CH-1:- INTRODUCTION TO HRMHUMAN RESOURCE may be defined as the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talentsand aptitudes of an organizations workforce, as well as the values, attitudes, approaches andbeliefs of the individuals involved in the affairs of the organization. It is the sum total oraggregate of inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills represented by the talents andaptitudes of the persons employed in the organization.The human resources are multidimensional in nature. From the national point of view, humanresources may be defined as the knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudesobtained in the population; whereas from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise, theyrepresent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in thetalents and aptitudes of its employees.Human Resource Management: DefinedHuman Resource Management has come to be recognized as an inherent part of management,which is concerned with the human resources of an organization. Its objective is the maintenanceof better human relations in the organization by the development, application and evaluation ofpolicies, procedures and programmers relating to human resources to optimize their contributiontowards the realization of organizational objectives.In other words, HRM is concerned with getting better results with the collaboration of people. Itis an integral but distinctive part of management, concerned with people at work and theirrelationships within the enterprise. HRM helps in attaining maximum individual development,desirable working relationship between employees and employers, employees and employees,and effective modeling of human resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is therecruitment, selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of humanresources by the organization.Human Resource Management: EvolutionThe early part of the century saw a concern for improved efficiency through careful design ofwork. During the middle part of the century emphasis shifted to the employees productivity.Recent decades have focused on increased concern for the quality of working life, totalquality management and workers participation in management. These three phases may betermed as welfare, development and empowerment.Human Resource Management: NatureHuman Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so thatthe goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include:• It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises.• Its focus is on results rather than on rules.• It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.• It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.• It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups.
• It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.• It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-motivated employees.• It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in theorganization.• It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology,economics, etc.Human Resource Management: ScopeThe scope of HRM is very wide:1. Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection,placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, layoff and retrenchment,remuneration, incentives, productivity etc.2. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches, restand lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety,recreation facilities, etc.3. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations, joint consultation,collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.Human Resource Management: BeliefsThe Human Resource Management philosophy is based on the following beliefs:• Human resource is the most important asset in the organization and can be developed andincreased to an unlimited extent.• A healthy climate with values of openness, enthusiasm, trust, mutuality and collaboration isessential for developing human resource.• HRM can be planned and monitored in ways that are beneficial both to the individuals and theorganization.• Employees feel committed to their work and the organization, if the organization perpetuates afeeling of belongingness.• Employees feel highly motivated if the organization provides for satisfaction of their basic andhigher level needs.• Employee commitment is increased with the opportunity to dis¬cover and use ones capabilitiesand potential in ones work.• It is every managers responsibility to ensure the development and utilisation of the capabilitiesof subordinates.Human Resource Management: Objectives• To help the organization reach its goals.• To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human resources.• To ensure respect for human beings. To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals.• To ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the organization.• To achieve and maintain high morale among employees.• To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees.• To increase to the fullest the employees job satisfaction and self-actualization.• To develop and maintain a quality of work life.
• To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society.• To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional aspect.• To enhance employees capabilities to perform the present job.• To equip the employees with precision and clarity in trans¬action of business.• To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team collaboration.Human Resource Management: FunctionsIn order to achieve the above objectives, Human Resource Management undertakes thefollowing activities:1. Human resource or manpower planning.2. Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel.3. Training and development of employees.4. Appraisal of performance of employees.5. Taking corrective steps such as transfer from one job to another.6. Remuneration of employees.7. Social security and welfare of employees.8. Setting general and specific management policy for organizational relationship.9. Collective bargaining, contract negotiation and grievance handling.10. Staffing the organization.11. Aiding in the self-development of employees at all levels.12. Developing and maintaining motivation for workers by providing incentives.13. Reviewing and auditing man¬power management in the organization14. Potential Appraisal. Feedback Counseling.15. Role Analysis for job occupants.16. Job Rotation.17. Quality Circle, Organization development and Quality of Working Life.Human Resource Management: Major Influencing FactorsIn the 21st century HRM will be influenced by following factors, which will work as variousissues affecting its strategy:• Size of the workforce.• Rising employees expectations• Drastic changes in the technology as well as Life-style changes.• Composition of workforce. New skills required.• Environmental challenges.• Lean and mean organizations.• Impact of new economic policy. Political ideology of the Govern¬ment.• Downsizing and rightsizing of the organizations.• Culture prevailing in the organization etc.Human Resource Management: Futuristic VisionOn the basis of the various issues and challenges the following suggestions will be of much helpto the philosophy of HRM with regard to its futuristic vision:1. There should be a properly defined recruitment policy in the organization that should give itsfocus on professional aspect and merit based selection.2. In every decision-making process there should be given proper weightage to the aspect that
