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Quality measurement and evaluation assumes great importance in modern libraries, as it brings immense benefits to the library as well as user community.iN uality should start from the acquisition section, which should be carried uniformly to circulation section

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  1. 1. Charting Library Service Quality… ARUN V R S3 MLISc ROLL No: 3
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• Quality measurement and evaluation assumes great importance in modern libraries, as it brings immense benefits to the library as well as user community.• According to Robinson, “Quality is meeting the requirements of customer- now and in the future.”• Quality should start from the acquisition section, which should be carried uniformly to circulation section
  3. 3. Measuring Qualities of Library Services The important measuring tools and techniques are: • TQM (Total Quality Management) • SERVQUAL • LibQUAL
  4. 4. What is LibQUAL+®? • LibQUAL+® is a suite of services that libraries use to solicit, track, understand, and act upon users opinions of service quality. • A tool, measuring users’ perception of service quality and identifies gaps between desired, perceived and minimum expectation of services • Services are offered to the library community by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL)
  5. 5. What is LibQUAL+®?• In 1999, the A&M team proposed to ARL that the TAMU team would develop this alternative protocol, which the team subsequently named "LibQUAL+®," and would give the protocol to ARL for non-profit use in improving libraries.• Includes the quantitative data yielded from the 22 core items and qualitative data provided by users in the form of open-ended comments ("22 items and a comments box.“)
  6. 6. Goals of LibQUAL+® • Foster a culture of excellence in providing library service • Help libraries better understand user perceptions of library service quality • Collect and interpret library user feedback systematically over time
  7. 7. Goals of LibQUAL+®… • Provide libraries with comparable assessment information from peer institutions • Identify best practices in library service • Enhance library staff members analytical skills for interpreting and acting on data
  8. 8. The need for LibQUAL+® • Underlying need to demonstrate our worth • The reallocation of resources from traditional services and functions • Rapid shifts in information-seeking behavior • Increasing user demands
  9. 9. How will LibQUAL+ Benefit a Library? • Institutional data and reports that enable you to assess whether the library services are meeting user expectations • Aggregate data and reports that allow you to compare the librarys performance with that of peer institutions
  10. 10. How will LibQUAL+ Benefit a Library? • Workshops designed specifically for LibQUAL+ participants • Access to an online library of LibQUAL+ research articles • The opportunity to become part of a community interested in developing excellence in library services
  11. 11. How Does LibQUAL+ Benefit Library Users? • Gives a chance to tell you where your services need improvement so you can respond to and better manage their expectations • Can develop services that better meet the users expectations, by comparing librarys data with that of peer institutions • Examining the practices of those libraries that are evaluated highly by their users.
  12. 12. LibQUAL+ SURVEY• The LibQUAL+ survey features 22 core questions as well as an open ended comments box where users can submit their feedback on library services• For each core survey item, users indicate their minimum service level, desired service level, and perceived service performance• The survey contains additional items that address information literacy outcomes, library use, and general satisfaction
  13. 13. LibQUAL+ SURVEY COMPOSITION• 22 Core Questions• Comments Box• 5 Local Questions (optional)• 5 Information Literacy Questions• 3 General Satisfaction Questions• Library Usage Patterns• Demographics
  14. 14. LibQUAL+ SURVEY• The 22 core survey items measure user perceptions of service quality in three dimensions1. Information Control (8 items)2. Affect of Service (9 items)3. Library as Place (5 items)
  15. 15. Information Control 1. Making electronic resources accessible from home or office 2. A library Web site that enables to locate information on by own 3. Printed library materials needed for the work 4. Availability of electronic information resources
  16. 16. Information Control 5. Modern equipment for easy access of needed information 6. Easy-to-use access tools which helps to find things by own 7. Making information easily accessible for independent use 8. Print and/or electronic journal collections required for the work.
  17. 17. Affect of Service 1. Employees who instill confidence in users 2. Giving users individual attention 3. Employees who are consistently courteous 4. Readiness to respond to users questions 5. Employees who have the knowledge to answer user questions
  18. 18. Affect of Service 6. Employees who deal with users in a caring fashion 7. Employees who understand the needs of their users 8. Willingness to help users 9. Dependability in handling users service problems
  19. 19. Library as Place 1. Library space that inspires study and learning 2. Quiet space for individual activities 3. A comfortable and inviting location 4. A gateway for study, learning, or research 5. Community space for group learning and group study
  20. 20. Comments Box• Can enter any comments about library services in the box – No character limit – We can see results immediately – Can be analyzed and coded – About 50% of respondents use it• Users feel the need to be constructive in their criticisms, and offer specific suggestions for action
  21. 21. Local Questions • Participants can choose 5 questions to add to their survey • Helping participants focus on local issues • Maintaining standardisation for benchmarking purposes
  22. 22. Information Literacy Questions1. The library helps me stay abreast of developments in my field(s) of interest.2. The library aids my advancement in my academic discipline.3. The library enables me to be more efficient in my academic pursuits.4. The library helps me distinguish between trustworthy and untrustworthy information.5. The library provides me with the information skills I need in my work or study.
