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Industrial Design and Reliability of Electronic
Equipment Assignment
Topic : Chargers
Submitted by:
Rajat Shukla (I-80)
Kritika Jain (I-11)
Under the Guidance of :
Prof. Anuradha D. Verma
Shri Ramdeobaba College Of Engineering and Management
Department of Electronics Engineering
2019-20
Evolution & Types Of Chargers
1980s mobile phone charger : This is what powered the then popular Motorola DynaTAC
that used nickel cadmium batteries. It took 10 hours for this charger to recharge the batteries
of these types of phones. And even so, these batteries could not hold a charge consistently.
Compact phone charger: This was used to power nickel metal hydride batteries, which held
charge better than the nickel cadmium ones. Charging time was also reduced to only 4 hours,
which was considered a breakthrough in mobile charging back then.
Classic wall charger: This is the typical charger that comes with today’s mobile phones. The
classic wall charger works with Li-ion batteries. It can be connected using the integrated cable
that it comes with or a USB cable. It also charges faster, with an average charging time of only
1 hour.
USB cable charger: This is another form of charger that we are all familiar with. It has an
average charging time of 3 hours, depending on the amperage you choose. The USB cable
charger also has data transfer capabilities, which add to its versatility. The only downside is
that since it is connected to a computer instead of a power charger, charging time is four times
slower than a traditional charger.
Wireless charger: This technology has been around since 2013, but it hasn’t gone mainstream
yet. It uses inductive charging and rids you the hassle of using cables and plugs. Wireless
chargers like the Bezalel Futura X also last longer than traditional chargers, as they prevent the
wear and tear that usually happens with power cords (as a result of frequent plugging and
unplugging). Wireless chargers replenish the charge on your phone in 2 hours and typically
weigh 93 grams.
Solar mobile charger: As its name implies, this charger is powered by sunlight. To determine
how many hours of direct sunlight you need to fully charge your mobile device, simply follow
this formula: amperes per hour of the battery/amperes per hour of the charger + 10%.
Car charger: This comes in different types depending on the car model. Some car
manufacturers like General Motors and BMW have integrated theirs with wireless charging
capabilities. On the other hand, other cars charge phones the traditional way by connecting
your charging cable through an adapter that re-purposes your cigarette lighter. There are also
certain car models that come with a USB port that you can use as a charger. Both are powered
by the car’s battery.
Charging kiosk: Typically found in public transportation terminals, convenience stores and
gasoline stations, the charging kiosk has a variety of charging cables installed in it to cater to
different mobile devices. All you have to do is pick the cable that’s compatible with your
device, plug your device, and wait for charging to finish. It can charge your device in more or
less 2 hours. Mobile charging has come a long way from being an ultra-bulky apparatus, to a
sleek and portable device that can be carried around everywhere, and to a machine that can
take care of every possible charging need.
Study Of Different Charging Pins
There are 6 types of chargers with different pins for mobile phones:
 Type-A: The standard flat, rectangular interface that you find on one end of nearly every
USB cable. Most computers have multiple USB-A ports for connecting peripherals. We
find them on game consoles, TVs, and other devices too. This cable only inserts in one
way.
 Type-B: An almost square connector, mostly used for printers and other powered devices
that connect to a computer. They’re not very common these days, as most devices have
moved onto a smaller connection.
 Mini-USB: A smaller connector type that was standard for mobile devices before micro-
USB. While not as common today, we still see these on some cameras, the PlayStation 3
controller, MP3 players, and similar.
 Micro-USB: The current standard (though slowly declining in popularity) for mobile and
portable devices, which is even smaller than mini-USB. While we still find micro-USB
on all sorts of smartphones, tablets, USB battery packs, and game controllers, some have
moved onto USB-C.
 Type-C: The newest USB standard, this is a reversible cable that promises higher transfer
rates and more power than previous USB types. It’s also capable of juggling multiple
functions. It’s on many new laptops and smartphones, including the MacBook, Pixel
phones, and Nintendo Switch Pro Controller.
