SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 20
Download to read offline
TRANSFORMER
PRAYAG RAJ
EL-394-2K17
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical
energy from one electrical circuit to another through
mutual (electromagnetic induction) and without
change in frequency. Transformers are an important
part of electrical systems.
Transformers are made in many different sizes, from
a very small coupling transformer inside a
stage microphone to big units that carry hundreds of
MVA used in power grids.
What is a transformer?
Structure of transformer
Winding - Transformers have two windings, being the
primary winding and the secondary winding. The
primary winding is the coil that draws power from the
source. The secondary winding is the coil that delivers
the energy at the transformed or changed voltage to
the load. Usually, these two coils are subdivided into
several coils in order to reduce the creation of flux.
WINDING CORE
Core - The transformer core is used to provide a
controlled path for the magnetic flux generated in
the transformer. The core is generally not a solid bar
of steel, rather a construction of many thin
laminated steel sheets or layers. This construction is
used to help eliminate and reduce heating.
Transformers generally have one of two types of
cores: Core Type and Shell Type. These two types are
distinguished from each other by the manner in
which the primary and secondary coils are place
around the steel core.
Significance of transformer
1. Transfers electric power from one circuit to
another
2. It does so without a change of frequency
3. It accomplishes this by electromagnetic
induction
4. Where the two electric circuits are in mutual
inductive influence of each other.
How does transformer works?
1. When current in the primary coil
changes being alternating in
nature, a changing magnetic field
is produced
2. This changing magnetic field gets
associated with the secondary
through the soft iron core
3. Hence magnetic flux linked with
the secondary coil changes.
4. Which induces e.m.f. in the
secondary.
Transformers and there types
Step up:-As the name states that, the secondary
voltage is step up with a ratio as compared primary
voltage. This can be achieved by increasing the
number of windings in the secondary than the
primary windings .
Step down:- It is use to step down the voltage level
from higher to lower at secondary side .this can be
achieved by decreasing the number of windings in
the secondry than the primary windings .
1) Based on Voltage transfer-
2) Based on core medium-
Air core transformer:- Both the primary and
secondary windings are wound on a non-
magnetic strip where the flux linkage
between primary and secondary windings is
through the air.
Iron core transformer :-Both the primary and
secondary windings are wound on multiple
iron plate bunch which provide a perfect
linkage path to the generated flux.
3) Transformer based on usage
Power transformer :-The power transformers are
big in size. They are suitable for high voltage
(greater than 33KV) power transfer applications.
It used in power generation stations and
Transmission substation. It has high insulation
level.
Distribution transformer :-In order to distribute the
power generated from the power generation
plant to remote locations, these transformers
are used.
Transformer Configurations
• Single-phase Power - Single-phase transformers are often
used to supply power for residential lighting, receptacle,
air-conditioning, and heating needs. Single phase
transformers can be made even more versatile by having
both the primary winding and secondary winding made in
two equal parts. The two parts of either winding can then
be reconnected in series or parallel configurations
• Three-phase Power - Power may be supplied
through a three-phase circuit containing
transformers in which a set of three single-phase
transformers is used, or on three-phase transformer
is used. When a considerable amount of power is
involved in the transformation of three-phase power,
it is more economical to use a three-phase
transformer. The unique arrangement of the
windings and core saves a lot of iron.
• Delta and Wye Defined - There are two connection
configurations for three-phase power: Delta and Wye.
Delta and Wye are Greek letters that represent the way
the conductors on the transformers are configured. In a
delta connection, the three conductors are connected
end to end in a triangle or delta shape. For a wye, all
the conductors radiate from the center, meaning they
are connected at one common point.
Losses in transformer
Eddy current loss and hysteresis loss depend upon the
magnetic properties of the material used for the construction
of core. Hence these losses are also known as core
losses or iron losses.
Core Losses Or Iron Losses-
Hysteresis loss in transformer:
Hysteresis loss is due to reversal of
magnetization in the transformer core. This loss
depends upon the volume and grade of the iron,
frequency of magnetic reversals and value of flux
density. It can be given by, Steinmetz formula:
Wh= ηBmax
1.6fV (watts)
where, η = Steinmetz hysteresis constant
V = volume of the core in m3
Eddy current loss in transformer:
In transformer, AC current is supplied to the primary
winding which sets up alternating magnetizing flux.
When this flux links with secondary winding, it
produces induced e.m.f in it. But some part of this flux
also gets linked with other conducting parts like steel
core or iron body or the transformer, which will result
in induced e.m.f in those parts, causing small
circulating current in them. This current is called as
eddy current. Due to these eddy currents, some
energy will be dissipated in the form of heat.
Copper Loss In Transformer-
Copper loss is due to ohmic resistance of the
transformer windings. Copper loss for the primary
winding is I1
2R1 and for secondary winding is I2
2R2.
Where, I1 and I2 are current in primary and secondary
winding respectively, R1 and R2 are the resistances of
primary and secondary winding respectively. It is clear
that Cu loss is proportional to square of the current,
and current depends on the load. Hence copper loss
in transformer varies with the load.
Ideal Transformers
Zero leakage flux:
Fluxes produced by the primary and secondary currents are
confined within the core
The windings have no resistance:
Induced voltages equal applied voltages
The core has infinite permeability
Reluctance of the core is zero
Negligible current is required to establish magnetic
flux
Loss-less magnetic core
No hysteresis or eddy currents
Transformer Efficiency
Electrical Machines
Transformer efficiency is defined as (applies to motors,
generators and transformers):
%
100