employees are involved wherever possible. It will ultimately lead to sense of team spirit, team-work and inter-team collaboration.3. Opportunity and comprehensive framework should be provided for full expression ofemployees talents and manifest potentialities.4. Networking skills of the organizations should be developed internally and externally as well ashorizontally and vertically.5. For performance appraisal of the employee’s emphasis should be given to 360 degreefeedback which is based on the review by superiors, peers, subordinates as well as self-review.6. 360 degree feedback will further lead to increased focus on customer services, creating ofhighly involved workforce, decreased hierarchies, avoiding discrimination and biases andidentifying performance threshold.7. More emphasis should be given to Total Quality Management. TQM will cover all employeesat all levels; it will conform to customers needs and expectations; it will ensure effectiveutilization of resources and will lead towards continuous improvement in all spheres andactivities of the organization.8. There should be focus on job rotation so that vision and knowledge of the employees arebroadened as well as potentialities of the employees are increased for future job prospects.9. For proper utilization of manpower in the organization the concept of six sigma of improvingproductivity should be intermingled in the HRM strategy.10. The capacities of the employees should be assessed through potential appraisal forperforming new roles and responsibilities. It should not be confined to organizational aspectsonly but the environmental changes of political, economic and social considerations should alsobe taken into account.11. The career of the employees should be planned in such a way that individualizing processand socializing process come together for fusion process and career planning should constitutethe part of human resource planning.To conclude Human Resource Management should be linked with strategic goals and objectivesin order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that fosterinnovation and flexibility. All the above futuristic visions coupled with strategic goals andobjectives should be based on 3 Hs of Heart, Head and Hand i.e., we should feel by Heart, thinkby Head and implement by Hand.CH:-2 > What is Strategic Human ResourceManagementHow do you define strategic human resource management?In short, strategic means to think and plan long term.Human resource management means to manage the employees so that they will worktowards the profitability of the company.
The official definition is more complicated than that.The official definition links the strategic business plan and objective to the development, anddeployment of human resources.Many companies now accept that the Human Resource Department is an important businesspartner.They seek the input of HR department when there is a need for an organization change.Why is strategic human resource management important?A company has many assets.Of all the assets, only human asset does not depreciate in value.You can never see depreciation for human asset in the balance sheet. All the other assets, such asplants, buildings and equipments, get less valuable through use.You know that you need to replace a computer after a few years.The only exception is human asset.As a person gains experience, and knowledge, he becomes more valuable to the company.That is why the senior management in the company is older and wiser than the rank and fileemployees.What does strategic human resource management look at?The HR department no longer focus on the transactions, even though these are still importantfunctions.Strategic human resource management looks beyond the daily data entry, filing, and othertransactions.These are the areas that it focus on:1. Cross cultural issuesMany companies have operations in many countries.The companies may have the payroll done in India, and the IT service in China.It is important that employees from different parts of the world work together.
The cross cultural issues also include the management of expatriates and their families.2. Corporate culture changeStrategic human resource management is the champion of corporate culture change.A company has to cut business costs as much as possible, in order to produce products at lowestpossible cost, and let consumers have great products at most affordable price.The company no longer thinks of selling to consumers in one country. It is competing with theother companies in the world for the global consumers segment.The mindset change triggers the corporate culture change.3. Rise of developing countriesFor many years, the large companies focus on selling to consumers in developed countries.However, in recent years, companies see the hunger and needs of the consumers in developingcountries.Some of the richest persons in the world live in developing countries.Nobody can ignore the purchasing power of people in India, China and other developingcountries.That is why the business plan changes. Many companies are making products and selling them indeveloping countries.This development presents a challenge to strategic human resource management.When the trend reverses in the future, and jobs start to return to developed countries, strategichuman resource management will play an important part again.Managing employees in developing countries and developed countries definitely needs adifferent approach.Strategic human resource management has become the focus of business studies, and businessworld.