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Delivering service quality and satisfying library customers through web-based services


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lecture presented by Michael A. Pinto at PAARL’s Seminar /Parallel Session-workshop on Library and Web 2011 (Holy Angel University, Angeles City, Pampanga, 19-20 August 2010)

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Delivering service quality and satisfying library customers through web-based services

  1. 1. Delivering Service Quality and Satisfying LibraryCustomers through Web- g based Services Presented by: MICHAEL  A. PINTO, MPA CaAKAp President Director of Libraries‐University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
  2. 2. An Anecdote One Monday afternoon at around 3:10, Lucky, afreshmen student went to the library to find the answerfor his assignment about the meaning of suffrage. Itwas 20 minutes before his class. As he approached thelibrary premises, he noticed a long queue of students premisesalong the deposit counter. The students were arguingabout the bags which they deposited and accidentallyexchanged with the stuff of the others. In order to getrid of the long queue in the deposit counter, he decidedto leave his bag to one of his friends and immediatelywent to the shelves to locate the book.
  3. 3. Since he was running out of time, he then asked thehelp of the librarian in charge but the librarian looked at in-chargehim and said “Can you see that Im busy? Better go to theOPAC” I have a lot of reports to do.” Lucky didn’t expectthat kind of treatment to him. In fact, before the incident,he was even boasting to his former classmates in highschool that the they have a very good library. Further, library Furtherduring their orientation day, the Director of Library wasvery p y proud to say that the library staff are approachable y y ppand that they are free to approach anyone of them if theyneed assistance. Feeling sad and disappointed, he wentimmediately to the shelf because h is running out ofi di t l t th h lf b he i i t ftime. It took him 15 minutes to locate the book becausethe book was placed in another shelf. Further, there was pno student assistant assigned to do shelf reading.
  4. 4. To catch up with his 3:30 class, he immediately classwent the circulation counter for him to borrow thebook overnight. Unfortunately, he again noticed a long g y g gqueue of students waiting for their turn to process thebook in the circulation counter. It took 5 minutes tohave the book officially checked out under h account.h h k ff ll h k d d hisHe went out of the library with a feeling ofdisappointment and he promised that he will never askassistance from the librarian again.
  5. 5. POINTS TO PONDER….• Have you encountered the same scenario in your library?• Is there something wrong with the scenario? i ?• Are you the type of librarian described in the anecdote?• How many Lucky do you have in your respective libraries?• What can we do to avoid such? at ca e a o d suc ?
  6. 6. Why Provide the following in the Library? Service S i Quality WEB Services  Customers  Satisfaction 
  7. 7. The Moment of Truth• Each customer contact is called a moment of Each customer contact is called a moment of  truth.• Y h You have the ability to either satisfy or  h bili ih if dissatisfy them when you contact them.• A service recovery is satisfying a previously  dissatisfied customer and making him a loyal  customer.
  8. 8. We should answer following questions:• Are we delivering the services?• Are we delivering Quality services?• A we able t understand th needs of Are bl to d t d the d f our clienteles?• How can we further improve our services to meet the customers’ expectations?
  9. 9. Vital Considerations of our  Vit l C id ti f Existence..• Customers not only need SERVICE but  QUALITY SERVICE.• They are meticulous about their requirements• Their queries are becoming very complex. 
  10. 10. The Customer Expectations The Customer Expectations• Guests are the judges of service quality  (Berry and Parasuraman, 1991)• Their Expectations of service greatly influence  their resulting level of satisfaction• It is far easier to please guests with lower  expectations than those with higher expectations t ti th th ith hi h t ti
  11. 11. Applied in the LibraryAccordingly, it is easy to understand what most  users want when they go to the library. users want when they go to the libraryWants: Expectations:‐ Pertinent materials ‐Locate easily‐ Photocopypy py p p y ‐ Photocopy will work properly‐ Need assistance ‐ Staff will help them promptly  and courteously  y In others words, THEY WANT WHAT THEY  WANT WHEN THEY WANT IT! WANT WHEN THEY WANT IT!