in
out
P
P
 %
100



loss
out
out
P
P
P

Types of losses incurred in a transformer:
Copper losses
Hysteresis losses
Eddy current losses
Therefore, for a transformer, efficiency may be calculated using the
following:
%
100
cos
cos
x
I
V
P
P
I
V
S
S
core
Cu
S
S






THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

instrument transformer
instrument transformerinstrument transformer
instrument transformerNishant Kumar
 
Current Transformer and Potential Transformer
Current Transformer and Potential TransformerCurrent Transformer and Potential Transformer
Current Transformer and Potential TransformerRidwanul Hoque
 
Unit 04 Measurement of Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance.
Unit   04 Measurement of Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance.Unit   04 Measurement of Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance.
Unit 04 Measurement of Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance.PremanandDesai
 
Substation Training presentation
Substation Training presentationSubstation Training presentation
Substation Training presentationKamal Mittal
 
Lecture-1. moving coil.pptx
Lecture-1. moving coil.pptxLecture-1. moving coil.pptx
Lecture-1. moving coil.pptxOmwamiLenox
 
Power Converters for AC drives CH-1.pptx
Power Converters for AC drives CH-1.pptxPower Converters for AC drives CH-1.pptx
Power Converters for AC drives CH-1.pptxSuvenduMondal12
 
Rectifier and Amplifer instruments
Rectifier and Amplifer instruments Rectifier and Amplifer instruments
Rectifier and Amplifer instruments farhan memon
 
Ipc nee 303 ppt even sem
Ipc nee 303 ppt even semIpc nee 303 ppt even sem
Ipc nee 303 ppt even semSatyendra Mohan
 
Electrical measurement & measuring instruments [emmi (nee-302) -unit-2]
Electrical measurement & measuring instruments [emmi  (nee-302) -unit-2]Electrical measurement & measuring instruments [emmi  (nee-302) -unit-2]
Electrical measurement & measuring instruments [emmi (nee-302) -unit-2]Md Irshad Ahmad
 
Speed control of dc motor
Speed control of dc motorSpeed control of dc motor
Speed control of dc motormpsrekha83
 
Current transformer (ct)
Current transformer (ct)Current transformer (ct)
Current transformer (ct)Jay Ranvir
 
AC DC Electricity
AC DC ElectricityAC DC Electricity
AC DC Electricitymrmackenzie
 

What's hot (20)

Substation
SubstationSubstation
Substation
 
instrument transformer
instrument transformerinstrument transformer
instrument transformer
 
Transformer
TransformerTransformer
Transformer
 
Current Transformer and Potential Transformer
Current Transformer and Potential TransformerCurrent Transformer and Potential Transformer
Current Transformer and Potential Transformer
 
Introduction to CTs and PTs
Introduction to CTs and PTsIntroduction to CTs and PTs
Introduction to CTs and PTs
 
Unit 04 Measurement of Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance.
Unit   04 Measurement of Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance.Unit   04 Measurement of Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance.
Unit 04 Measurement of Resistance, Inductance and Capacitance.
 
