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ESL learning , testing and teaching methodologies
The comparison between TOEFL iBT & CBT to figure out the pros & cons

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  2. 2. TOEFL iBT vs. CBT
  3. 3. During the time some improvement plans have been considered for TOEFL
  4. 4. Addition of a direct.2  measure of writing ability (Test Of Written English) as a separate component in 1986 Introduction of. 3  computer-based version of TOEFL in 1998 Internet –based version. 4  of TOEFL as the latest version intended to support the design and the proposed test score interpretations in 2005
  5. 5. :Purpose of TOEFL TEST To measure  English language proficiency and the students’ abilities to use English effectively in academic language settings
  6. 6. iBT New developments in  :TOEFL Addition of Speaking section  Elimination of grammar part  Integrated tasks(to test more  (than one language skill New scale for reporting writing  section Availability of performance  description
  7. 7. Pitfalls of CBT and strong points of iBT CBT Listening it was underrepresente d because oral input was too inauthentic iBT Listening More and longer samples of spoken discourse and complex tasks for assessment
  8. 8. CBT Writing •Narrowly defined due to limitations of tasks to consider just ability to write argumentative discourse iBT Writing 1.Pragmatic consideration 2.Additional rhetoric function 3.Multiple writing samples complex task: use of several lang skills
  9. 9. CBT Speaking Limitations in using the computer to deliver the speaking component iBT Speaking The method of assessment in terms of: Knowledge, control of important phonological and syntactic features, vocabulary and discourse patterns
  10. 10. some evidences to support the theoretical basis in iBT According to several researches in different universities  such as North America colleges, we have come up with :these results test content was relevant and representative of what.1  examinees encounter in the universities test content approximacy with TL use. 2  empirical evidences to support the fact that test items.3  functioned as intended inclusion of both independent and integrated tasks in. 4  .speaking and writing com examinees responded to R.T in a way test designers. 5  intended 
  11. 11. Construct validity of iBT Validity: always refer to the degree to which that evidence supports the inferences that are made from the scores. The inferences regarding specific uses of a test are validated, (not the test itself(APA 1985:9 Note: The previous versions of  TOEFL didn’t include a theoretical rationale to support the interpretation and uses of test .scores
  12. 12. Reliability construct definition: consistency of test scores or as the absence of error in test .scores  Reliability of iBT in speaking assessment: different speaking tasks  were highly correlated. All the obtained coefficients were above .80 and many were over .90    Reliability in writing task: as the same as that of speaking component.  Raters didn’t seem to have a large impact on reliability but the .number and type of test had greater impact on total scores    Generalizablity were used to show constructed responses involve a  degree of judgment ETS used multiple raters to evaluate performances on a daily basis  monitored by means of OSN system
  13. 13. Authenticity in iBT degree of correspondence of characteristics of a given lang  test task to the features of TLU Authenticity in listening defined in  Classroom lecture  Conversation similar to common campus encounters  Inclusion of repetition, false starts, pauses and self corrections   in cd    reading: selection of different topics on various disciplines  texts    speaking and writing: integrated tasks representing the same  authenticity found in above
  14. 14. interactiveness The extent of involvement of examinees' knowledge and interest and their communicative language strategies in doing tasks    Inter. In . listening: pragmatic knowledge questions Inter. In . reading: reading to learn and paraphrasing the questions Inter. In. writing and speaking: integrated tasks that require the use of multiple language ability    
  15. 15. iBT impact practicality The consequences of using a  The adequacy of available  resources for design, use and test and scores it produces evaluation of test Positive     Negative  practical implications: the  The addition of speaking  choice of test component increased the method(computer delivered) and task design(lack of congruency between what interlocutor) used in examinees do on test and speaking made it practical to lang used in real context collect speech samples
  16. 16. iBT Notes : offers better representation of L2 in general 2.It uses longer samples of discourse in reading and listening than PBT and CBT 3.With addition of speaking compo. It provides more exhaustive assessment of lang proficiency