Bibliotherapy as a process


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lecture presented by Dr. Heidi Barcelo-Makahilig, Ph.D. at PAARL Academy’s 2-day Modular Training Program on Bibliotherapy Services through Book Prescription Shops in Libraries & Information Centers, held on 19-20 May 2011, at the Librarians’Center of the National Bookstore Superbranch, Cubao, Quezon City, Philippines

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Bibliotherapy as a process

  1. 1. BIBLIOTHERAPYAS APROCESS Heidi Barcelo-Macahilig, Ph.D.
  2. 2. BIBLIOTHERAPYReading Reader ResponseInteractive
  3. 3. What is BIBLIOTHERAPHY ?• Greek words: Biblion – book Therapeia – healing• A program of selected activity involving reading materials, planned, conducted, and controlled as treatment under the guidance of the physician for emotional and other problems.
  4. 4. • The use of selected reading materials as therapeutic adjuncts in medicine and in psychiatry; and, guidance in the solution of personal problems through directed reading.• the use of literature to treat mental, emotional, and nervous disorders
  5. 5. • A process of dynamic interaction between the personality of the reader and literature-interaction which may be utilized for personality assessment, adjustment, and growth.(Bodart)
  6. 6. Therapeutic Reading vs. Ordinary Reading INTERACTIVE INTENSITY OF EXPERIENCE
  7. 7. Two Components of Therapeutic Reading: 1. The author engages the reader in a silent dialogue, and the reader becomes part of the unfolding intellectual and emotional process of the book
  8. 8. 2. The reader must struggle to understand what is being communicated at the deepest levels and, as a direct consequence of that communication, responds by making a positive alternation or modification in behavior or attitude
  9. 9. Bibliotherapy: Art or Science?
  10. 10. as an ART• Non-medical use of reading to heal.• Nondirective form of reading guidance or as a private means of self-help.
  11. 11. • Non-medical practitioners of the art, such as teachers and librarians, make available carefully selected texts for use by individuals in solving minor personal problems or setbacks.
  12. 12. • For a classroom teacher, the art lends itself best to a group approach. Working with books in a group may lead an individual to develop a different perspective on the problems of others and/or gain insight into his or her own personal struggles.
  13. 13. • Individuals can also utilize the art of bibliotherapy as a private, self-directed means of healing.
  14. 14. as a Science• A directed therapy defined as “a family of technique for structuring interaction between a facilitator and a participant based on the mutual sharing of literature.”
  15. 15. ART SCIENCE• is a nondirective • focuses on treating approach to those who suffer from resolving minor serious physical or personal problems mental illness under the close direction of a medical professional
  16. 16. The Process of Bibliotherapy
  17. 17. 1. IDENTIFICATIONThe reader associates himself or herself with a character or situation in a book.
  18. 18. 2. CATHARSISThe reader shares the feelings and motivations of the book’s character.
  19. 19. 3. INSIGHTThe reader realizes his or her situation can be dealt with more effectively by imitating or adapting the ideas from the reading material.
  20. 20. • Identification• Selection• Presentation• Follow-up (Pardeck)
  21. 21. The Basic Procedures in Conducting Bibliotherapy 1. Motivate the individual or individuals with introductory activities 2. Provide time for reading the material 3. Allow incubation time
  22. 22. 4. Provide follow-up discussion time, using questions that will lead persons from literal recall of information through interpretation, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of that information
  23. 23. 5. Conduct evaluation and direct the individual or individuals toward closure--this involves both evaluation by the practitioner and by the individual.
  24. 24. Activities in Bibliotherapy are designed to:• provide information• provide insight• stimulate discussion about problems• communicate new values and attitudes• create awareness that other people have similar problems• provide realistic solutions to problems
  26. 26. DOES IT WORK?
  27. 27. WHEN SHOULD BIBLIOTHERAPY BE USED?• Bibliotherapeutic intervention may be undertaken for many reasons:1. to develop an individuals self- concept;2. to increase an individuals understanding of human behavior or motivations;
  28. 28. 3. to foster an individuals honest self- appraisal;4. to provide a way for a person to find interests outside of self;5. to relieve emotional or mental pressure;
  29. 29. 6. to show an individual that he or she is not the first or only person to encounter such a problem;7. to show an individual that there is more than one solution to a problem;
  30. 30. 8. to help a person discuss a problem more freely; and9. to help an individual plan a constructive course of action to solve a problem.
  31. 31. WHO SHOULD CONDUCT BIBLIOTHERAPY?• a classroom teacher• a librarian• a mental health professional
  32. 32. HOW SHOULD IT BE USED?• What books?• Individual or Group?
  33. 33. ARE THERE LIMITATIONS?• the availability of materials on certain topics• the lack of client readiness and willingness to read• participants may be defensive, thus discounting the actions of characters and failing to identify with them
  34. 34. • facilitators may have limited knowledge of human development and developmental problems, and inadequate knowledge about appropriate literature• clients may be unwilling to discuss areas that are uncomfortable, or facilitators may insist on making a point at the clients expense
  35. 35. • if both the client and counselor stay on surface issues