Pmmc instrument
Pmmc instrumentPmmc instrument
Pmmc instrument
 
Substation Training presentation
Substation Training presentationSubstation Training presentation
Substation Training presentation
 
Relay
RelayRelay
Relay
 
Current Transformer.pptx
Current Transformer.pptxCurrent Transformer.pptx
Current Transformer.pptx
 
Scr
ScrScr
Scr
 
Lecture-1. moving coil.pptx
Lecture-1. moving coil.pptxLecture-1. moving coil.pptx
Lecture-1. moving coil.pptx
 
Power Converters for AC drives CH-1.pptx
Power Converters for AC drives CH-1.pptxPower Converters for AC drives CH-1.pptx
Power Converters for AC drives CH-1.pptx
 
Rectifier and Amplifer instruments
Rectifier and Amplifer instruments Rectifier and Amplifer instruments
Rectifier and Amplifer instruments
 
Ipc nee 303 ppt even sem
Ipc nee 303 ppt even semIpc nee 303 ppt even sem
Ipc nee 303 ppt even sem
 
Electrical measurement & measuring instruments [emmi (nee-302) -unit-2]
Electrical measurement & measuring instruments [emmi  (nee-302) -unit-2]Electrical measurement & measuring instruments [emmi  (nee-302) -unit-2]
Electrical measurement & measuring instruments [emmi (nee-302) -unit-2]
 
Transformer
TransformerTransformer
Transformer
 
Speed control of dc motor
Speed control of dc motorSpeed control of dc motor
Speed control of dc motor
 
Current transformer (ct)
Current transformer (ct)Current transformer (ct)
Current transformer (ct)
 
AC DC Electricity
AC DC ElectricityAC DC Electricity
AC DC Electricity
 

Similar to transformer

Similar to transformer (20)

1909023_EEE291_Three Phase Transformer.pptx
1909023_EEE291_Three Phase Transformer.pptx1909023_EEE291_Three Phase Transformer.pptx
1909023_EEE291_Three Phase Transformer.pptx
 
TRANSFORMER.pptx
TRANSFORMER.pptxTRANSFORMER.pptx
TRANSFORMER.pptx
 
Transformer by Hemant
Transformer by HemantTransformer by Hemant
Transformer by Hemant
 
Construction & E.M.F. eqn. of transformer
Construction & E.M.F. eqn. of transformerConstruction & E.M.F. eqn. of transformer
Construction & E.M.F. eqn. of transformer
 
Transformer
TransformerTransformer
Transformer
 
transformer slide prsentation
transformer slide prsentation transformer slide prsentation
transformer slide prsentation
 
Transformer
TransformerTransformer
Transformer
 
Transformer construction,types and working
Transformer construction,types and workingTransformer construction,types and working
Transformer construction,types and working
 
Transformer
TransformerTransformer
Transformer
 
Transformers
TransformersTransformers
Transformers
 
Full transformer
Full transformerFull transformer
Full transformer
 
Transformers (ee)
Transformers (ee)Transformers (ee)
Transformers (ee)
 
types of winding dc machine
 types of winding dc machine types of winding dc machine
types of winding dc machine
 
TRANSFORMER PPT
TRANSFORMER PPT TRANSFORMER PPT
TRANSFORMER PPT
 
TRANSFORMER.pptx
TRANSFORMER.pptxTRANSFORMER.pptx
TRANSFORMER.pptx
 
How to reduce transformer losses
How to reduce transformer lossesHow to reduce transformer losses
How to reduce transformer losses
 
Transformer
TransformerTransformer
Transformer
 
Transformer
TransformerTransformer
Transformer
 
Transformer
TransformerTransformer
Transformer
 
OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF TRANSFORMER AND CONSTRUCTION.ppt
OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF TRANSFORMER AND CONSTRUCTION.pptOPERATING PRINCIPLES OF TRANSFORMER AND CONSTRUCTION.ppt
OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF TRANSFORMER AND CONSTRUCTION.ppt
 

Recently uploaded

input buffering in lexical analysis in CD
input buffering in lexical analysis in CDinput buffering in lexical analysis in CD
input buffering in lexical analysis in CDHeadOfDepartmentComp1
 
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studyADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studydhruvamdhruvil123
 
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdfComprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdfalene1
 
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Amil baba
 
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...Stork
 
Indian Tradition, Culture & Societies.pdf
Indian Tradition, Culture & Societies.pdfIndian Tradition, Culture & Societies.pdf
Indian Tradition, Culture & Societies.pdfalokitpathak01
 
priority interrupt computer organization
priority interrupt computer organizationpriority interrupt computer organization
priority interrupt computer organizationchnrketan
 
Introduction to Machine Learning Part1.pptx
Introduction to Machine Learning Part1.pptxIntroduction to Machine Learning Part1.pptx
Introduction to Machine Learning Part1.pptxPavan Mohan Neelamraju
 
