thought
– creative
– controls left side of ...
Creativity and Innovation
• Creativity – the ability to develop new
ideas and to discover new ways of looking
at problems ...
Can We Learn to Be Creative?
Yes!!
By suspending conventional thinking long
enough to consider new and different
alternati...
Focus
Depth
Skills
Hard Work
Experience
Growth
Expansion
Linear
Creativity
Lateral Creativity
Breadth
Analogies
Uniqueness...
Creative Thinkers
• Always ask, “Is there a better way?”
• Challenge custom, routine, and tradition.
• Are reflective.
• P...
Elements of Creativity
• Unique (original)
• Valued (useful)
• Intent (purpose)
• Continuance (implementation excellence)
Increasing Personal Creativity
• Read voraciously
• Think in opposites
• Look for new uses for old things
• Draw and keep ...
Barriers to Creativity
• Searching for the one “right”
answer
• Focusing on “being logical”
• Blindly following the rules
...
Barriers to Creativity
(continued)
• Becoming overly specialized
• Avoiding ambiguity
• Fearing looking foolish
• Fearing ...
Tips for Enhancing Organizational
Creativity
• Expecting creativity
• Expecting and tolerating failure
• Encouraging creat...
Tips for Enhancing Individual
Creativity
• Allow yourself to be creative
• Give your mind fresh input every day
• Keep a j...
The Creative Process
Preparation Investigation Transformation
Incubation Illumination Verification
Implementation
Failure: Just Part of the Creative
Process!
• For every 3,000 new product ideas:
– Four make it to the development stage.
...
Activities, Media, and Information in Design
1- Organization drawings explore
Programmatic concerns
2- Conception drawings...
 Combining ideas from different sources
 Visual Imagination, Visual Metaphor, and
Analogy
 Expanding the search space
W...
Examples
Yacht
Sails
Waves
Examples
Palm
Trees
Examples
Horseshoe
Crab Shell
Examples
Hands
Clasped In
Prayer
Conclusion
Conclusion
• To conclude, whichever approach that we
took, based it on the most important aspect of
design: Problem solvin...
Illustrations of Concept
Examples of Sketches
From Sketch to Reality
Michael Lee-Chin Crystal, Toronto
Concept Sketches
Illustrations of Concepts
Illustrations of Concepts
Illustrations of Concepts
Examples of Drawings
End
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية
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Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية

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Architectural Design Concepts Approaches
Summary of several Architectural Design Concepts Approaches to help students generate design concepts.
كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى
الفكرة المعمارية
طرق مختلفة لمساعدة الطلبة للوصول الى كونسيبت او فكرة التصميم المعمارى

Published in: Design
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Architectural Design Concepts Approaches - كونسيبت التصميم المعمارى و الفكرة المعمارية

  1. 1. Architectural Design Concepts Approaches Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Feb. 4, 2017
  2. 2. Definition • A simple definition of a concept suggests that concepts are ideas that integrate various elements into a whole. • These elements can be ideas, notions, thoughts, and observations. • Concepts are the antithesis of notions, which do not make any pretense about being appropriate. • A concept, on the other hand, implies appropriateness; it supports the main intentions and goals of a project and respects each project’s unique characteristics and restrictions.
  3. 3. Definitions of Concept • Idea • Theory • Notion • Parti (French) • Conception • Opinion • Abstraction • Philosophy • Belief • Inspiration • Image • View • Intention • Plan • Fancy • Thought • Impression • Hypothesis • Supposition • … DESIGN
  4. 4. Introduction • Concept formulation is not an automatic activity; it takes a concentrated effort to develop a concept that appropriately integrates things not previously brought together. • Bringing things together is a creative act-one that designers, architects, critics, artists, musicians, and writers have identified as being about 10 percent inspiration or genius and 90 percent hard work.
  5. 5. Introduction • Concept formulation is an unfamiliar activity for most people, and students of architecture have as much trouble mastering it as they do other aspects of design. • Three problems block skill development in conceptualizing. – communication, – inexperience, and – generating hierarchies.
