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Ethical issues associated with Genetically Modified Crops and Genetically Modified foods.pptx

As GMO are being widely used and disturbed across the world for their unique characters which is being beneficial for both industries and civilians, it also rises the concern of its safety and ethics. So I have accumulated some of the major concerning Ethical issues related to GMO that would give a glimpse of Risks associated with Genetically Modified Crops and foods.

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BANGALORE UNIVERSITY
JB CAMPUS BANGALORE
DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY &
FOOD TECHNOLOGY
TOPIC : ETHICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH GM CROPS & GM FOOD
GUIDED BY : Dr. K.M SRINIVAS MURTHY PRESENTED BY : PUNITH KUMAR.S
DEPT.OF BIOTECHNOLOGY M.Sc III Sem. BIOTECHNOLOGY
BANGALORE UNIVERSITY
Contents
INTRODUCTION
3
GM CROPS AND GM
FOODS
4
ETHICAL ISSUES
10
POTENTIAL BENEFITS
17
CONCLUSION
18
Introduction
Genetically modified crops, or GMOs, have been a
controversial subject for many years, sparking debate
about their safety, environmental impact, and ethical
implications.
The widespread use of genetic engineering techniques
in the agricultural sector has led to the creation of
genetically modified crops that are more resistant to
pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. These
crops have the potential to provide significant benefits
in terms of food security and sustainable agriculture.
However, there are also concerns about the long-term
effects of GMOs on human health, the environment,
and ethical concerns related to food production and
consumption.
GM Crops & GM Food 3
• Genetic modification is a technology that
involves inserting desired DNA into the
genome of an organism. To produce a
Genetically Modified plant, new DNA is
transferred into plant cells. Usually, the
cells are then grown in tissue culture where
they develop into plants. The seeds
produced by these plants will inherit the
new DNA
4
What are genetically modified crops?
5
6

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Ethical issues associated with Genetically Modified Crops and Genetically Modified foods.pptx