 Lightning: This isn’t a true USB standard, but is Apple’s proprietary connector for the
iPhone, iPad, AirPods and more. It’s a similar size to USB-C and comes standard on
Apple devices released since September 2012.
Power output of Charger
Different devices have different power requirements based on their internal circuitry. There
are various types of charging bricks with power output such as:
 5V,1A
 5V,2A
 9V,2A
 15V,2A
 20V,2A
 25V,2A
 5V,3A
 9V,3A
 15V,3A
 20V,3A
This includes almost every type of power output which can be used to charge from a small
mobile phone to a laptop at a faster charging speed.
USB- Type C is becoming a norm these days as it comes with a high data and power delivery
capabilities. USB Type-C has a new, tiny physical connector—roughly the size of a micro USB
connector. The USB-C connector itself can support various exciting new USB standard like
USB 3.1 and USB power delivery (USB PD).
The standard USB connector we’re most familiar with is USB Type-A. Even as we’ve moved
from USB 1 to USB 2 and on to modern USB 3 devices, that connector has stayed the same.
It’s as massive as ever, and it only plugs in one way (which is obviously never the way you try
to plug it in the first time). But as devices became smaller and thinner, those massive USB
ports just didn’t fit. This gave rise to lots of other USB connector shapes like the “micro” and
“mini” connectors.
The USB PD specification is also closely intertwined with USB Type-C. Currently, a USB 2.0
connection provides up to 2.5 watts of power—enough to charge your phone or tablet, but
that’s about it. The USB PD specification supported by USB-C ups this power delivery to 100
watts. It’s bi-directional, so a device can either send or receive power. And this power can be
transferred at the same time the device is transmitting data across the connection. This kind of
power delivery could even let you charge a laptop, which usually requires up to about 60 watts.
A New Approach for Universal Charging Compatibility
The biggest issue that arrives with charging or powering up devices is that different types of
devices use different pins to charge up the devices. We need a charges that can power up
devices irrespective of their circuitry needs. To compensate for the lack of genuine
improvement in battery technology, advances in charging speed for existing batteries is
included in nearly any high-end portable consumer electronics like smartphones and some
headphones.
The charger should have some great adaptive features with Power Deliver 3.0. It should be able
to automatically detect the best charging efficiency for whatever device we plug in between all
different levels.
We advise the use of cables with a magnetic contact point and a detachable pin adapter for it.
While providing the same charging speed just to any device without any hassle of plugging in
and out frequently. This type of cable can protect our device from accidental trips and save it
from accidental cable pulls which can end up dismounting the device. This can cause fatal
damages to work that was being done on the device and the hardware part of the device itself.
The simple use of these cables can increase the protection capability of the device being
charged.
Data Transfer capabilities
USB 3.1 is a new USB standard. USB 3‘s theoretical bandwidth is 5 Gbps, while USB 3.1’s
is 10 Gbps. That’s double the bandwidth—as fast as a first-generation Thunderbolt connector.
USB Type-C isn’t the same thing as USB 3.1, though. USB Type-C is just a connector shape,
and the underlying technology could just be USB 2 or USB 3.0. In fact, Nokia’s N1 Android
tablet uses a USB Type-C connector, but underneath it’s all USB 2.0—not even USB
3.0. However, these technologies are closely related. When buying devices, you’ll just need
to keep your eye on the details and make sure you’re buying devices (and cables) that support
USB 3.1.
Proposed Design
There are 2 different design components in play here:
1. USB-C Magnetic cable that supports up to 65W variable fast charging.
2. A charging brick which consists of circuit that can vary its power output depending
upon the internal circuit of device which is being charged.
The cable should have USB-C to Magnetic end cable which can be attached to any adapter.
We need only one detachable magnetic end for our universal charger to work. To make our
charger work we need Type A, Type B, Micro-USB, Mini-USB, Type-C and Lightning
Magnetic adapter. We can either leave these adapters at the charging spot for long period of
eliminating the risk of losing them. We now, just have to make cable that can attach to these
adapters using in-built magnets making these cables secure which will prevent devices from
tumbling to the floor which will provide extra protection for these devices. The output port of
cable should have a circular disc shaped magnetic port which can attach to any of the above
adapters easily and make the charging process hassle free. The cable here should be braded and
long (about 2 meters) in length so that it is rigid and has a long life.
