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  1. 1. AstronomyBy Ebony McPherson
  2. 2. The Planets• There are 8 planets in our solar system.• Each one has their own characteristic.• The inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) are rocky and closer to the sun.• The outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) are gassy and farther away from the sun.
  3. 3. • Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun.• Most say that it is the hottest planet, it is not.• Venus is the hottest planet and comes after Mercury.• It rotates around the Sun in Mercury only 88 days.• It is 36 million miles from the Sun. Did you know?: Mercury was named after the Roman messenger Hermes
  4. 4. Did you know?: Venus` symbol stands for female.• Venus is the second planet from the Sun.• It is 67 million miles from the Sun.• Venus spins in the opposite direction than Earth.• The temperature on Venus Venus goes up to 932° F.• Venus has a really thick atmosphere mostly made up of carbon dioxide. Did you know?: Venus is also known as “the daughter of the Sun”.
  5. 5. Did you know?: Earth is the only planet not named after a roman god. • Earth is about 4.5 billion years old. • It orbits around the Sun every 365.5 days.Earth • It tilts at roughly 66° • Known to have the only visible liquid water source. • Earth is 93 million milesDid you know?: Earth is actually from the Sun.a female (this picture is false).
  6. 6. • Mars is named after the roman god of war.• Also known as “The Red Planet”.• The water on the planet is in polar ice caps that are inside the planet.• Generally cold, temperatures ranging from -200 to 80° F.• Mars is 142 million miles Mars from the Sun.Did you know?: Mars is also Did you know?: The symbolknown as “the son of the Sun”. for Mars stands for male.
  7. 7. Did you know?: Jupiter wasnamed after the Greek god, Did you know?: The symbol forZeus. Jupiter also looks like a ‘4’ or ‘2l’.• Jupiter is the first gas planet and the biggest planet in the solar system.• It revolves around the Sun every 12 years. Jupiter• “The Great Red Spot” is a raging storm with winds of up to 200 miles an hour.• It rotates really fast. For one day on Earth, it is 10 hours on Jupiter.
  8. 8. • Saturn is 886 million miles from the Sun. • This planet is known for its rings made up of asteroids revolving round Saturn.Did you know?: Saturn was called“the evil planet” by roman gods. • Different parts of the planetSaturn rotate at different speeds. • Saturn is so light that it can float on water. The symbol for Saturn looks like an ‘h’.
  9. 9. • Uranus also has 13 rings but Did you know?: Uranus is named two are very far away from after the Greek god, “Sky God”. the planet.• The reason Uranus is blue is because of the methane from the Sun. Uranus• Uranus is 1.8 million miles from the Sun.• It is 4x bigger and 15x heavier than Earth.• The scientific hypothesis on why Uranus spins sideways Did you know?: Uranus` symbol also is because a space object looks like a Unknown from collided with it. Pokémon.
  10. 10. Did you know?: Neptune is 4 Did you know?: Neptune cantimes bigger than Earth. never cover up Earth completely. • Neptune has a similar Great spot like Jupiter but it is called the “Great BlueNeptune Spot”. • It is more than 2 million miles from the Sun. • A day on Neptune is 16 hours. • It is closer to the Sun than Pluto but switch places for 20 years and back 220.
  11. 11. Other Space Objects• There are more than just planets in the galaxies.• There are moons also that orbit other planets.• Some are brakeage of planet.
  12. 12. Did you know?: There are no ‘did you knows’ for this one. • A asteroid is a piece of a planet that floats in space. • They have no real shape. • It is the biggest space object of the 5. • They can be caught in orbit around something. AsteroidAsteroidBelt
  13. 13. • Comets are the second biggest of the 5. • The are coated in ice and orbit around the Sun.Comets • The white part is the Ion tail. • The other one is the dust tail which is broken parts of it. • A comet`s orbit can vary. Did you know?: A comet also has a roman symbol.
  14. 14. • A meteoroid is smaller than an asteroid and comet.• They are usually the broken Meteoroid off parts of one.
  15. 15. Did you know?: Most people call meteors ‘shooting stars’ and wish for something on them.Meteor • A meteor is a meteoroid that passes through the atmosphere, Earth`s atmosphere. • It may burn up in the process but it might not.
