Delivering service quality and satisfying library customers through web-based services
Delivering Service Quality and Satisfying LibraryCustomers through Web- g based Services Presented by: MICHAEL A. PINTO, MPA CaAKAp President Director of Libraries‐University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
An Anecdote One Monday afternoon at around 3:10, Lucky, afreshmen student went to the library to find the answerfor his assignment about the meaning of suffrage. Itwas 20 minutes before his class. As he approached thelibrary premises, he noticed a long queue of students premisesalong the deposit counter. The students were arguingabout the bags which they deposited and accidentallyexchanged with the stuff of the others. In order to getrid of the long queue in the deposit counter, he decidedto leave his bag to one of his friends and immediatelywent to the shelves to locate the book.
Since he was running out of time, he then asked thehelp of the librarian in charge but the librarian looked at in-chargehim and said “Can you see that Im busy? Better go to theOPAC” I have a lot of reports to do.” Lucky didn’t expectthat kind of treatment to him. In fact, before the incident,he was even boasting to his former classmates in highschool that the they have a very good library. Further, library Furtherduring their orientation day, the Director of Library wasvery p y proud to say that the library staff are approachable y y ppand that they are free to approach anyone of them if theyneed assistance. Feeling sad and disappointed, he wentimmediately to the shelf because h is running out ofi di t l t th h lf b he i i t ftime. It took him 15 minutes to locate the book becausethe book was placed in another shelf. Further, there was pno student assistant assigned to do shelf reading.
To catch up with his 3:30 class, he immediately classwent the circulation counter for him to borrow thebook overnight. Unfortunately, he again noticed a long g y g gqueue of students waiting for their turn to process thebook in the circulation counter. It took 5 minutes tohave the book officially checked out under h account.h h k ff ll h k d d hisHe went out of the library with a feeling ofdisappointment and he promised that he will never askassistance from the librarian again.
POINTS TO PONDER….• Have you encountered the same scenario in your library?• Is there something wrong with the scenario? i ?• Are you the type of librarian described in the anecdote?• How many Lucky do you have in your respective libraries?• What can we do to avoid such? at ca e a o d suc ?
Why Provide the following in the Library? Service S i Quality WEB Services Customers Satisfaction
The Moment of Truth• Each customer contact is called a moment of Each customer contact is called a moment of truth.• Y h You have the ability to either satisfy or h bili ih if dissatisfy them when you contact them.• A service recovery is satisfying a previously dissatisfied customer and making him a loyal customer.
We should answer following questions:• Are we delivering the services?• Are we delivering Quality services?• A we able t understand th needs of Are bl to d t d the d f our clienteles?• How can we further improve our services to meet the customers’ expectations?
Vital Considerations of our Vit l C id ti f Existence..• Customers not only need SERVICE but QUALITY SERVICE.• They are meticulous about their requirements• Their queries are becoming very complex.
The Customer Expectations The Customer Expectations• Guests are the judges of service quality (Berry and Parasuraman, 1991)• Their Expectations of service greatly influence their resulting level of satisfaction• It is far easier to please guests with lower expectations than those with higher expectations t ti th th ith hi h t ti
Applied in the LibraryAccordingly, it is easy to understand what most users want when they go to the library. users want when they go to the libraryWants: Expectations:‐ Pertinent materials ‐Locate easily‐ Photocopypy py p p y ‐ Photocopy will work properly‐ Need assistance ‐ Staff will help them promptly and courteously y In others words, THEY WANT WHAT THEY WANT WHEN THEY WANT IT! WANT WHEN THEY WANT IT!
Categories of Service Expectations g p1. ESSENTIAL 1 ESSENTIAL These services meet the fundamental These services meet the fundamental requirements to continue operation Ex. Circulation, Reference, Instruction Program , , g2. EXPECTED Those which the clients assume the service p provider should offer in order to provide p service Ex. Photocopying services, internet services, Wifi services 2. OPTIONAL Guests considered these services as an added bonus that enhances the value of their visit Ex. Wifi zones, Social Networking sites for the library
Why Quality Matters? Why Quality Matters?• The global market is becoming more The global market is becoming more competitive every day• Companies continually search for new ways to Companies continually search for new ways to gain an edge over their competitors around the globe the globe• Global competition and deregulation in a number of industries is forcing companies to b fi d i i f i i turn to quality in order to survive
Why Quality Matters? Why Quality Matters?“Quality is our best assurance of Quality is our best assurance of Quality is our best assurance of customer allegiance, our strongest defense against foreign competition, and the only path to sustained and the only path to sustainedgrowth and earnings” (Welch). growth and earnings” (Welch).