  • 1. BANGALORE UNIVERSITY JB CAMPUS BANGALORE DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY, BIOTECHNOLOGY & FOOD TECHNOLOGY TOPIC : ETHICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH GM CROPS & GM FOOD GUIDED BY : Dr. K.M SRINIVAS MURTHY PRESENTED BY : PUNITH KUMAR.S DEPT.OF BIOTECHNOLOGY M.Sc III Sem. BIOTECHNOLOGY BANGALORE UNIVERSITY
  • 2. Contents INTRODUCTION 3 GM CROPS AND GM FOODS 4 ETHICAL ISSUES 10 POTENTIAL BENEFITS 17 CONCLUSION 18
  • 3. Introduction Genetically modified crops, or GMOs, have been a controversial subject for many years, sparking debate about their safety, environmental impact, and ethical implications. The widespread use of genetic engineering techniques in the agricultural sector has led to the creation of genetically modified crops that are more resistant to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. These crops have the potential to provide significant benefits in terms of food security and sustainable agriculture. However, there are also concerns about the long-term effects of GMOs on human health, the environment, and ethical concerns related to food production and consumption. GM Crops & GM Food 3
  • 4. • Genetic modification is a technology that involves inserting desired DNA into the genome of an organism. To produce a Genetically Modified plant, new DNA is transferred into plant cells. Usually, the cells are then grown in tissue culture where they develop into plants. The seeds produced by these plants will inherit the new DNA 4 What are genetically modified crops?
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 9. What is Ethics ? Derived from the Greek word “ethos”, which means “way of living”, ethics is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with human conduct, more specifically the behavior of individuals in society. Ethics examines the rational justification for our moral judgments; it studies what is morally right or wrong, just or unjust
  • 10. 10 Ethical issues 1. Antibiotic resistance It is generally assumed by people that eating foods with antibiotic resistance markers would reduce the effectiveness of an antibiotic since the antibiotic will be degraded. This issue was raised during the approval for Galgene’s FlavrSavr and Ciba Giegy’s Bt corn 176.  The transfer of antibiotic resistance marker gene from GMO to intestinal microflora also poses risk of horizontal gene transfer which can lead to antibiotic resistant micro- organisms, its probability in acidic environment is extremely rare. In view of the above issues, antibiotic resistance markers are being replaced with auxotropic or food grade markers.
  • 11. 11 2. Eating exogenous/foreign DNA  There are also apprehensions regarding the ingestion of exogenous DNA while eating transgenic foods. However, there are no scientific reports that DNA from these transgenic crops or foods pose any risk to human health.  The foreign DNA is destroyed by the body’s defense mechanism. Generally, DNA present in micro-organisms, plants and animals are eaten by human beings all the time and does not pose any problem. Similarly, the exogenous DNA is not likely to pose any health problem.
  • 12. Genetically modified foods FLAVR SAVR GOLDEN RICE BANANA AQUADVANTAGE SALMON Tomato 12
  • 13. 13 3. Food safety  Consumers are sometimes wary of the safety of GM foods due to problems such as allergens, pesticide residues, microbiological contaminants and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease).  There is also a common notion that GM crops are unsafe for other organisms that feed on them  e.g. Bt toxin may kill Monarch butterfly larvae. However, there are no scientific evidences to support this.
  • 14. 14 4. Environmental concerns  GMOs are novel products which, when released, may cause ecosystems to get polluted unintentionally and may also result from out-crossing with wild populations. GMOs may get released in the environment and pose several risks such as transgene instability, transfer to weeds, persistence of transgene in the environment, loss of biodiversity, changes in soil ecology, generation of new live viruses etc.  NGOs have also raised the concern that growing genetically engineered crops will be harmful for the environment  e.g. if herbicide resistance genes from canola flows into weedy relatives will make them resistant to herbicides.  There are no scientific studies to support this. Moreover, the risks to birds, insects and other non-target species that come into contact with or consume GM plants is not known. Hence, the extent of post-release monitoring of GMOs is required to protect ecosystems.
  • 15. 15 5. Exploitation of farmers Biotechnology offers considerable possibilities to increase the food demand and help eliminate the anticipated shortfall with increasing human population.  However, there is considerable concern that small-scale farmers should not be exploited by large international companies. The possible use of 'terminator' genes (that make seeds sterile) is one such example. They would help to reduce the hazards of environmental dispersal.  However farmers in developing countries traditionally save seed from one season to the next and cannot afford to buy new supplies every year. GE is very expensive and needs lot of investment and it would not be available to poor farmers. Moreover, there could be potential loss of traditional farming practices such as collecting, storing, and replanting seed.
  • 16. 16 6. Soil fertility It has been demonstrated scientifically that GM crops transfer their genes to soil fungi and bacteria. The affected fungi and bacteria then behave in abnormal ways and diminish their function in breaking down organic material, which makes nutrients available to plants. The soil becomes progressively less fertile. After a few seasons of planting GM crops, the soil will not be able to host any other conventional crop. If farmers wish to switch back to conventional crops, it could take a whole season to rehabilitate the soil. Hence, the economic consequences are unfavorable besides the added cost of nutrients and fertilizers which are necessary to regenerate the soil.  e.g Soya crop
  • 17. 17 Potential Benefits of GMOs  There are potential benefits to agricultural productivity through the development of crops which are more resistant to disease, pests and also to harsh weather conditions which decrease the risk of devastating crop failure.  GM crops with extended shelf life could decrease the gross wastage associated with transportation and storage.  Allergenicity problem could be tackled through GE which could be used to remove genes associated with allergies, e.g., the blocking of the gene that produces the allergenic protein in peanuts. GE could be used to develop pharmaceuticals and vaccines in plants, decrease the risk of adverse reactions and enable faster vaccination of large populations.
  • 18. CONCLUSION As you may already know, genetic engineering techniques have revolutionized the agricultural industry by allowing the development of crops that are more resistant to pests, diseases, and environmental stresses. These genetically modified crops have the potential to increase food production and provide greater food security, particularly in regions where food shortages and malnutrition are prevalent. However, the use of genetically modified crops and foods has also raised ethical concerns about their potential impact on human health, the environment, and social justice. One of the primary ethical concerns is the potential risk to human health. Some studies have suggested that consuming genetically modified foods may lead to increased risk of allergies, antibiotic resistance, and other health problems. This has led to calls for greater regulation and transparency in the development and labeling of genetically modified foods to protect consumer health. 18
  • 19. 19 Reference  Mohd. Azharul Haque . Er. H. Rocky Singh . Biotechnology, Genetic manipulation, Biosatey and CBD. Page no : 63-91.  Albert Weale (2010). Ethical arguments relevant to the use of GM crops . DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2010.08.013 Gary Comstock (2010). Ethics and Genetically Modified Foods . DOI: 10.1057/9781137349088_31