  12. 12. Categories of Service Expectations  g p1. ESSENTIAL 1 ESSENTIAL These services meet the fundamental  These services meet the fundamental requirements to continue operation  Ex. Circulation, Reference, Instruction Program , , g2. EXPECTED Those which the clients assume the service  p provider should offer in order to provide  p service Ex. Photocopying services, internet services, Wifi services 2. OPTIONAL Guests considered these services as an added  bonus that enhances the value of their visit Ex. Wifi zones, Social Networking sites for the library
  13. 13. Why Quality Matters? Why Quality Matters?• The global market is becoming more The global market is becoming more  competitive every day• Companies continually search for new ways to Companies continually search for new ways to  gain an edge over their competitors around  the globe the globe• Global competition and deregulation in a  number of industries is forcing companies to  b fi d i i f i i turn to quality in order to survive   
  14. 14. Why Quality Matters? Why Quality Matters?“Quality is our best assurance of Quality is our best assurance of  Quality is our best assurance of customer allegiance, our strongest defense against foreign competition, and the only path to sustained and the only path to sustainedgrowth and earnings” (Welch). growth and earnings” (Welch). 
  15. 15. Why Quality Matters? Why Quality Matters?“Quality is in the eye of the beholder” Quality is in the eye of the beholder “If customers say there is quality service, then  there is. If they do not, then there is not. It  does not matter what an organization believes  about his level of service”  (Petter Hernon and Ellen Altman (1996)
  16. 16. What is Service Quality? What is Service Quality?• The extent to which a service meets customers’  needs or expectation (Lewis and Mitchelle, 1990)• The difference between customers expectations  p of service and perceived service.• Customers also form perceptions of quality  p p q y during the service transaction ‐ how effectively  and efficiently the service was delivered and the  speed and convenience of completing the  d d f l h transaction  
  17. 17. In Library Science… In Library Science…• Is typically defined in terms of gap analysis, or  the gap between customers’ expectations in  h b ’ i i general (for an ideal library and services) and  those perceptions relating to the particular  h i l i h i l library and its services. In other words, it is the  gap between customer expectations of those  b i f h services in the library in general and those  perceptions of the services offered by a  i f h i ff d b particular library
  18. 18. Dimensions of service quality Dimension Di i Evaluation Criteria E l ti C it i Examples E l1. Tangibles:  Appearance of physical  A clean and professional Physical evidence of  facilities  facilities looking office.  looking officethe service Appearance of service  A clean and well dressed  personnel librarian Tools or equipment used  The number of OPAC  to provide the service p stations, working  , g computer units, printers,  security devices. The equipment used in the technical processing of the  materials
  19. 19. Dimension Evaluation Criteria Examples2. Reliability:  Accuracy of bibliographic  An accurate billing Consistency and  records, billing receipts receipt, accurate  information needed by a needed by a dependability in d d bl library usersperforming the service Performing services when  g promised “No borrower’s card, no book card policy” Library opens at exact time. 
  20. 20. Dimension Evaluation Criteria Examples3. Responsiveness:  Returning customer phone  Asking users what they need  calls  at the reference desk Willingness or  sectionreadiness of employees to  Providing prompt service Locating and delivering the  books needed by a dean provide the serviceprovide the service within a period  Handling urgent requests Providing the result of board exams Availability of a staff when  A il bilit f t ff h needed
  21. 21. Dimension Evaluation Criteria Examples4. Assurance:  Knowledge and  l d d A highly trained  hi hl i dKnowledge or  skills of library staff reference librarian,competence of  p student assistantsemployees and ability to convey trust and  Company name and  A known and confidence reputation respected service  respected service provider Personal  Assist users to find  characteristics of  the information and  library staff will not stop until the  need is provided
  22. 22. Dimension Evaluation Criteria Examples Listening to customer needs  A library staff listening to and 5. Empathy: Caring  trying to understand a user’s and individual and individual Caring about the customer s  Caring about the customer’s complaint interestsattention provided  Informs library users of the by employees y p y new acquisition.  Providing personalized  A Library staff assist the users  attention in locating books in the  shelves Also access with regard to  The librarian is visible and  approachability and ease of  can be approached anytime a  contact from the customer is  lib f h i library user has a query h of importance to issues that  may be raised by the  customer.