Why Quality Matters? Why Quality Matters?“Quality is in the eye of the beholder” Quality is in the eye of the beholder “If customers say there is quality service, then there is. If they do not, then there is not. It does not matter what an organization believes about his level of service” (Petter Hernon and Ellen Altman (1996)
What is Service Quality? What is Service Quality?• The extent to which a service meets customers’ needs or expectation (Lewis and Mitchelle, 1990)• The difference between customers expectations p of service and perceived service.• Customers also form perceptions of quality p p q y during the service transaction ‐ how effectively and efficiently the service was delivered and the speed and convenience of completing the d d f l h transaction
In Library Science… In Library Science…• Is typically defined in terms of gap analysis, or the gap between customers’ expectations in h b ’ i i general (for an ideal library and services) and those perceptions relating to the particular h i l i h i l library and its services. In other words, it is the gap between customer expectations of those b i f h services in the library in general and those perceptions of the services offered by a i f h i ff d b particular library
Dimensions of service quality Dimension Di i Evaluation Criteria E l ti C it i Examples E l1. Tangibles: Appearance of physical A clean and professional Physical evidence of facilities facilities looking office. looking officethe service Appearance of service A clean and well dressed personnel librarian Tools or equipment used The number of OPAC to provide the service p stations, working , g computer units, printers, security devices. The equipment used in the technical processing of the materials
Dimension Evaluation Criteria Examples2. Reliability: Accuracy of bibliographic An accurate billing Consistency and records, billing receipts receipt, accurate information needed by a needed by a dependability in d d bl library usersperforming the service Performing services when g promised “No borrower’s card, no book card policy” Library opens at exact time.
Dimension Evaluation Criteria Examples3. Responsiveness: Returning customer phone Asking users what they need calls at the reference desk Willingness or sectionreadiness of employees to Providing prompt service Locating and delivering the books needed by a dean provide the serviceprovide the service within a period Handling urgent requests Providing the result of board exams Availability of a staff when A il bilit f t ff h needed
Dimension Evaluation Criteria Examples4. Assurance: Knowledge and l d d A highly trained hi hl i dKnowledge or skills of library staff reference librarian,competence of p student assistantsemployees and ability to convey trust and Company name and A known and confidence reputation respected service respected service provider Personal Assist users to find characteristics of the information and library staff will not stop until the need is provided
Dimension Evaluation Criteria Examples Listening to customer needs A library staff listening to and 5. Empathy: Caring trying to understand a user’s and individual and individual Caring about the customer s Caring about the customer’s complaint interestsattention provided Informs library users of the by employees y p y new acquisition. Providing personalized A Library staff assist the users attention in locating books in the shelves Also access with regard to The librarian is visible and approachability and ease of can be approached anytime a contact from the customer is lib f h i library user has a query h of importance to issues that may be raised by the customer.
Broad Dimensions of Service Quality• Reliability – perform promised service dependably and accurately d l• Responsiveness ‐ willingness/readiness to provide prompt service• Competence ‐ possess knowledge and skill to perform the service• Access ‐ approachability and ease of contact of pp y service personnel• Courtesy ‐ politeness consideration and friendliness politeness, consideration, and friendliness of service personnel cont…
Broad Dimensions of Service Quality – cont. of Service Quality –• Communication ‐ keeping customers informed; listening to customers li i• Credibility ‐ trustworthy, believable, honest• Security ‐ freedom from danger, risk, or doubt• Understanding/knowing customer ‐ knowing Understanding/knowing customer knowing customer’s needs• Tangibles ‐ physical evidence of service physical evidence of service Parasuraman, A. Zeithaml, V., and Berry, L. (1985). Parasuraman, A. Zeithaml, V., and Berry, L. (1985).
Cardinal Principles of Service Quality• Listening precedes action• Reliability is key Reliability is key• Flawless execution of the “basics” • Pay attention to service design Pay attention to service design• Perform service recovery well• Surprise customers Surprise customers• Practice “fair play”• Promote teamwork Promote teamwork• Internal service begets external service Adapted from Zemke, Ron (2002)
‐ is a multi‐item scale l l - represents service quality as the di t i lit th discrepancydeveloped to assess between a customers expectations for a service offering and the customerscustomer perceptions p p perceptions of the service received requiring received,of service quality in respondents to answer questions about bothservice and retail their expectations and their perceptionsbusinesses businesses (Parasuraman et al 1988) The use of et. al., 1988).(Parasuraman et. al., perceived as opposed to actual service received makes the SERVQUAL measure an1988) attitude measure that is related to, but not the , same as, satisfaction (Parasuraman et. al., 1988).
SERVQUAL MODEL Customer’s Customer’s Quality = Expectation ‐ Perception of Service Performance GAP Customer’s Satisfaction
What is queueing theory?• Mathematical analysis of queues and waiting times y q g in stochastic systems. – Used extensively to analyze production and service p processes exhibiting random variability in market demand g y (arrival times) and service times.• Queues arise when the short term demand for service exceeds the capacity service exceeds the capacity – Most often caused by random variation in service times and the times between customer arrivals. – If long term demand for service capacity the queue will If long term demand for service capacity the queue will explode!