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxCurve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxRomil Mishra
 
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdfRobotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdfsahilsajad201
 
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...IJAEMSJORNAL
 
Detection&Tracking - Thermal imaging object detection and tracking
Detection&Tracking - Thermal imaging object detection and trackingDetection&Tracking - Thermal imaging object detection and tracking
Detection&Tracking - Thermal imaging object detection and trackinghadarpinhas1
 
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfModule-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfManish Kumar
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Romil Mishra
 
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.elesangwon
 
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxAntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxLina Kadam
 
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSneha Padhiar
 
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSHigh Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSsandhya757531
 
Submerged Combustion, Explosion Flame Combustion, Pulsating Combustion, and E...
Submerged Combustion, Explosion Flame Combustion, Pulsating Combustion, and E...Submerged Combustion, Explosion Flame Combustion, Pulsating Combustion, and E...
Submerged Combustion, Explosion Flame Combustion, Pulsating Combustion, and E...Ayisha586983
 

Recently uploaded (20)

input buffering in lexical analysis in CD
input buffering in lexical analysis in CDinput buffering in lexical analysis in CD
input buffering in lexical analysis in CD
 
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain studyADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
ADM100 Running Book for sap basis domain study
 
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdfComprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
Comprehensive energy systems.pdf Comprehensive energy systems.pdf
 
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
Uk-NO1 Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Exp...
 
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
Stork Webinar | APM Transformational planning, Tool Selection & Performance T...
 
Indian Tradition, Culture & Societies.pdf
Indian Tradition, Culture & Societies.pdfIndian Tradition, Culture & Societies.pdf
Indian Tradition, Culture & Societies.pdf
 
priority interrupt computer organization
priority interrupt computer organizationpriority interrupt computer organization
priority interrupt computer organization
 
Introduction to Machine Learning Part1.pptx
Introduction to Machine Learning Part1.pptxIntroduction to Machine Learning Part1.pptx
Introduction to Machine Learning Part1.pptx
 
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptxCurve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
Curve setting (Basic Mine Surveying)_MI10412MI.pptx
 
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdfRobotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
 
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
Guardians of E-Commerce: Harnessing NLP and Machine Learning Approaches for A...
 
Detection&Tracking - Thermal imaging object detection and tracking
Detection&Tracking - Thermal imaging object detection and trackingDetection&Tracking - Thermal imaging object detection and tracking
Detection&Tracking - Thermal imaging object detection and tracking
 
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdfModule-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
Module-1-(Building Acoustics) Noise Control (Unit-3). pdf
 
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
Gravity concentration_MI20612MI_________
 
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
2022 AWS DNA Hackathon 장애 대응 솔루션 jarvis.
 
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptxAntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
AntColonyOptimizationManetNetworkAODV.pptx
 
Versatile Engineering Construction Firms
Versatile Engineering Construction FirmsVersatile Engineering Construction Firms
Versatile Engineering Construction Firms
 
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATIONSOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
SOFTWARE ESTIMATION COCOMO AND FP CALCULATION
 
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMSHigh Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
High Voltage Engineering- OVER VOLTAGES IN ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
 
Submerged Combustion, Explosion Flame Combustion, Pulsating Combustion, and E...
Submerged Combustion, Explosion Flame Combustion, Pulsating Combustion, and E...Submerged Combustion, Explosion Flame Combustion, Pulsating Combustion, and E...
Submerged Combustion, Explosion Flame Combustion, Pulsating Combustion, and E...
 