  23. 23. Broad Dimensions of Service Quality• Reliability – perform promised service dependably  and accurately d l• Responsiveness ‐ willingness/readiness to provide  prompt service• Competence ‐ possess knowledge and skill to  perform the service• Access ‐ approachability and ease of contact of  pp y service personnel• Courtesy ‐ politeness consideration and friendliness politeness, consideration, and friendliness  of service personnel                                   cont…
  24. 24. Broad Dimensions of Service Quality – cont. of Service Quality –• Communication ‐ keeping customers informed;  listening to customers li i• Credibility ‐ trustworthy, believable, honest• Security ‐ freedom from danger, risk, or doubt• Understanding/knowing customer ‐ knowing Understanding/knowing customer knowing  customer’s needs• Tangibles ‐ physical evidence of service physical evidence of service   Parasuraman, A. Zeithaml, V., and Berry, L.  (1985).  Parasuraman, A. Zeithaml, V., and Berry, L.  (1985). 
  25. 25. Cardinal Principles of Service Quality• Listening precedes action• Reliability is key Reliability is key• Flawless execution of the “basics”  • Pay attention to service design Pay attention to service design• Perform service recovery well• Surprise customers Surprise customers• Practice “fair play”• Promote teamwork Promote teamwork• Internal service begets external service Adapted from Zemke, Ron (2002)
  26. 26. ‐ is a multi‐item scale  l l - represents service quality as the di t i lit th discrepancydeveloped to assess  between a customers expectations for a service offering and the customerscustomer perceptions  p p perceptions of the service received requiring received,of service quality in  respondents to answer questions about bothservice and retail  their expectations and their perceptionsbusinesses businesses (Parasuraman et al 1988) The use of et. al., 1988).(Parasuraman et. al.,  perceived as opposed to actual service received makes the SERVQUAL measure an1988) attitude measure that is related to, but not the , same as, satisfaction (Parasuraman et. al., 1988).
  27. 27. SERVQUAL MODEL Customer’s  Customer’s Quality  = Expectation ‐ Perception of Service  Performance GAP Customer’s  Satisfaction
  28. 28. Gaps in Service Quality
  29. 29. Queueing TheoryA pioneer: Agner Krarup Erlang  l(1878‐1929)
  30. 30. What is queueing theory?• Mathematical analysis of queues and waiting times  y q g in stochastic systems. – Used extensively to analyze production and service  p processes exhibiting random variability in market demand  g y (arrival times) and service times.• Queues arise when the short term demand for  service exceeds the capacity service exceeds the capacity – Most often caused by random variation in service times  and the times between customer arrivals. – If long term demand for service capacity the queue will If long term demand for service capacity the queue will  explode!
  31. 31. Components of a Queueing ProcessThe calling population gp p– The population from which customers/jobs originate– The size can be finite or infinite (the latter is most common)– Can be homogeneous (only one type of customers/ jobs) or Can be homogeneous (only one type of customers/ jobs) or  heterogeneous (several different kinds of customers/jobs)The Arrival Process– D t Determines how, when and where customer/jobs arrive to the system i h h d h t /j b i t th t– Important characteristic is the customers’/jobs’ inter‐arrival times – To correctly specify the arrival process requires data collection of  interarrival times and statistical analysis times and statistical analysis.
  32. 32. Components of a queueing process p q gpThe queue configurationThe queue configuration– Specifies the number of queues g p • Single or multiple lines to a number of service  stations – Their location– Their effect on customer behavior • Balking and reneging– Their maximum size (# of jobs the queue can hold)  • Distinction between infinite and finite capacity
  33. 33. Example  Two Queue ConfigurationsExample – Two Queue Configurations Multiple Q M lti l Queues Single Queue Servers Servers
  34. 34. The Psychology of Waiting by: David Maister1. Occupied Time Feels Shorter Than Unoccupied  Time. i “Boredom results from being attentive to the passage o time itself of e se “A watched pot never boils”2.2 People Want to Get Started. Started - Acknowledge one’s p g presence so that they know y that service has started: we know that you are here - Th There i a f is fear of ‘being f f ‘b i forgotten” tt ”
  35. 35. The Psychology of Waiting y gy g3. Anxiety Makes Waits Seem Longer‐ th the anxiety was about whether or not one had  i t b t h th t h d been forgotten4. Uncertain Waits Are Longer than Known,  Finite Waits ‐ The most profound source of anxiety in  waiting is how long the wait will be “appointment syndrome.” 