0
The charging brick of charger should have a variable voltage and current output so that it does
not fry up the internal circuit of the device that is being charged. In case the device is receiving
more amount of current that it has been designed for there are chances that this increased
current damages the circuit melting the internal connections entirely. To enhance the user
experience we suggest to introduce a text message triggered charging functionality so that user
can charge the device which has already been plugged in. This can come in handy specifically
when user need to charge devices such as Laptops, power banks and many chargeable devices.
That are needed to be ready on the go.
All types of adapter pins
All the above shown pins will have a rear end which will have a magnetic casing and Six gold-
plated pins.
Rear end of adapter pin Connectable Magnetic Port of cable
These pins lock into the metallic casing created at the end of the USB opening created at the
end of the wire.
Final Cable Rear end of magnetic connection cable
The cable works with all kinds of charging bricks and supports maximum up to 65W of
power delivery and a universal portability of magnetic cable and wide array of adapters all
designed from the same blueprint to provide excellent charging capabilities.
Now, due to involvement of magnets in the design cable is made in such a way that the whole
cable and the adapter comes out of the charging port only when the cable is pulled along 90
degree only. In other cases when cable is pulled from side angles the magnetic end of cable
comes right off leaving the cable in the charging port. This provides accidental protection and
keeps the device out of harm’s way.
Adapter design
Connecting Cable
Charging Brick
Value Analysis
Total cost of this product should be ₹ 2500. The final product should include 8-Types of pins
from USB Type-A, USB Type-B, Micro USB, Mini USB, Type-C, Lightning Pin among them to
satisfyalltheuser needs just in one kit. The presence of these pins included with self-adjusting
power output makes our charger perfect for universal use no matter where this charger is
being used. Presence of rugged and strong braded cable ensures a long life for the charger.
User can always buy more adapter pins to come similar pin sporting devices with high
efficiency. Text message operated feature make it a real champ saving day for highly busy
people so now they have one less thing to worry about.

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Study of evolution in different charger pins

  • 1. Industrial Design and Reliability of Electronic Equipment Assignment Topic : Chargers Submitted by: Rajat Shukla (I-80) Kritika Jain (I-11) Under the Guidance of : Prof. Anuradha D. Verma Shri Ramdeobaba College Of Engineering and Management Department of Electronics Engineering 2019-20
  • 2. Evolution & Types Of Chargers 1980s mobile phone charger : This is what powered the then popular Motorola DynaTAC that used nickel cadmium batteries. It took 10 hours for this charger to recharge the batteries of these types of phones. And even so, these batteries could not hold a charge consistently. Compact phone charger: This was used to power nickel metal hydride batteries, which held charge better than the nickel cadmium ones. Charging time was also reduced to only 4 hours, which was considered a breakthrough in mobile charging back then. Classic wall charger: This is the typical charger that comes with today’s mobile phones. The classic wall charger works with Li-ion batteries. It can be connected using the integrated cable that it comes with or a USB cable. It also charges faster, with an average charging time of only 1 hour. USB cable charger: This is another form of charger that we are all familiar with. It has an average charging time of 3 hours, depending on the amperage you choose. The USB cable charger also has data transfer capabilities, which add to its versatility. The only downside is that since it is connected to a computer instead of a power charger, charging time is four times slower than a traditional charger. Wireless charger: This technology has been around since 2013, but it hasn’t gone mainstream yet. It uses inductive charging and rids you the hassle of using cables and plugs. Wireless chargers like the Bezalel Futura X also last longer than traditional chargers, as they prevent the wear and tear that usually happens with power cords (as a result of frequent plugging and unplugging). Wireless chargers replenish the charge on your phone in 2 hours and typically weigh 93 grams. Solar mobile charger: As its name implies, this charger is powered by sunlight. To determine how many hours of direct sunlight you need to fully charge your mobile device, simply follow this formula: amperes per hour of the battery/amperes per hour of the charger + 10%. Car charger: This comes in different types depending on the car model. Some car manufacturers like General Motors and BMW have integrated theirs with wireless charging capabilities. On the other hand, other cars charge phones the traditional way by connecting your charging cable through an adapter that re-purposes your cigarette lighter. There are also certain car models that come with a USB port that you can use as a charger. Both are powered by the car’s battery. Charging kiosk: Typically found in public transportation terminals, convenience stores and gasoline stations, the charging kiosk has a variety of charging cables installed in it to cater to different mobile devices. All you have to do is pick the cable that’s compatible with your device, plug your device, and wait for charging to finish. It can charge your device in more or less 2 hours. Mobile charging has come a long way from being an ultra-bulky apparatus, to a sleek and portable device that can be carried around everywhere, and to a machine that can take care of every possible charging need.
