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Jacob Peled - Clemson Tire Conf 2013 Presentation "Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons"

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Airlines, as well as air forces, have always been discreet about tire retreading and very discerning. In recent years the demands by airlines to retread their tires increased because of the results achieved which often exceeded those of new tires.

Aircraft tires' performance is evaluated by number of landings and not by mileage as other tires. This is despite the fact that aircraft today cover a great deal of mileage on land, due to the proximity to the terminal and the increased lengths of runways. Most users do not realize that the main hysteresis of aircraft tires often occurs reaching the point of take off rather than landing, To meet the stringent requirements, aircraft retreading is produced with a very discerning QC done at all stages of production by very qualified inspectors. There is still a great dependence on the human factor, even though new automated inspection instruments are being introduced for both tires and
materials.

Full video of Jacob Peled's presentation is available on YouTube

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Jacob Peled - Clemson Tire Conf 2013 Presentation "Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons"

  1. 1. 1 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Hilton Head Island, South Carolina April 26, 2013 Presented by: Mr. Jacob Peled Executive Chairman Pelmar Engineering Ltd. Photo: An AV-8B Harrier prepares for takeoff as another lands CC BY Official US Navy Imagery on flickr
  2. 2. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 2 Aircraft tire production is the only section of the tire industry wherein the dependency on retreading is total and the requirements thereof are often more stringent than new tires. This chart shows various types of tires and their speed versus load operating ranges. The operating range for aircraft tires covers the upper right hand corner, meaning that maintenance practices and operating techniques that work fine for passenger tires are not acceptable for aircraft tires. Any deviations to the proper operating practices will have immediate consequences on the tires’ performance. Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  3. 3. The first aircraft tire was produced back in 1910 and the first retread was produced in 1911 (by an unknown retreader, probably Dunlop themselves). 3Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  4. 4. There are a few smaller, independent manufacturers and retreaders, but their percentage of the market is insignificant. This includes Russia, Turkey, S. Korea and Israel. Aircraft tires are shipped and flown all over the world. 4 There are 4 major manufacturers of aircraft tires: Goodyear, Michelin, Bridgestone and Dunlop Aircraft Tyres Ltd., who control approximately 85% of the aircraft tire market worldwide. They are also almost the exclusive retreaders worldwide. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  5. 5. Aircraft tire life (new or retreads) is measured by number of landings. The average on civil aircraft is 250 – 300 landings (B737, the most common passenger aircraft today, produced at the rate of 1.1 units per day). A normal aircraft can reach this quota between 1 week to 3 weeks. Military fighter plane tires do a maximum of 20 – 50 landings, depending on aircraft and base, land or aircraft carrier. Almost without exception, retreaded aircraft tires do significantly more landings than new ones. Aircraft tires lose approximately 18% of their weight between each cycle. 5Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  6. 6. 6 Challenges ahead for aircraft tires •Safer Tires •More Intelligent Tires •More Environmentally Friendly Tires •More Economical Tires •Improved Retreadability •Increased Compatibility to Wheel and other Equipment •Improved Ground Performance Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons Photo: USS Forrestal - A-4 Landing CC BY SA roger4336 on flickr
  7. 7. 7 Safer Tires •Reduction of tire failure events (burst, tread separation, etc.) •Better tire damage resistance •Foreign Object Damage (FOD) •Abnormal operation condition, etc. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  8. 8. 8 More Intelligent Tires •Tire health monitoring •Pressure, temperature, forces and road conditions etc. •Tire damage detection •Contribution to aircraft system control Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  9. 9. •Tire Identification Tire Identification is of significant importance especially for retreaded aircraft tires. It is absolutely required to have a complete history of each tire, including repairs made and particularly retreading, which today averages 6 retreads per tire. 9 RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) technology Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  10. 10. 10 More Environmentally Friendly Tires •Increased number of landings •Reduction of rolling resistance •Weight saving •Fuel and CO2 reduction •Use of bio-materials •Noise reduction Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  11. 11. 11 • Tire Retreading and Recycling Retreading is by far the most friendly and efficient tire recycling for all tires, and particularly for aircraft tires, thus the most economical. • Four to Ten retreading cycles • Increased number of landings • 50% cost savings compared to new tires Damaged and out of service carcasses are used for agricultural and industrial implements, retreaded or as is. Consequently very few tires reach landfills. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  12. 12. 12 More Economical Tires •Improvement in tread wear Increased number of landings to 500 from the average of 250 – 300 which exists today. •Retreading Increased number of cycles from 3 – 6 today to 10 •Maintenance Decreased maintenance due to transparency of casing condition and information transmission. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  13. 13. 13 Improved Retreadability Since retreading plays such a major role in the aircraft tire industry, it is clear that improved and faster methods would add to the feasibility of using one brand of tires over the other. Unfortunately, so far, all trials in using pre-cured tread (cold retreading) for aircraft tires have been unsuccessful. This is true for both radial and diagonal tires. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  14. 14. 14 The majority of aircraft tires are still diagonal, and it seems that this will remain so for the foreseeable future. However, the number of radial sizes is increasing. There is no difference in performance overall. Computerization of manufacturing/retreading and particularly the test procedures, shortens the process and improves control. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  15. 15. 15 Increased Compatibility to Wheel and other Equipment There is a strong reciprocal relationship between tires and the landing gear. Consequently, the tire manufacturers and retreaders are often partners in breaking system’s maintenance and replacement. Also, other components related to landing gear and shock absorption are serviced by the tire retreaders. Tires are the only contact point between the airplane and the ground and are crucial to the passengers’ and aircraft safety. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  16. 16. 16 Improved Ground Performance The most demanding part of aircraft tires is ground performance, especially take-offs, contrary to the common belief that landings are the most challenging hazard to aircraft tires. The reason is the increased weight of fuel and the distance that needs to be covered on the runway. With landing the tires are very cold (-50C) which helps avoid tread wear, unless landing is rough or off the runway. Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  17. 17. Ground performance requires: •Anti-skid and breaking •Normal behavior on different contaminated runways (water, snow, ice and more). •Perfect steering which requires extended deflection and large yaw angle (up to 90°) 17Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  18. 18. Final Element Model Validation: Final Element Testing has become popular for aircraft tires after it was used extensively for design and improvement for new aircraft tires. It is possible today to carry out virtual dynamic and static tests corresponding to TSO (Technical Standard Order) and FAA requirements. Tests include load deflection of both tread and sidewalls, footprints and contact pressure, profile measurement, temperature build up and the range of tests is increasing. 18Clemson University Tire Conference 2013 Aircraft Tire Production-New Horizons
  19. 19. 2011 19 • The Tire and Rubber Industry Expert • 45 years of Continuous Activity in the Polymer Industry • International Presence Around the Globe • Engineering, Machinery, Technology, Raw Materials • Mergers and Acquisitions The Pelmar Group
  20. 20. 20 Thank You For Your Attention www.pelmar.com The Pelmar Group would like to express its gratitude to the people who provided us with up-to-date data, particularly Dunlop Aircraft Tyre Ltd. and The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.

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