Mortality measurement

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Mortality measurement

  1. 1. MEASUREMENT S OF MORTALITY
  2. 2.  Easy to obtain. Obtained information is accurate Provides starting point for many epidemiological studies-major resource for epidemiologist.
  3. 3. 2 parts Part 1-immediate cause, underlying cause which started the whole trend of events leading to death. Part2-any significant associated disease that contributed to the death but did not directly lead to it.
  4. 4. Defined as Disease or injury that initiated the train of morbid events leading directly to death. Circumstancesof the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury.
  5. 5. CAUSE OF DEATH Approximate interval between onset & death1.Immediate AcauseUnderlying Bcause C2.Comorbidconditions
  6. 6.  Setof questions are added to the basic structure In order to improve the quality of maternal mortality and infant mortality data. To provide method of collecting data on deaths during pregnancy and infancy.
  7. 7.  Incomplete reporting of deaths Lack of accuracy-age , cause of death-lack of diagnostic evidence , inexperience of the certifying doctor , absence of postmortem. Lack of uniformity-hampers national and international comparability
  8. 8.  Choosing a single cause of death-only underlying cause of death is recorded in some countries. Certain risk factors and diseases that contribute to death are not recorded. Changing coding systems and diagnostic methods affect the validity. Diseases with low fatality
  9. 9.  Explaining trends in overall mortality. Indicating priorities for health action and resource allocation. Designing intervention programs. Assessment of public health problems and programs. Give important clues for epidemiological research.
  10. 10. MEASURES OF MORTALITYCrude death rateSpecific death rateCase fatality rateProportional mortality rateSurvival rateAdjusted or standardised rate
  11. 11. The no. of deaths (from all causes) per1000 estimated mid-year population ,ina given place. No. of deaths during the year *1000 Mid year population
  12. 12. Summarises population composition &are specific death ratesLack comparabilty if populations differ inage composition
  13. 13. pop CDR ASDR per 1000 populationulat 0-1 1-4 5-7 8-44 45- 65+ion 64A 15.2 13.5 0.6 0.4 1.5 10.7 59.7B 9.9 22.6 1 0.5 3.6 18.8 61.1
  14. 14. Permits comparison between 2 groupsin the population No. of deaths in group the during the year *1000 Mid year population
  15. 15. •Age specific death rate•Disease specific death rate
  16. 16. Specific death rate in age group 15-20yrs = No. of deaths in age group 15- 20yrs the during the year *1000 Mid year population
  17. 17. Specific death rate due to tuberculosis = No. of deaths due to tuberculosis the during the year *1000 Mid year population
  18. 18. Indicate killing power if a diseaseEg:-a/c infection like choleraVariable with diff epidemics of samedisease-related to virulence No. of deaths due to the particular disease *100 Total no. of cases of the same disease
  19. 19. Number of deaths due to a particularcause or in a specific age group per100(or1000) deaths... Used for broad d/s groups or majorpublic health problems Does not indicate risk of dying fromthe disease
  20. 20. Proportional mortality rate due to TB = No. of deaths due to tuberculosis the during the year *100 Total no. of deaths during the year
  21. 21. Proportion of survivers in a groupstudied and followed over a period oftime Usually 5year survival taken Prognosis of disease indicated eg:-cancer Efficiency of treatment modality
  22. 22. Total no. of patients alive after 5 years *100Total no. of patients diagnosed or treated
  23. 23. •Direct standardisation•Indirect standardisation SMR OTHERS
  24. 24. Standard population-no in each age &sex known Find ASDR of the population to beevaluated Apply to standard population Calculate total expected deaths Divide with the total of standardpopulation
  25. 25. STANDARDIZED MORTALITY RATIO•Simple & more useful•Risk of mortality in occupation Observed deaths *100 Expected deaths

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