  6. 6. Generating Hierarchies 6 Vision Values Concepts Ideas Solutions Problems
  7. 7. Inductive Deductive Reasoning Philosophy Meaning Socio-Culture Experiential Function Form Structure Materials Lighting Ventilation Etc. Deductive Reasoning “from general to specific” Inductive Reasoning “from specific to general ” DesignReasoning/LogicLevels
  8. 8. Introduction • Inductive reasoning or inductive logic, is a type of reasoning which involves moving from the specific to the general. • Deductive reasoning or inductive logic, is a type of reasoning which involves moving from the general to the specific. Inductive Reasoning from Specific to General Deductive Reasoning from General to Specific
  9. 9. Introduction • The design process works with information and ideas simultaneously on many levels. • Designing is a reciprocal action and reflection. • One assembles the puzzle picture by searching for fits; piece after piece is picked up, tried, and found to be a misfit until, finally, the right piece steps into place. • The designers mind searches memory to find elements that meet their needs of the given problem.
  10. 10. FORM & SPACE Exterior Form & Interior Space CONTEXT Site NEED Program ConceptSolution Site Climate Building Sun Wind Topography & Soil Shape & Dimensions Surroundings & View Sand Forms Colors Height Functions User Client Areas Relationships Spaces Number Socio-Cultural Vision ProportionSize Scale Rhythm Idea Metaphor Analogy Elements Principles Volumes Symmetry Sketches Drawings Details Asymmetry BalanceTexture Color Humidity Gender Budget Schedule Shapes Unity The Concept Variety Organization Material Models Renderings Animations Structure Technical Roads & Access Temperature Symbolism Activities Equipment
  11. 11. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
  12. 12. Introduction • Creativity comes into play and the efforts to find approaches that will be original, aesthetically satisfying, valid solutions to the problems defined through programming. • Even experienced and highly skilled designers often find it difficult how this aspect of the design process works. • They will say that they “think about “the problem until they are “hit by an idea”.
  13. 13. Steps of the BASED Design Process • BRIEFING • Site selection, Program formulation, Data collection, Examples, ... • Analysis • Design and Project Data analysis • Identification of Objectives • Synthesis • Formulation of Concepts and Alternatives • Communication of Concepts • Evaluation • Review of Alternatives • Selection of one alternative • Design • Design details • Communication media
  14. 14. Introduction • The design process works with information and ideas simultaneously on many levels. • Designing is a reciprocal action and reflection.
  15. 15. Introduction • One assembles the puzzle picture by searching for fits; piece after piece is picked up, tried, and found to be a misfit until, finally, the right piece steps into place. • The designers mind searches memory to find elements that meet their needs of the given problem.
  16. 16. Introduction • Creativity comes into play and the efforts to find approaches that will be original, aesthetically satisfying, valid solutions to the problems defined through programming. • Even experienced and highly skilled designers often find it difficult how this aspect of the design process works. • They will say that they “think about “the problem until they are “hit by an idea”.
  17. 17. Levels of Expression The concept should be appeal to both: • The Normal Layman • The Professional Specialist
  18. 18. Dimensions of Concepts Any building concept should provide: • Exterior Expression • Interior Experience
  19. 19. Interior
  20. 20. Elements of Concept Generation and Expression Function Form Materials Structure Lighting Ventilation Socio-Cultural Experiential Meaning Philosophy
  21. 21. Concepts Translations – Visual and Verbal
  22. 22. Design Forces Dr. Yasser Mahgoub
  23. 23. Design Forces • Designs are generated by considering the forces that are affecting the project. • A meaningful or “Fitting” design is achieved when these forces reach a state of “Equilibrium” (a state of rest or balance due to the equal action of opposing forces. equal balance between any powers, influences, etc.; equality of effect. mental or emotional balance; equanimity)
  24. 24. Design Forces • Types of forces include: • External Forces can generate from: urban context (buildings, heights, conditions, character), site (topography, shape), Environment (climate, weather, sun, wind, … ), Access (streets, transportation, pedestrians, cars, parking), people ( gender, age, occupations) , functions (activities, uses)
  25. 25. Design Forces Design A B C D External Forces affecting the design
  26. 26. Design Forces • Internal Forces can generate from: required functions and needs, orientation requirements, view, internal organization, movement and procedures, work/production processes, links to adjacent internal and external functions.
  27. 27. Design Forces C B A Internal Forces generating the design
  28. 28. Design Forces • Generated Forces: Designs also generates forces that are expected to affect its surrounding after its completion.
  29. 29. Design with Forces Design A B C D Forces Generated from the design
  30. 30. Generating Concepts and Design Ideas
  31. 31. Architectural Design Approaches • The common problem right after every project brief for all students are: – Where should I begin? – How could I explain it? – What are the basis for this design? • There are several approaches to design. Here are the breakdown summary in each of these approaches.