  23. 23. General Satisfaction Questions 1. In general, I am satisfied with the way in which I am treated at the library. [strongly disagree to strongly agree] 2. In general, I am satisfied with library support for my learning, research, and/or teaching needs. [strongly disagree to strongly agree] 3. How would you rate the overall quality of the service provided by the library? [extremely poor to extremely good]
  24. 24. Library Usage Patterns• How often do you use resources on library premises?• How often do you access library resources through a library Web page?• How often do you use Yahoo(TM), Google(TM), or non-library gateways for information?
  25. 25. Demographics • User group • Discipline • Age • Gender
  26. 26. Survey Instrument For the 22 core items LibQUAL+® asks users’ to rate their: • Minimum service level: the number that represents the minimum level of service that you would find acceptable • Desired service level : the number that represents the level of service that you personally want • Perceived service performance : the number that represents the level of service that you believe our library currently provides
  27. 27. Survey Instrument
  28. 28. Survey InstrumentOn the web - based survey form, users click on radio buttons toindicate their answers for each questions
  29. 29. GAP SCORES• To understand the gap scores, it helps to envision the three number scores for each questions as point on single line• The space between desired and minimum scores is called “zone of tolerance”
  30. 30. GAP SCORES• There are two gap scores provided by the LibQUAL+ survey. • Service Superiority Gap Score • Service Adequacy Gap Score
  31. 31. GAP SCORES Service Superiority = Perceived - Desired
  32. 32. GAP SCORES Service Adequacy = Perceived- Minimum
  33. 33. GAP SCORES• The higher the service superiority and service adequacy scores, the better the library’s performance.• In general, perceived scores tend to fall within the zone of tolerance.• They tend to be less than desired scores and greater than minimum scores.
  34. 34. RADAR CHART• Radar charts are a helpful way to summarize the 22 questions and 3 scales (minimum, desired, perceived).• To create a radar chart score from individual user surveys are combined to form one set of aggregate survey data.
  35. 35. RADAR CHART• The scores are reported in the survey results notebooks as a series of tables• Areas between each of the mean scores on the radar chart are color coded to highlight the differences
  36. 36. RADAR CHART
  37. 37. RADAR CHART• To create radar chart, these lines – each representing one question – are laid out like spokes on wheel.
  38. 38. RADAR CHART • Questions from each of the three dimensions are grouped together
  39. 39. RADAR CHARTOn the radar chart, differences are highlighted in color:• Red: perceived score is less than the minimum score• Blue: perceived score is greater than the minimum score• Yellow: perceived scores is less than the desired scores• Green: perceived scores is greater than the desired scores
  40. 40. RADAR CHART• By looking the radar chart as a whole, one can gain an overall understanding of users perceptions of service quality in a library• The color coded differences make it easy to identify areas where improvements may be needed, or where you are already meeting user expectations
  41. 41. BAR CHART • Bar chart provides another way to look at aggregate survey data • Can easily identify the minimum, perceived and desired data points
  42. 42. BAR CHART• For most part, perceived scores fall within the zone of tolerance• It is possible for perceived scores to fall outside the zone of tolerance
  43. 43. ADVANTAGES• Offers a well designed, thoroughly Library- focused, set of survey tools• Cost-effectiveness• Automated processing & fast delivery of results• Opportunity to benchmark
  44. 44. ADVANTAGES• Respectability and comparability (with others and historically)• Analysis available at local, national and inter- institutional levels• Provides data collection, analysis and presentation tools
  45. 45. DISADVANTAGES• Limited ability to focus on local issues• User Group Demographics not customisable• Question writing• Requires a lot of staff time • Design • Administering • Marketing • Collating and Analysing
  46. 46. HOLIDAY CARD by LibQUAL+®
  47. 47. Whats new
  48. 48. LibQUAL+® Lite• In 2008, the ARL/Texas A&M research and development team tested an alternative form of the conventional LibQUAL+® survey, called "LibQUAL+® Lite.“• The Lite protocol uses item sampling methods to: a. gather data on all 22 LibQUAL+® core items, while b. only requiring given individual users to respond to a subset of the 22 core questions
  49. 49. LibQUAL+® Triads• Third protocol option within the LibQUAL+® suite (i.e., LibQUAL+® Long, LibQUAL+® Lite and LibQUAL+® Triads• Implemented to obtain library users granular ratings of criteria for either desired or perceived library service quality• The protocol yields data on 6 LibQUAL+® core items
  50. 50. CONCLUSION• The library services have changed very fast in the last twenty years.• Electronic resources, networks and the World Wide Web represent a large portion of the library services• It is very clear that librarians must use management tools to run the library services which help them to assess services, to make decisions, to improve services and to achieve a better quality.
  51. 51. REFERENCE• Brophy, Peter. Measuring Library Performance: principles and techniques. London: Facet Publishing, 2006.• Thompson, Bruce. Cook ,Colleen. Heath, Fred M. "How many Dimensions Does It Take to Measure Users’ Perceptions: a LibQUAL+ study." Libraries and the Academy (2001): 129-138.• Thakuria, Pranjit Kumar. "CONCEPT OF QUALITY IN LIBRARY SERVICES: an overview." 5th Convention PLANNER -2007. Ahmedabad: INFLIBNET Centre, 2007.• Dole, Wanda. "LibQUAL+® and the small academic library." Performance Measurement and Metrics (2002): 85-95.• LIBQUAL+®. 16 February 2012. 18 February 2012 <>.