  36. 36. The Psychology of Waiting5. Unexplained Waits Are Longer than Explained  Waits ‐ The lack of an explanation is one of the prime  g y factors adding to a customer’s uncertainty about  the length of the wait.6. Unfair Waits Are Longer than Equitable Waits“The feeling that somebody has successfully ‘cut in  front’ of you causes even the most patient  customer to become furious. Great care to be  b f i b equitable is vital”
  37. 37. The Psychology of Waiting The Psychology of Waiting7. The More Valuable the Service, the Longer the 7. The More Valuable the Service, the Longer the Customer Will Wait ‐ Tolerance for waits depends upon perceived Tolerance for waits depends upon perceived  value of service‐perhaps with the emphasis on  the perception. the perception.8. Solo Waits Feel Longer than Group Waits ‐ Individuals suddenly turn to each other to Individuals suddenly turn to each other to  express their exasperation, wonder collectively  what is happening, and console each other what is happening and console each other
  38. 38. The Internet and Information Quality yProblems:1. Information overload2.2 Availability of vast quantities of useful  il bili f ii f f l information3. The potential for inaccurate materials4. The ephemeral nature of materials  p disseminated via personal homepage
  39. 39. Information Quality Information QualityInformation via web: Quality is often used to refer to sources which  contain original content, or sources which are  g accurate and reliable.Information Quality  refers to the fitness for its Information Quality ‐refers to the fitness for its purpose of an information source within a  particular setting particular setting
  40. 40. Web Based Service in the Library Web‐ Based Service in the Library• Libraries are utilizing the Web to provide Libraries are utilizing the Web to provide  services to an increasingly sophisticated and  demanding computer user. demanding computer user• M More and more libraries are using the web to  d lib i i h b make the library services available anytime  anywhere.  h
  41. 41. Some Library Services on the WEB Some Library Services on the WEB1. Library Website 1 Lib W bi is an important tool in delivering quality  is an important tool in delivering quality service to users since the content of the  library can be made accessible to the users  library can be made accessible to the users either partially or fully. http://libraries,
  42. 42. WEB OPAC The web OPAC of most WEB OPAC ‐ The web OPAC of mostlibraries are usually integrated in their website. b itThis helps library users to know what are available materials in the library to save their time especially if they are not save their time especially if they are notin the campus.
  43. 43. • Circulation – Loaning can be done thru the  library website. library website• New Acquisition – lists of newly acquired  books can be made available in the library  books can be made available in the library website• Reference Service – this can be done  through providing links to online reference  materials in the library website.
  44. 44. 2. Social Networking Sites (Facebook, Twitter, Friendster, etc)3. Yahoo Groupsp4. Yahoo Messenger, Skype, etc5.5 Emails6. Online Journal Subscription (EBSCO, Pro-Quest, Gale, etc)7. Open Access Journals p (DOAJ, Philjol, etc)
  45. 45. TIPS FOR ADVANCING WEB‐BASED  SERVICES1. Commit to 24x7 access to library services2. Take risks and move quickly3. Utilize all library resources as well as the  Internet4. Find information partners that complement  library service library service
  46. 46. TIPS FOR ADVANCING WEB‐BASED  SERVICES5. Use targeted marketing techniques to reach  new audiences6. Partnerships and collaborations are the  cornerstone of philosophy of service and the  librarys practice in advancing Web‐based  services
  47. 47. Anti Quality Anti-Quality Attitudes“There will always be a next time” “To err is human”“Better late than never”
  48. 48. “Librarianship is a combination p of something you are(CHARACTER) and some things you do. (COMPETENCE)” Ma DATING at GALING May
  49. 49. Thank You Thank You for  forListening! gGood Day!! y