  32. 32. Architectural Design Approaches
  33. 33. Architectural Design Approaches
  34. 34. Design Approach 1: Concepts Concept - Difficulty level : Beginner
  35. 35. Design Approach 1: Concepts • This method is called 'Concept'. • It is commonly used throughout the design world. • Titles of concepts tends to lean towards a usage of a certain 'unique keywords' (or 'Bombastic Keywords') an attempt to make it more appealing for the impression that it consisted a certain uniqueness either in it's design and approach. • This approach is a natural steps in the journey of designing and understanding design for beginners. • However, it could also be misused as a shortcut for design with less depth into it.
  36. 36. Design Approach 1: Concepts • For example, after a brief visit to the site, you’ve overheard an information that the site are constantly flooded by rainfall. • Literally, by associating these factors keyword site = (flood + rain) therefore design will be rain = umbrella, to make it more design-ish, name it, 'The Liquid Repellent'. • Then jump right away into form. • Take away the umbrella leg, using the shape of the umbrella from above as plan and pop in the umbrella as the main form just to 'stay in concept'.
  37. 37. Design Approach 1: Concepts • However, here is where the problem comes in. • You didn't venture further in to find out what is causing the flood. • No matter how much the liquid is repelled from the building, the flooding will continue. • The designed building is neither solving the flood problem or considering the flood as an influencing factor to the building (for example building it on a stilts). Also cramping in all the spaces in my building for the sake of the umbrella shape, this is what we call, function (spaces) follow form. • Sometimes it works, most of the time we end up with unused negative spaces.
  38. 38. Design Approach 2 : An Issue Based Design to solve current problem at site. Difficulty level : Intermediate
  39. 39. Design Approach 2 : An Issue Based • If we began to address the flooding or any other problems in the proposed site and to resolved it through design - this method is called an 'issue based' approach. • Issue based could also be not just from the site but also from the problem with the current design or any other matter faced by users. • The lack of access to the disable for example, or the lack of communal spaces, etc. The attempt to improved the current condition or to resolved this issues with design is the core for the issue based approach.
  40. 40. Design Approach 2 : An Issue Based • To achieve the solution, we could began by comparing current ideas and solutions from other designs. • This is known as 'precedent studies'. • A combination of issue, precedent studies and idea in an attempt to resolved this issues will be the design. • The name of this attempt will also be the title keyword of the design. • Perhaps it might take more than several words, this is where choosing a holistic keyword to represents it really comes in handy during presentation.
  41. 41. Design Approach 3: Design Theory & Philosophies Difficulty level : Intermediate Hard
  42. 42. Design Approach 3: Design Theory & Philosophies • Design Theory approach is based on an architects design philosophies and views towards the design. • In this approach, we are not addressing the raising issues in the proposed site, but perhaps it is more towards answering the project brief and requirement. • This approach seems similar to 'Concept Approach', however it is complex and requires a deeper and thorough studies and understanding.
  43. 43. Design Approach 3: Design Theory & Philosophies • Consider yourself as a disciple to these philosophies because we are borrowing their theories in our path towards the design solution. • Without it (an in-depth understanding where we will be constantly challenged in our attempt towards the design solution), the produced design will be considered as a poor & vague imitation attempt towards the design solution
  44. 44. Design Approach 4: 2+3 Difficulty level :Expert
  45. 45. Design Approach 4: 2+3 • The fourth is a combination of approach no.2 and 3. • It is an attempt to solved site issues with design theory to produce a solution through our design. (this is what is required in senior/graduation projects) • Such solution could be a combination of several other theories that you feel relevant and necessary in order to resolved several raising matters regarding the site, building or space and to follow through all these theory as a problem solving guideline through the design.