transformer

  • 2. A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another through mutual (electromagnetic induction) and without change in frequency. Transformers are an important part of electrical systems. Transformers are made in many different sizes, from a very small coupling transformer inside a stage microphone to big units that carry hundreds of MVA used in power grids. What is a transformer?
  • 4. Winding - Transformers have two windings, being the primary winding and the secondary winding. The primary winding is the coil that draws power from the source. The secondary winding is the coil that delivers the energy at the transformed or changed voltage to the load. Usually, these two coils are subdivided into several coils in order to reduce the creation of flux. WINDING CORE
  • 5. Core - The transformer core is used to provide a controlled path for the magnetic flux generated in the transformer. The core is generally not a solid bar of steel, rather a construction of many thin laminated steel sheets or layers. This construction is used to help eliminate and reduce heating. Transformers generally have one of two types of cores: Core Type and Shell Type. These two types are distinguished from each other by the manner in which the primary and secondary coils are place around the steel core.
  • 6. Significance of transformer 1. Transfers electric power from one circuit to another 2. It does so without a change of frequency 3. It accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction 4. Where the two electric circuits are in mutual inductive influence of each other.
  • 7. How does transformer works? 1. When current in the primary coil changes being alternating in nature, a changing magnetic field is produced 2. This changing magnetic field gets associated with the secondary through the soft iron core 3. Hence magnetic flux linked with the secondary coil changes. 4. Which induces e.m.f. in the secondary.
  • 8. Transformers and there types Step up:-As the name states that, the secondary voltage is step up with a ratio as compared primary voltage. This can be achieved by increasing the number of windings in the secondary than the primary windings . Step down:- It is use to step down the voltage level from higher to lower at secondary side .this can be achieved by decreasing the number of windings in the secondry than the primary windings . 1) Based on Voltage transfer-
  • 9. 2) Based on core medium- Air core transformer:- Both the primary and secondary windings are wound on a non- magnetic strip where the flux linkage between primary and secondary windings is through the air. Iron core transformer :-Both the primary and secondary windings are wound on multiple iron plate bunch which provide a perfect linkage path to the generated flux.
  • 10. 3) Transformer based on usage Power transformer :-The power transformers are big in size. They are suitable for high voltage (greater than 33KV) power transfer applications. It used in power generation stations and Transmission substation. It has high insulation level. Distribution transformer :-In order to distribute the power generated from the power generation plant to remote locations, these transformers are used.
  • 11. Transformer Configurations • Single-phase Power - Single-phase transformers are often used to supply power for residential lighting, receptacle, air-conditioning, and heating needs. Single phase transformers can be made even more versatile by having both the primary winding and secondary winding made in two equal parts. The two parts of either winding can then be reconnected in series or parallel configurations
  • 12. • Three-phase Power - Power may be supplied through a three-phase circuit containing transformers in which a set of three single-phase transformers is used, or on three-phase transformer is used. When a considerable amount of power is involved in the transformation of three-phase power, it is more economical to use a three-phase transformer. The unique arrangement of the windings and core saves a lot of iron.
  • 13. • Delta and Wye Defined - There are two connection configurations for three-phase power: Delta and Wye. Delta and Wye are Greek letters that represent the way the conductors on the transformers are configured. In a delta connection, the three conductors are connected end to end in a triangle or delta shape. For a wye, all the conductors radiate from the center, meaning they are connected at one common point.
  • 14. Losses in transformer Eddy current loss and hysteresis loss depend upon the magnetic properties of the material used for the construction of core. Hence these losses are also known as core losses or iron losses. Core Losses Or Iron Losses-
  • 15. Hysteresis loss in transformer: Hysteresis loss is due to reversal of magnetization in the transformer core. This loss depends upon the volume and grade of the iron, frequency of magnetic reversals and value of flux density. It can be given by, Steinmetz formula: Wh= ηBmax 1.6fV (watts) where, η = Steinmetz hysteresis constant V = volume of the core in m3
  • 16. Eddy current loss in transformer: In transformer, AC current is supplied to the primary winding which sets up alternating magnetizing flux. When this flux links with secondary winding, it produces induced e.m.f in it. But some part of this flux also gets linked with other conducting parts like steel core or iron body or the transformer, which will result in induced e.m.f in those parts, causing small circulating current in them. This current is called as eddy current. Due to these eddy currents, some energy will be dissipated in the form of heat.
  • 17. Copper Loss In Transformer- Copper loss is due to ohmic resistance of the transformer windings. Copper loss for the primary winding is I1 2R1 and for secondary winding is I2 2R2. Where, I1 and I2 are current in primary and secondary winding respectively, R1 and R2 are the resistances of primary and secondary winding respectively. It is clear that Cu loss is proportional to square of the current, and current depends on the load. Hence copper loss in transformer varies with the load.
  • 18. Ideal Transformers Zero leakage flux: Fluxes produced by the primary and secondary currents are confined within the core The windings have no resistance: Induced voltages equal applied voltages The core has infinite permeability Reluctance of the core is zero Negligible current is required to establish magnetic flux Loss-less magnetic core No hysteresis or eddy currents
  • 19. Transformer Efficiency Electrical Machines Transformer efficiency is defined as (applies to motors, generators and transformers): % 100   in out P P  % 100    loss out out P P P  Types of losses incurred in a transformer: Copper losses Hysteresis losses Eddy current losses Therefore, for a transformer, efficiency may be calculated using the following: % 100 cos cos x I V P P I V S S core Cu S S      