  16. 16. • Meteorites are meteors that went past the Earth`s atmosphere and landed on the Earth. Did you know?: Most people• Meteorites are most commonly mistake meteors as commonly big in size. meteorites.• Some famous spots of where meteorites hit Earth include the following. Meteorite• - Wolf Creek in Western Australia• - Diablo Canyon in Arizona, United States
  17. 17. • The Sun is the center of our solar system.• The layers and parts include the following in order.• - The Core is the source of all the Sun`s energy. Temperature is about 15 million degrees Kelvin.• - The Radiation Zone contains energy from the core. Mostly hot at the top of the zone.• - The Convection Zone carries the magma/lava to the surface by letting them pass through thermal columns.The Sun• - The Photosphere is the part of the sun you can see. The energy from the Sun (sunlight) can then separate in space. Temperature is about 6,000 Kelvin.• - The Chromosphere is the outer thin layer of the Sun. This part can also be seen in eclipses.• - The Corona is the atmosphere of the Sun. It makes the solar wind.
  18. 18. Mercury has 0moons. Mercury`s Moons
  19. 19. Venus also has no moons.Venus` Moons
  20. 20. Did you know?: Moon means Luna which is also the name of a pony in My Little Pony.• Earth`s moon was to Earth`s Moon believed to be formed by the Earth.• A long time, a piece of a planet collided with the (not completed yet) Earth.• The Earth`s gravitational pull made the moon revolve around Earth.
  21. 21. This is Deimos • Mars has two major moons. • They are Phobos and Deimos.Mars` Moons This is Phobos.
  22. 22. • Jupiter has 63 moons in total.• The major one that are Jupiter`s Moons Galilean are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Top left is Io. Top right is Callisto Bottom left is Europa. Bottom right is Ganymede.
  23. 23. • Saturn has 61 moons in total. • The major ones are TitanSaturn`s Moons and Rhea. This is Titan. This is Rhea.
  24. 24. This is Ophelia.• Uranus has 27 moons in total.• The major ones are Oberon and Ophelia. Uranus` Moons This is Oberon.
  25. 25. • Neptune has 13 moons in total. • The major one is Triton.Neptune`s Moons This is Triton.
  26. 26. Types of Galaxies • There are different types of galaxies. • There are three types of galaxies.• The most common one is elliptical.
  27. 27. • Spiral galaxies have big arms made up of bright stars and dust.Did you know?: Our Milky Way is • The arms come out of thea spiral galaxy. bulging dust nucleus. Spiral Galaxies
  28. 28. Did you know?: Elliptical galaxies can be many different colors.Elliptical Galaxies• An elliptical galaxy is usually shaped like a football or a ball.
  29. 29. • Irregular galaxies don’t really has a shape.• Galaxies like this have no real Irregular Galaxies category.• The stars are spread out unevenly in this galaxy.
  30. 30. Light YearsLight years measures the distance light travels in one year.
  31. 31. Tools Used for Space
  32. 32. Did you know?: The Hubble SpaceTelescope is a reflecting telescope.Telescopes • The two types of telescopes are refracting and reflecting. • Refracting uses convex glasses. • Reflecting uses curved mirrors.
  33. 33. Telescope(cont`d) Radio• These types of telescopes study radio waves in space and can freely move around in space.• When on Earth, it looks like a big satellite dish for TV.
  34. 34. • Any object that revolves around another. • A good example is aSatellite weather news satellite that revolves around Earth collecting data abound the weather.
  35. 35. Some examples: Mariner 2 • Space probes can travel far distances. • They travel to planets, collect information and send it back to Earth. Pioneer 10 Space Probes Voyager 1 Viking 1
  36. 36. • Spectroscopes measureSpectroscope how hot and composition of stars; planets, and galaxies.
  37. 37. Mass and Distance Effects on Gravity• Mass is the amount of atoms in an object. • If the distance between the• The distance between two two objects are increased objects with gravitational the gravitational pull force increases. decreases.• The mass also has to increase.
  38. 38. End