Components of a Queueing ProcessThe calling population gp p– The population from which customers/jobs originate– The size can be finite or infinite (the latter is most common)– Can be homogeneous (only one type of customers/ jobs) or Can be homogeneous (only one type of customers/ jobs) or heterogeneous (several different kinds of customers/jobs)The Arrival Process– D t Determines how, when and where customer/jobs arrive to the system i h h d h t /j b i t th t– Important characteristic is the customers’/jobs’ inter‐arrival times – To correctly specify the arrival process requires data collection of interarrival times and statistical analysis times and statistical analysis.
Components of a queueing process p q gpThe queue configurationThe queue configuration– Specifies the number of queues g p • Single or multiple lines to a number of service stations – Their location– Their effect on customer behavior • Balking and reneging– Their maximum size (# of jobs the queue can hold) • Distinction between infinite and finite capacity
Example Two Queue ConfigurationsExample – Two Queue Configurations Multiple Q M lti l Queues Single Queue Servers Servers
The Psychology of Waiting by: David Maister1. Occupied Time Feels Shorter Than Unoccupied Time. i “Boredom results from being attentive to the passage o time itself of e se “A watched pot never boils”2.2 People Want to Get Started. Started - Acknowledge one’s p g presence so that they know y that service has started: we know that you are here - Th There i a f is fear of ‘being f f ‘b i forgotten” tt ”
The Psychology of Waiting y gy g3. Anxiety Makes Waits Seem Longer‐ th the anxiety was about whether or not one had i t b t h th t h d been forgotten4. Uncertain Waits Are Longer than Known, Finite Waits ‐ The most profound source of anxiety in waiting is how long the wait will be “appointment syndrome.”
The Psychology of Waiting5. Unexplained Waits Are Longer than Explained Waits ‐ The lack of an explanation is one of the prime g y factors adding to a customer’s uncertainty about the length of the wait.6. Unfair Waits Are Longer than Equitable Waits“The feeling that somebody has successfully ‘cut in front’ of you causes even the most patient customer to become furious. Great care to be b f i b equitable is vital”
The Psychology of Waiting The Psychology of Waiting7. The More Valuable the Service, the Longer the 7. The More Valuable the Service, the Longer the Customer Will Wait ‐ Tolerance for waits depends upon perceived Tolerance for waits depends upon perceived value of service‐perhaps with the emphasis on the perception. the perception.8. Solo Waits Feel Longer than Group Waits ‐ Individuals suddenly turn to each other to Individuals suddenly turn to each other to express their exasperation, wonder collectively what is happening, and console each other what is happening and console each other
The Internet and Information Quality yProblems:1. Information overload2.2 Availability of vast quantities of useful il bili f ii f f l information3. The potential for inaccurate materials4. The ephemeral nature of materials p disseminated via personal homepage
Information Quality Information QualityInformation via web: Quality is often used to refer to sources which contain original content, or sources which are g accurate and reliable.Information Quality refers to the fitness for its Information Quality ‐refers to the fitness for its purpose of an information source within a particular setting particular setting
Web Based Service in the Library Web‐ Based Service in the Library• Libraries are utilizing the Web to provide Libraries are utilizing the Web to provide services to an increasingly sophisticated and demanding computer user. demanding computer user• M More and more libraries are using the web to d lib i i h b make the library services available anytime anywhere. h
Some Library Services on the WEB Some Library Services on the WEB1. Library Website 1 Lib W bi is an important tool in delivering quality is an important tool in delivering quality service to users since the content of the library can be made accessible to the users library can be made accessible to the users either partially or fully. http://www.loc.gov http://libraries,uslt.edu.ph http://www.mainlib.upd.edu.ph/ http://www.dlsu.edu.ph/library/
WEB OPAC The web OPAC of most WEB OPAC ‐ The web OPAC of mostlibraries are usually integrated in their website. b itThis helps library users to know what are available materials in the library to save their time especially if they are not save their time especially if they are notin the campus.
• Circulation – Loaning can be done thru the library website. library website• New Acquisition – lists of newly acquired books can be made available in the library books can be made available in the library website• Reference Service – this can be done through providing links to online reference materials in the library website.
2. Social Networking Sites (Facebook, Twitter, Friendster, etc)3. Yahoo Groupsp4. Yahoo Messenger, Skype, etc5.5 Emails6. Online Journal Subscription (EBSCO, Pro-Quest, Gale, etc)7. Open Access Journals p (DOAJ, Philjol, etc)
TIPS FOR ADVANCING WEB‐BASED SERVICES1. Commit to 24x7 access to library services2. Take risks and move quickly3. Utilize all library resources as well as the Internet4. Find information partners that complement library service library service
TIPS FOR ADVANCING WEB‐BASED SERVICES5. Use targeted marketing techniques to reach new audiences6. Partnerships and collaborations are the cornerstone of philosophy of service and the librarys practice in advancing Web‐based services
Anti Quality Anti-Quality Attitudes“There will always be a next time” “To err is human”“Better late than never”
“Librarianship is a combination p of something you are(CHARACTER) and some things you do. (COMPETENCE)” Ma DATING at GALING May
Thank You Thank You for forListening! gGood Day!! y