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  1. 1. BIBLIOTHERAPY [ THERAPEUTIC READING ] by: Rosalito G. de Guzman, Ph.D.
  2. 2. What is Psychotherapy? 1. Psychotherapy is an interaction between T (therapist) and P (patient). 2. Its purpose is for T to help P cope with problems and find greater satisfaction in life. 3. T is not involved in P’s problems and therefore can have a more objective perspective on P’s problems than P or anyone closely involved with P.
  3. 3. <ul><li>T has special training and experience to understand and help people with their problems. </li></ul><ul><li>T tries to help P with problems in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by increasing P’s insight into his problems through questions , clarifications, reflections, and interpretations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by offering guidance through information and by suggesting alternatives; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by supporting P emotionally through reassurance and encouragement. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 2 Greek Words Bibliotherapy biblion – book therapeia – healing Gladding (1996) – a process that produces a dynamic interaction between the personality of the reader and the selected literature.
  5. 5. Psychology of Reading <ul><li>A. Tangible factor for Efficient Reading </li></ul><ul><li>  Physical well-being </li></ul><ul><li>B. Intangible factors : </li></ul><ul><li>  proper frame of mind </li></ul><ul><li>  the will to learn from the reading w/c entails according to Roldan self - </li></ul><ul><li>motivation, self – confidence, self- </li></ul><ul><li>direction, definition of purpose, and </li></ul><ul><li>concentration. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Thus, the reader’s meaningful reaction to what is read is a product of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality factors </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Key Concepts of Bibliotherapy <ul><li>1. Universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identification </li></ul><ul><li>3. Catharsis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Insight </li></ul>
  8. 8. Principles in the Use of Bibliotherapy <ul><li>Knowledge of the Topic to be Read </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion after the Reading Session </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of the Reading Session </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity of the Reading Selection </li></ul>
  9. 9. How to Use Bibliotherapy <ul><li>Identify student needs. This is </li></ul><ul><li>done through observation, parent </li></ul><ul><li>conferences , student writing </li></ul><ul><li>assignments, and the review of school records. </li></ul><ul><li>Match the student(s) with appropriate materials Find books which deal with divorce, a death in the family ,or whatever student needs have been identified. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Keep the following in mind: </li></ul><ul><li>The book must be at the student’s reading ability level. </li></ul><ul><li>The text must be at an interest level appropriate to the maturity of the student. </li></ul><ul><li>The theme of the readings should match the identified needs of the student. </li></ul><ul><li>The characters should be believable so that the student can empathize with their predicaments. </li></ul><ul><li>The plot of the story should be realistic and involve creativity in problem solving. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>3. Decide on the setting and time for sessions, and how sessions will be introduced to the student. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Design follow-up activities for the reading (e.g., discussion, paper writing, drawing, drama) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Motivate the student with introductory activities (e.g., asking questions to get a discussion going on the topic) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>6. Engage in the reading , viewing , or listening phase. Ask leading questions and start short discussions throughout the reading.Periodically , summarize what has occurred thus far ( to be sure that “the message” does not get lost in the trivial points) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Take a break or allow a few minutes for the student to reflect on the material. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>8. Introduce the follow-up activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Retelling of the story </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> In depth discussion of the book (e.g., discussing right and wrong, morals, the law, strong and weak points of the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>main character, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Art activities (e.g., drawing map illustrating story events, creating collage from magazine photos and headlines to illustrate events in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the story, draw pictures of events) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Creative writing (e.g., resolving the story in a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different way, analyzing decisions of characters) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Drama (role playing, constructing story with </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>puppets made during art activity, enacting a trial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for the characters) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>9. Assist the student in achieving closure </li></ul><ul><li>through discussion and a listing of possible </li></ul><ul><li>solutions, or some other activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Cautions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Avoid topics (e.g. , abortion, drug use, </li></ul><ul><li>crime) which might draw concerns from </li></ul><ul><li>parents, community, etc. unless approve </li></ul><ul><li>with the administration or those parties. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Be familiar with the book. Read it and understand it before using it. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Applications of Bibliotherapy <ul><li>To develop the individual’s self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>To increase an individual’s understanding of human behavior or motivations </li></ul><ul><li>To foster an honest self-appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a way for a person to find interests outside of self </li></ul><ul><li>To relieve emotional or mental pressure </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>To show the person that he is not the only one with a problem </li></ul><ul><li>To show a person that there is more than one solution to a problem </li></ul><ul><li>To help a person discuss a problem more freely </li></ul><ul><li>To help a person plan a constructive course of action to solve a problem </li></ul>
  17. 17. Maraming Salamat Po !