Language testing - Contrastive analysis


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Language testing - Contrastive analysis

  1. 1. Language testing Instructor Marwan Alalimi
  2. 2. Language testing • Test vs. exam • Advantages and disadvantages of essay vs. objective tests. Neither of them is better. Their preference depends on : Context of evaluation.  the purpose.
  3. 3. Advantages and disadvantages Essay tests have poor reliability. But objective tests have high reliability.  objective tests marking can be reliable, rapid, and economical but essay test marking is tedious and time- consuming. Objective tests cannot determine how the actual performance of the learner.
  4. 4. Types of tests 1. Proficiency test. 2. Achievement test. 3. Diagnostic test. 4. Placement test. 5. Aptitude test.
  5. 5. Criteria of Designing a Test. 1. Validity:  Content validity.  Predictive validity.  Face validity. 2. Reliability:  Teacher’s reliability.  Student’s reliability. 3. Practicality. 4. Discrimination.
  6. 6. Contrastive analysis Instructor Marwan Alalimi
  7. 7. Think about it…. • Contrastive analysis means … • It’s a branch of applied linguistics. • The main argument of Contrastive analysis: Each language has a unique structural system. Learners of a second language expect to find similar structures to their mother- tongue. Problems start from the differences.
  8. 8.  the main claim of contrastive analysis is “All language errors are resulted from the mother tongue interference”.  E.g. An English-speaking learner of French: “The dog eats the meat” – The dog eats it. “le chien mange la viande”- le chien mange la. “le chien la mange”.
  9. 9. Robert Lado summed up the learner’s problem in a well-known formulation: “those elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him and those elements that are different will be difficult”
  10. 10. Contrastive analysis and second language teaching  CA is considered a teaching theory. What is the role of the teacher? Easing the teaching process by: Pointing out the differences between L1 and L2. Predicting the errors. Avoiding these errors by using intensive techniques such as repetition or drills in order to overcome the interference and establish the necessary new habits.
  11. 11. Contrastive analysis and translation It played a major role in translation theory. A good knowledge of two language contrasted help the translator to translate better.  let’s take the comparison between Arabic and English in the use of articles, tenses and adjectives.
  12. 12. The use of articles Articles definite The indefinite a, an
  13. 13. English tenses English tenses present simple Past continuous perfect future Perfect progressive
  14. 14. Arabic tenses
  15. 15. Present tense in Arabic • Has no specific rule, it’s general. • • •
  16. 16. Future tense in Arabic • Near future: • Far future: • Continuous future:
  17. 17. Past tense in Arabic • Simple past: • Recent past: • Distant past: • Past progressive: • Past connected with present: • Past ending in present
  18. 18. Mother tongue interference in the use of adjectives… • The long the man • The students are clevers • The Yemen
  19. 19. Criticism against contrastive analysis • Its association with behaviorism: – Lado calls grammatical structures as “a system of habits” • Mispredictions: predicted errors by contrastive analysis have often not occurred.
  20. 20. Thank you