  46. 46. Solution Finding Methods
  47. 47. Solution Finding Methods 52
  48. 48. 53 Solution Finding Methods
  49. 49. 54 Solution Finding Methods
  50. 50. 55 Solution Finding Methods
  51. 51. 56 Solution Finding Methods
  52. 52. 57 Solution Finding Methods
  53. 53. 58 Solution Finding Methods
  54. 54. 59
  55. 55. 60 Solution Finding Methods
  56. 56. 61 Solution Finding Methods
  57. 57. 62 Solution Finding Methods
  58. 58. Elements and Principles of Design
  59. 59. E L E M E N T S P R I N C I P L E S Background Balance Colour Contrast Foreground Direction Form Dominance Grid Economy Light Emphasis Line Fragmentation Mass Harmony Material Hierarchy Path Movement Plane Order Point Pattern Shadow Proportion Shape Repetition Solid Rhythm Space Scale Structure Symmetry System Time Texture Unity Type Value Void Variety
  60. 60. Concepts Criteria Summary
  61. 61. Concepts Criteria Summary
  62. 62. Mood or Inspirational Board
  63. 63. Mood or Inspirational Board
  64. 64. Concept Generators
  65. 65. Site Determinants • Topography • Climate • Geography • Demographic • Geology • History • Social characteristics and conditions • Economic conditions • Legal, legislative and administrative conditions • Location and visual aspects • Land use • Characteristics of man-made environment • Circulation • Technology • Others
  66. 66. Physical Concepts • Location  View  Harmony with nature  Underground architecture
  67. 67. Cultural Factors • Historical factors • Religious factors • Social factors • Economic factors • Political factors • Functional factors
  68. 68. Spatial Relations  The pragmatic space  The perceptual space  The existential space  The cognitive space  The abstract space
  69. 69. Qualities of Space  Proportion  Scale  Form  Definition  Color  Texture  Pattern  Enclosure  Light  View
  70. 70. Visual Design Factors: Form Characteristics • Continuity  Sequence  Repetition and Rhythm  Balance: Symmetrical & Asymmetrical  Proportion  Pattern, texture and color  Hierarchy  Transparency  Direction  Motion  Time  Sensory Qualities
  71. 71. Visual Design Factors: Visual factors • Visual perception: – Structural approach – Evaluative approach – Orientation – Spacescape  Lynch 1 (Image of the City): path, node, edge, district, and landmarks  Lynch 2 (Theory of Place): Legibility, Structure and Identity, Imageability and Sequentiality
  72. 72. Visual Design Factors: Visual Organization Gestalt Theory (Proximity, similarity, continuity, closure)  Law of Proximity  Law of Similarity  Law of Continuity: good continuance  Law of Closure: forces of organization  Symmetry, Inclusiveness, Unity, Harmony, Regularity, Conciseness, Maximal Simplicity
  73. 73. Visual Organization • Figure/Ground  Surface/Edge  Outline/Object  Autonomous figures
  74. 74. Architectural Compositions • Unity • Coherence • Incoherence
  75. 75. Visual fields  Minimal heterogeneity  Proximity  Resemblance  Enclosure  Common orientation  Symmetry  Repetition
  76. 76. Shape, Pattern, and Form • Linear shape  The circle  The ring  The organic shape  The square  The ellipse  Star shape  Hexagonal shape  Rectilinear shape  The grid  Radiocentric shape  Branch shape  The organic pattern
  77. 77. Size (Scale) • Monumental • Bulky • Minimal • Human • Vehicular
  78. 78. Color • Theory of colors • Formal organization • Properties • Perception
  79. 79. Age: The traditional and the modern  ignore  respect  imitate  copy  contrast  hide away  integrate
  80. 80. Construction • Materials  Methods  Systems  Cast-in-situ  Pre-cast  Lift-slab  Tunnel form  Flying shutters  Pre-stressed
  81. 81. Structure System • Bearing walls  Skeleton  Shell and Vault  Space truss  Space frame  Geodesic dome  Tent Structure  Folded plates  Verandel Girders  Verndeal Floors  Tensile Structures  ...