  • 3. Study Of Different Charging Pins There are 6 types of chargers with different pins for mobile phones:  Type-A: The standard flat, rectangular interface that you find on one end of nearly every USB cable. Most computers have multiple USB-A ports for connecting peripherals. We find them on game consoles, TVs, and other devices too. This cable only inserts in one way.  Type-B: An almost square connector, mostly used for printers and other powered devices that connect to a computer. They’re not very common these days, as most devices have moved onto a smaller connection.  Mini-USB: A smaller connector type that was standard for mobile devices before micro- USB. While not as common today, we still see these on some cameras, the PlayStation 3 controller, MP3 players, and similar.  Micro-USB: The current standard (though slowly declining in popularity) for mobile and portable devices, which is even smaller than mini-USB. While we still find micro-USB on all sorts of smartphones, tablets, USB battery packs, and game controllers, some have moved onto USB-C.  Type-C: The newest USB standard, this is a reversible cable that promises higher transfer rates and more power than previous USB types. It’s also capable of juggling multiple functions. It’s on many new laptops and smartphones, including the MacBook, Pixel phones, and Nintendo Switch Pro Controller.  Lightning: This isn’t a true USB standard, but is Apple’s proprietary connector for the iPhone, iPad, AirPods and more. It’s a similar size to USB-C and comes standard on Apple devices released since September 2012.
  • 4. Power output of Charger Different devices have different power requirements based on their internal circuitry. There are various types of charging bricks with power output such as:  5V,1A  5V,2A  9V,2A  15V,2A  20V,2A  25V,2A  5V,3A  9V,3A  15V,3A  20V,3A This includes almost every type of power output which can be used to charge from a small mobile phone to a laptop at a faster charging speed. USB- Type C is becoming a norm these days as it comes with a high data and power delivery capabilities. USB Type-C has a new, tiny physical connector—roughly the size of a micro USB connector. The USB-C connector itself can support various exciting new USB standard like USB 3.1 and USB power delivery (USB PD). The standard USB connector we’re most familiar with is USB Type-A. Even as we’ve moved from USB 1 to USB 2 and on to modern USB 3 devices, that connector has stayed the same. It’s as massive as ever, and it only plugs in one way (which is obviously never the way you try to plug it in the first time). But as devices became smaller and thinner, those massive USB ports just didn’t fit. This gave rise to lots of other USB connector shapes like the “micro” and “mini” connectors. The USB PD specification is also closely intertwined with USB Type-C. Currently, a USB 2.0 connection provides up to 2.5 watts of power—enough to charge your phone or tablet, but that’s about it. The USB PD specification supported by USB-C ups this power delivery to 100 watts. It’s bi-directional, so a device can either send or receive power. And this power can be transferred at the same time the device is transmitting data across the connection. This kind of power delivery could even let you charge a laptop, which usually requires up to about 60 watts.
