True Confessions…<br />Identities concealed to protect the guilty. <br />
Assessment as a Second Language: We use these terms, but do we really know them?<br />Standards-based Assessment or Criterion-referenced Assessment <br />(e.g. state standardized <br />assessments, ACT) <br />Students demonstrate mastery of explicit domains, often with a cut-score, dividing 2-digit numbers with 80% correct, no comparison)<br />In our state, students score Pass, Pass Plus or Did not Pass<br />
Norm-referenced Assessments<br />Norm-referenced Assessment (SAT, GRE,) Students are compared to the performance of peers. There is no passing or failing. <br />Think Bell Curve. Think percentiles.<br />
Ipsative Assessments<br />Ipsative Assessment (bonus points if you know this one!) (e.g. physical education, individual assessments, video games<br />Student is compared to his own previous performance and is encouraged to “beat” his own score to show improvement. <br />
Teacher-created Assessment Terms<br /><ul><li>Teacher-created Assessments</li></ul>Quizzes, tests, projects, <br />assignments<br /><ul><li>Performance-based Assessments</li></ul>Skills tests, presentations, demonstrations<br /><ul><li>Portfolio Assessments</li></ul>Exemplars of peak performance on a variety of student work collected and displayed in a <br />physical or digital site<br />
Formative vs. Summative<br />When the cook tastes the soup, <br /> that's formative. <br />When the guests taste the soup, <br /> that's summative*<br />This is frequently where educators are satisfied to stop, but for ELLs, assessment is much more complicated.<br />*Quote by Robert Stake in Scriven, M. (1991). Evaluation thesaurus. 4th ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.<br />
Content or Language? What are we really assessing? <br />Our working definition of authentic assessment of ELL learning emerges from the root word, <br />assess:<br />Assidēre (Latin) to sit beside someone. <br />This evolved into the idea of sitting beside a judge to help him in his deliberations <br />(especially in determining <br /> property values or <br /> calculating fines <br /> or taxes to be paid). <br />Source: Word-Origins.com<br />
Our Essential Questions for Today:<br />What is authentic assessment of ELLs?<br />How are ELLs best assessed?<br /> Who assesses ELLs?<br />What is the role of classroom assessment in grade retention or course failure decisions? <br />What is the role of the ESL teacher and/or ESL Director in evaluation of ELLs for retention or course failure?<br />Who do you sit beside when you are assessing your students?<br />
Examples from the field<br />ESL teachers discussing standards<br /><ul><li>Consider knowledge base of ESL teachers’ understanding of standards</li></ul>Content area teacher<br /><ul><li>Naming & Connecting: Significant for transformation & change</li></ul>ESL teacher<br /><ul><li>Content and English</li></ul>Student work<br /><ul><li>Product: What do students show and how do they understand it?</li></li></ul><li>Tomlinson’s Framework<br />Tomlinson, C. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.<br />
Our BIG, Over-arching Question for Today:<br />How might ESL teachers use the notion of assidēre to develop <br />authentic assessment practices that distinguish <br />what ELLs know and can do from their ability to communicate their learning in English? <br />
Turn to your neighbor…<br />Together, think of an example you have seen of a student’s content knowledge or skill <br />being assessed by her/his ability to demonstrate that knowledge or skill <br />in English. <br />
What are we assessing?<br />Content <br />Knowledge or Skills<br />Ability to communicate <br />in English<br />I em playing basketball. I love to play basketball. I just shoot. I like to play ugest my bruthr.<br />Sum times I win. Sum times he plays ese. My bruthr tot me to play basketball he told me that<br />wen you stop grebling you cant start to grebling again.<br />I am playing basketball. I love to play basketball. I just shoot. I like to play against my<br />brother. Sometimes I win. Sometimes he plays easy. My brother taught me to play basketball.<br />He told me that when you stop dribbling you can’t start dribbling again.<br />
What are we assessing?<br />Content <br />Knowledge or skills<br />Ability to communicate<br /> in English<br />Test Question: Explain how to use a microscope properly. Include details such as the process of creating, inserting and examining slides correctly. <br />
Turn to your neighbor. What do you see? What does this student know?<br />
Because ESL Teachers Teach Content and/or Push into Mainstream Classrooms…<br /><ul><li>What observational knowledge do we have of student mastery?
How might we document student mastery of content area standards?
How might we keep records of student learning and performance?
Under what conditions do ELLs show us what they know and can do?
What don’t mainstream teachers know about ELL content knowledge and skill mastery?</li></li></ul><li>Standards Mastery Record Date_______________ Teacher _____________________________<br />
How does this compare with traditional quizzes and tests?<br />Traditional Test REsults<br />ESL teacher Evidence of meeting content area standards<br />
What is the connection between authentic assessments and academic achievement?<br />Success breeds success: students who get acknowledgment of skills and knowledge are encouraged and are motivated to keep trying. Failure breeds dropout: students who receive an F in the first 9 weeks of high school are much more likely to drop out of high school.<br />What the research says about immigrant youth and dropping out of high school:<br />“Dropouts' school grades were lower than those of continuing students, and<br /> those that were ever held back in school had higher dropout rates.” p. 866<br /> “Each one-letter improvement in GPA in middle school lowered the chances<br /> of dropping out in freshman or sophomore year by almost half. Having been<br /> held back a grade prior to high school was associated with a much higher risk<br /> of early dropout.” p. 869<br />“Risk of High School Dropout among Immigrant and Native Hispanic Youth,” Anne K. Driscoll<br />Source: International Migration Review, Vol. 33, No. 4 (Winter, 1999), pp. 857-875<br />Published by: The Center for Migration Studies of New York, Inc.<br />Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2547355 <br />
ESL teachers and directors should:<br />Create instruction that enhances content area mastery WHILE students acquire academic English<br />Collect convincing evidence of student skills and conceptual understandings.<br />Cooperate with mainstream teachers to support innovative alternative assessments.<br />Collaborate with teachers and administrators to evaluate each child’s learning coherently from an asset-based perspective with a view to long-term success instead of short-term failure.<br />