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Making sense of messy problems - Systems thinking for interaction designers

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Workshop given at Interaction16 conference in Helsinki.

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Making sense of messy problems - Systems thinking for interaction designers

  1. 1. Making  sense  of  messy  problems Johanna  Kollmann @johannakoll !     Interaction  16,  Helsinki Systems  thinking  for  Interaction  Designers Illustration  by  David  Wicks:  http://www.flickr.com/photos/sansumbrella/467998944/
  2. 2.        The  next  4  hours  of  your  life: Introduction  to  Systems  Thinking   Tools  for  modeling  systems   Systems  behaviour  over  time   Changing  systems  
  3. 3. Systems  Thinking?
  4. 4. In  the  past  the  man  has  been  first;     in  the  future  the  system  must  be  first.     ! ~  Frederick  Winslow  Taylor  (1911)
  5. 5. In  the  past  the  man  has  been  first;  in  the   future  the  system  must  be  first.   ! This  in  no  sense,  however,  implies  that   great  men  are  not  needed.       ! ~Frederick  Winslow  Taylor  (1911)
  6. 6. “At  the  root  of  every   seemingly  technical  problem   is  a  human  problem.”   ~  Taiichi  Ohno
  7. 7. http://visitmix.com/work/descry/awebsitenameddesire
  8. 8. “Systems-­‐based  thinking  is  the   process  of  understanding  how  things   influence  one  another.       ! Then  drawing  on  that  knowledge  to   create  efficiencies  of  process,   infrastructure  and  communication.” ~  Abby  Covert
  9. 9. “A  system  is ~  Donella  Meadows a  set  of  elements  or  parts   oGen  classified  as  its  funcHon  or   purpose.”   that  is  coherently  organized  and   inter-­‐connected  in  a  paKern  or   structure   that  produces  a  characterisHc  set  of   behaviors,  
  10. 10. Peter  Checkland Human  activity  systems Soft  Systems  Methodology
  11. 11.        Leverage  points… …places  within  a  complex  system  where  a  small  shift  in  one   thing  can  produce  big  changes  in  everything.   …are  often  counterintuitive.
  12. 12. Systems  Thinking  &  UX
  13. 13. 1)  Modeling
  14. 14. 2)  Behavior  over  time
  15. 15. 3)  Change
  16. 16. 1)  Modeling
  17. 17. Mental  Model System  Model Conceptual  Model
  18. 18. Personas  from  Design  Jam  London,  by  Jeff  Van  Campen  http://www.flickr.com/photos/otrops/tags/designjamlondon/
  19. 19. Flickr  User  Model  by  Bryce  Glass  http://www.flickr.com/photos/bryce/58299511/
  20. 20. ! “Only  by  building  a  model  of  customer  behaviour  and   then  showing  our  ability  to  use  our  product  or  service   to  change  it  over  time  can  we  establish  real  facts   about  the  validity  of  our  vision.”   ~  Eric  Ries
  21. 21. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Rich  Picture 1.  Construction  of  the  Humber  Bridge  (adapted  from  Stewart  and   Fortune,  1994)  ©  The  Open  University 2.  Distance  Learning  Situation  ©  Wood-­‐Harper  et  al,  Information   Systems  Definition:  The  Multiview  Approach,  Blackwell  Scientific   Publications  1985  
  22. 22. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Rich  Picture  elements Stakeholders Worldview Connections Conflicts 2.  Distance  Learning  Situation  ©  Wood-­‐Harper  et  al,  Information   Systems  Definition:  The  Multiview  Approach,  Blackwell  Scientific   Publications  1985  
  23. 23. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change
  24. 24. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change
  25. 25. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Rich  Picture  elements Stakeholders Worldview Connections Conflicts 2.  Distance  Learning  Situation  ©  Wood-­‐Harper  et  al,  Information   Systems  Definition:  The  Multiview  Approach,  Blackwell  Scientific   Publications  1985  
  26. 26. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Business  Model  Canvas Job  seekers Recruiters Jobs Candidates Manage,   promote   platform Platform Manage  and  develop  platform Marketing  costs Job  ads Hiring  fee
  27. 27. 2)  Behavior  over  time
  28. 28. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Flows inflow outflow information feedback,  control stock
  29. 29. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Feedback  loops George’s  ability  to   solve  problems Number  of   problems  solved Number  of   remaining   problems Time  available   per  problem Project  in   trouble Management   pressure  to  solve   problems R1 R3 R2 Need  to  involve   Paul B1
  30. 30. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Behavior  over  time  graphs inventory days
  31. 31. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Behavior  over  time  graphs inventory days
  32. 32. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Cohort  analysis
  33. 33. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Cohort  analysis
  34. 34. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Custom  tools  to  monitor  interactions by  @lukew
  35. 35. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change
  36. 36. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change Photo  by  Anders  Zakrisson  http://www.flickr.com/photos/anders-­‐zakrisson/4982281184/
  37. 37. DATA MEANING
  38. 38. 3)  Change
  39. 39. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change inventory days        Flows  and  loops
  40. 40. 1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change
  41. 41. 10.    Numbers  (subsidies,  taxes,  standards).   9.    Material  stocks  and  flows.   8.  Delays   7.    Balancing  negative  feedback  loops.   6.    Reinforcing  positive  feedback  loops.   5.    Information  flows.   4.    The  rules  of  the  system  (incentives,  punishment,  constraints).   3.    The  power  of  self-­‐organization.   2.    The  goals  of  the  system.   1.    The  mindset  or  paradigm  out  of  which  the  goals,  rules,   feedback  structure  arise.   1)  Modeling 2)  Behavior  over  time 3)  Change        Leverage  points
  42. 42.        Take-­‐aways The  ‘worldviews’  that  people  and  elements  in  the  system  hold The  processes  that  are  necessary  to  deliver  value  to  customers ! How  to  gather  and  visualize  information  holistically How  user-­‐centered  design  and  empathy  help  to  reduce  uncertainty ! What  is  the  right  level  for  the  impact  you  are  aiming  for? What  enables  the  change,  where  are  conflicts,  who  can  be  your  change  agent?
  43. 43. This  matters  because
  44. 44. Business  trends.
  45. 45. Humane  systems.
  46. 46. The  intuitive  mind  is  a  sacred  gift  and  the  rational  mind  is  a   faithful  servant.  We  have  created  a  society  that  honors  the   servant  and  has  forgotten  the  gift.   ! We  will  not  solve  the  problems  of  the  world  from  the  same   level  of  thinking  we  were  at  when  we  created  them.  More   than  anything  else,  this  new  century  demands  new  thinking:   ! We  must  change  our  materially  based  analyses  of  the  world   around  us  to  include  broader,  more  multidimensional   perspectives. ! ~Albert  Einstein
  47. 47.        Resources The  Lean  Startup  by  Eric  Ries   ! Systems  Thinking,  Systems  Practice  and  Soft  Systems  Methodology  by  Peter  Checkland   ! Thinking  in  Systems:  A  Primer  by  Donella  Meadows   ! Business  Model  Generation  by  Alexander  Osterwalder  and  Yves  Pigneur   ! Donella  Meadow’s  article  Places  to  Intervene  in  a  System  can  be  found  at  http:// www.developerdotstar.com/mag/articles/places_intervene_system.html   ! Peter  Senge  is  a  key  systems  thinker,  I  haven’t  included  any  of  his  material  directly,  but  read   about  this  perspectives  especially  on  organisational  change.  Check  him  out.   ! For  the  design  geek  in  you,  read  up  on  Buckminster  Fuller’s  Design  Science.   ! Peter  Morville’s  Intertwingled.    

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