  • 5. A New Approach for Universal Charging Compatibility The biggest issue that arrives with charging or powering up devices is that different types of devices use different pins to charge up the devices. We need a charges that can power up devices irrespective of their circuitry needs. To compensate for the lack of genuine improvement in battery technology, advances in charging speed for existing batteries is included in nearly any high-end portable consumer electronics like smartphones and some headphones. The charger should have some great adaptive features with Power Deliver 3.0. It should be able to automatically detect the best charging efficiency for whatever device we plug in between all different levels. We advise the use of cables with a magnetic contact point and a detachable pin adapter for it. While providing the same charging speed just to any device without any hassle of plugging in and out frequently. This type of cable can protect our device from accidental trips and save it from accidental cable pulls which can end up dismounting the device. This can cause fatal damages to work that was being done on the device and the hardware part of the device itself. The simple use of these cables can increase the protection capability of the device being charged. Data Transfer capabilities USB 3.1 is a new USB standard. USB 3‘s theoretical bandwidth is 5 Gbps, while USB 3.1’s is 10 Gbps. That’s double the bandwidth—as fast as a first-generation Thunderbolt connector. USB Type-C isn’t the same thing as USB 3.1, though. USB Type-C is just a connector shape, and the underlying technology could just be USB 2 or USB 3.0. In fact, Nokia’s N1 Android tablet uses a USB Type-C connector, but underneath it’s all USB 2.0—not even USB 3.0. However, these technologies are closely related. When buying devices, you’ll just need to keep your eye on the details and make sure you’re buying devices (and cables) that support USB 3.1.
  • 6. Proposed Design There are 2 different design components in play here: 1. USB-C Magnetic cable that supports up to 65W variable fast charging. 2. A charging brick which consists of circuit that can vary its power output depending upon the internal circuit of device which is being charged. The cable should have USB-C to Magnetic end cable which can be attached to any adapter. We need only one detachable magnetic end for our universal charger to work. To make our charger work we need Type A, Type B, Micro-USB, Mini-USB, Type-C and Lightning Magnetic adapter. We can either leave these adapters at the charging spot for long period of eliminating the risk of losing them. We now, just have to make cable that can attach to these adapters using in-built magnets making these cables secure which will prevent devices from tumbling to the floor which will provide extra protection for these devices. The output port of cable should have a circular disc shaped magnetic port which can attach to any of the above adapters easily and make the charging process hassle free. The cable here should be braded and long (about 2 meters) in length so that it is rigid and has a long life. 0 The charging brick of charger should have a variable voltage and current output so that it does not fry up the internal circuit of the device that is being charged. In case the device is receiving more amount of current that it has been designed for there are chances that this increased current damages the circuit melting the internal connections entirely. To enhance the user experience we suggest to introduce a text message triggered charging functionality so that user can charge the device which has already been plugged in. This can come in handy specifically when user need to charge devices such as Laptops, power banks and many chargeable devices. That are needed to be ready on the go.
  • 7. All types of adapter pins All the above shown pins will have a rear end which will have a magnetic casing and Six gold- plated pins. Rear end of adapter pin Connectable Magnetic Port of cable These pins lock into the metallic casing created at the end of the USB opening created at the end of the wire. Final Cable Rear end of magnetic connection cable The cable works with all kinds of charging bricks and supports maximum up to 65W of power delivery and a universal portability of magnetic cable and wide array of adapters all designed from the same blueprint to provide excellent charging capabilities. Now, due to involvement of magnets in the design cable is made in such a way that the whole cable and the adapter comes out of the charging port only when the cable is pulled along 90 degree only. In other cases when cable is pulled from side angles the magnetic end of cable comes right off leaving the cable in the charging port. This provides accidental protection and keeps the device out of harm’s way.
  • 9. Charging Brick Value Analysis Total cost of this product should be ₹ 2500. The final product should include 8-Types of pins from USB Type-A, USB Type-B, Micro USB, Mini USB, Type-C, Lightning Pin among them to satisfyalltheuser needs just in one kit. The presence of these pins included with self-adjusting power output makes our charger perfect for universal use no matter where this charger is being used. Presence of rugged and strong braded cable ensures a long life for the charger. User can always buy more adapter pins to come similar pin sporting devices with high efficiency. Text message operated feature make it a real champ saving day for highly busy people so now they have one less thing to worry about.