  82. 82. Arabic/Islamic Design Ideas • The Courtyard • The alleyway and the courtyard • Al Saha • Al Qasabah • Al Mafrouka • The Islamic Star
  83. 83. Other Ideas • Using the hard line  Using straight and hard lines  Using straight and curved lines  The curved paths  The axis and the courtyard  The organic pattern  The cal-de-sac  The spine  The inclined axis  The irregular axis  Direction  Tilting the mass
  84. 84. Other Ideas • Shifting the center of the shape  The arcade  The crack  The podium  The layers  The cluster  The organic disorganic contrast  Contrast between the solid mass and the fragmented masses  Contrast between the curved solid mass and the fragmented masses  Transition in space: open, semi-open, closed  Sequence of space
  85. 85. Other Ideas • The frame  The rounded corners  The muqarnass  The triangle  Parts of the octagon  Square with a circle  Part of a curve  Shapes at random  THE SQUARE  Circles  Tilted square  The octagon  Straight line with free line
  86. 86. Creativity & Innovation
  87. 87. Introduction • Creativity consists of looking at situations from a different perspective • Most of us have a creative element, we are discouraged from using it • Creativity can be enhanced
  88. 88. The Creative Process • Accumulate background information and knowledge • Mental incubation - doing unrelated things • Develop several alternatives • Evaluate and implement • Not a short process
  89. 89. Types of creativity • Invention - the creation of a completely new product • Extension - expansion of an existing product or service • Synthesis - combining several products or services into something unique
  90. 90. Characteristics of Creative People • Bright, not brilliant • Good at idea generation • Positive self-image • Motivated by challenging problems • Sensitive to the world around them • Don’t make snap decisions • Flexible • Look for meaning and implications of problems
  91. 91. Developing Creativity • Left side of brain: – rational – linear thought – mathematical – controls speech – analytical – controls right side of body
  92. 92. Developing Creativity (ctd) • Right side of the brain: – imaginative – lateral thought – creative – controls left side of body
  93. 93. Creativity and Innovation • Creativity – the ability to develop new ideas and to discover new ways of looking at problems and opportunities. • Innovation – the ability to apply creative solutions to problems or opportunities to enhance or to enrich people’s lives.
  94. 94. Can We Learn to Be Creative? Yes!! By suspending conventional thinking long enough to consider new and different alternatives!
  95. 95. Focus Depth Skills Hard Work Experience Growth Expansion Linear Creativity Lateral Creativity Breadth Analogies Uniqueness Non-Logic Innovation Out-of-the-Box (Intuitive/Imagination) (Logic/Knowledge)
  96. 96. Creative Thinkers • Always ask, “Is there a better way?” • Challenge custom, routine, and tradition. • Are reflective. • Play mental games. • Realize that there may be more than one “right” answer. • See mistakes as pit stops on the way to success.
  97. 97. Elements of Creativity • Unique (original) • Valued (useful) • Intent (purpose) • Continuance (implementation excellence)
  98. 98. Increasing Personal Creativity • Read voraciously • Think in opposites • Look for new uses for old things • Draw and keep your idea in a file or notebook
  99. 99. Barriers to Creativity • Searching for the one “right” answer • Focusing on “being logical” • Blindly following the rules • Constantly being practical • Viewing play as frivolous
  100. 100. Barriers to Creativity (continued) • Becoming overly specialized • Avoiding ambiguity • Fearing looking foolish • Fearing mistakes and failure • Believing that “I’m not creative”
  101. 101. Tips for Enhancing Organizational Creativity • Expecting creativity • Expecting and tolerating failure • Encouraging creativity • Viewing problems as challenges • Providing creativity training • Providing support • Rewarding creativity • Modeling creative behavior
  102. 102. Tips for Enhancing Individual Creativity • Allow yourself to be creative • Give your mind fresh input every day • Keep a journal handy to record your thoughts and ideas • Read books on stimulating creativity • Take some time off
  103. 103. The Creative Process Preparation Investigation Transformation Incubation Illumination Verification Implementation
  104. 104. Failure: Just Part of the Creative Process! • For every 3,000 new product ideas: – Four make it to the development stage. – Two are actually launched. – One becomes a success in the market. • On average, new products account for 40% of companies’ sales!!
  105. 105. Activities, Media, and Information in Design 1- Organization drawings explore Programmatic concerns 2- Conception drawings explore Shapes and forms 3- Fabrication drawings tend to be More definite and precise
  106. 106.  Combining ideas from different sources  Visual Imagination, Visual Metaphor, and Analogy  Expanding the search space What is Creative Design?
  107. 107. Examples Yacht Sails Waves
  108. 108. Examples Palm Trees
  109. 109. Examples Horseshoe Crab Shell
  110. 110. Examples Hands Clasped In Prayer
  111. 111. Conclusion
  112. 112. Conclusion • To conclude, whichever approach that we took, based it on the most important aspect of design: Problem solving.
  113. 113. Illustrations of Concept Examples of Sketches
  114. 114. From Sketch to Reality Michael Lee-Chin Crystal, Toronto
  115. 115. Concept Sketches
  116. 116. Illustrations of Concepts
  117. 117. Illustrations of Concepts
  118. 118. Illustrations of Concepts
  119. 119. Examples of Drawings
  120. 120. End

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