Water pollution.pp .


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The causes and effects of water pollution in Trinidad & Tobago

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Water pollution.pp .

  1. 1. Chemistry and Water Pollution Group Members Mikelle Sinnette (00033871) Nadia Richards (00054966) Genevieve Sebastien (00029379) Shamila Harricharan (00051290) Gillian P- Gardiner (00025843) CRN 86946 CHEM 092
  2. 2. Introduction: Environmental degradation in Trinidad and Tobago has historical roots that are not too dissimilar from those in the rest of the world, attributed largely to economic growth and the development and growth of human population. The problem of water pollution is widespread, and caused mainly by: • human activities resulting from littering, • unsettled quarry wash, • industrial plant and factory waste, • over use of fertilizers and pesticides, • bush fires, slash and burn and deforestation, • waste oils and untreated or poorly treated sewerage.
  3. 3. Chemical Properties Of Water (H2O) Water is bonded covalently by two hydrogen’s (H) and one oxygen (O) molecule. This diagram represents: The covalent bonds. Pink dots (O)electrons Yellow dots (H)electrons.
  4. 4. Water Cycle
  5. 5. What is Water Pollution? Definition: • Water Pollution is the contamination of water. This generally refers to the adverse changes in water quality, usually as a result of human activities. • The substances that cause water pollution are called pollutants.
  6. 6. Some examples of Pollutants • Factories & Refineries (Oil and industrial waste) • Agriculture (Pesticides, fertilizers, Eutrophication) • Human Sewage (Failing septic tanks, pit latrines) • Marine Dumping • Mining (sediment run off) • Agriculture (Pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers) • Household chemicals (soap, oven cleaners etc.) • Dumping (non-biodegradable (plastic bottles)
  7. 7. Types of water pollution Point-Source Pollution Water pollution coming from a single point, such as a sewage-outflow pipe. From factories, industries, municipal treatment plants.
  8. 8. Types of water pollution ‘Cont.’ Non-point Source Pollution Is associated with storm water or runoff • A widely spread source of pollution that can’t be tied to a specific point of origin is called nonpoint source pollution. • Example: Runoff from a farm field, a street, or a construction site
  9. 9. Types of water pollution ‘Cont.’ • Surface Water Pollution: For example, a spill from an oil tanker creates an oil slick that can affect a vast area of the ocean. • Ground Water Pollution: Water stored underground in aquifers (is an underground layer of water bearing permeable rock, gravel sand slit)is known as groundwater.
  10. 10. Other forms of water pollution • Thermal Pollution caused by heat from power plants and factories raising the temperature it reduces oxygen levels in the water thus reducing aquatic life. • Sediments (fine-grained powders) The extra sediment can block the gills of fish, effectively suffocating them effecting the supply of fish.
  11. 11. Three major sources of water pollution *Industrial waste *Human waste *Chemical runoff.
  12. 12. Industrial Waste & Water Pollution Industries cause huge water pollution with their activities. These come mainly from: Oils Phosphates Petrochemicals Mercury (Hg hydrargyrum) commonly known as quick silver. Asbestos Chrysotile (White), Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4 Amosite/Grunerite (Brown) Fe7Si8O22(OH)2 Crocidolite (Blue) Na2(Fe,Mg)5Si8O22(OH)2
  13. 13. Human Waste & Water Pollution • Sewage is the term used for wastewater that often contains faeces, urine and laundry waste • Untreated sewage can often carry harmful viruses and bacteria into the environment causing health problems such as diarrhea and cholera. • Littering & Dumping
  14. 14. Chemical run off and Water Pollution Chemical pollution, since the sources are so varied, can be more difficult to remove (non- biodegradable) and neutralize. There are numerous types of chemicals that pollute water. • • • • • • Pesticides Fertilizers Household cleaners Paints Industrials Metals
  15. 15. Atmosphere and Water pollution • Acid rain is rain or another form of precipitation that is more acidic than normal. • Acid rain can affect fish, harm trees, and eat away the stone of buildings and statues.
  16. 16. Oil Pollution • Oil spills cause a very localized problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea otters. • Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge in the water. This suffocates fish, gets caught in the feathers of marine birds stopping them from flying and blocks light from photosynthetic aquatic plants.
  17. 17. Nuclear Waste • Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes that use radioactive material. Nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on marine habitats.
  18. 18. Effects of Water Pollution • DEATH OF AQUATIC (WATER) ANIMALS • DISRUPTION OF FOOD CHAINS • DISEASES (hepatitis, cholera, cancers & death) • DISRUPTION OF ECO-SYSTEM (algae blooms)
  19. 19. Algae Blooms • Together, sewage and fertilizers can cause a massive increase in the growth of algae or plankton that overwhelms huge areas of oceans, lakes, or rivers. This is known as a harmful algal bloom (also known as an HAB or red tide, because it can turn the water red). It is harmful because it removes oxygen from the water that kills other forms of life, leading to what is known as a dead zone.
  20. 20. How can we stop Water Pollution? • Laws- Environmental and conservation laws for industries (fishing, boating, chemical). • Education- promoting programs e.g. involving recycling and proper disposal in schools and in the work place. • Economics- for example clean up plans and programs.
  21. 21. Preventative Measures
  22. 22. Preventative Measures • Dispose of rubbish correctly. “Think before you toss!” • Use water wisely. • Do not throw chemicals, oils, paints and medicines down the sink drain, or the toilet. • Buy more eco-friendly products. • Plant a lot of trees and flowers around your home.
  23. 23. Quick Facts • According to 2004 figures from the World Health Organization, some 1.1 billion people (16 percent of the world's population) don't have access to safe drinking water, while 2.6 billion (40 percent of the world's population hasn't improved much since. • According to a WASA report, it is estimated that farm waste has been estimated to produce over (55%) of the total waste load. Trinidad and Tobago was also estimated as 10.4 million kilograms/year with 45% being contributed from domestic sources & 55% from live stock. Mean while, Tobago accounts for 4% of both the domestic waste and live stock waste.
  24. 24. Conclusion: • Water pollution arising from accidental or deliberate disposal of harmful substances on land, dumping of petrochemicals at sea, over-use of pesticides and fertilizers and poor sewage systems, all of which results in contamination of both surface and ground water. Water Pollution is a serious issue and preventive measures are essential • “ Are You Water Wise?”
  26. 26. Water pollution in Trinidad & Tobago port
  27. 27. References • http://eschooltoday.com/pollution/waterpollution/causes-of-water-pollution.html • http://www.greenstudentu.com/encyclopedia/p ollution • http://www.unesco.org/new/en/naturalsciences/environment/water/wwap/ • http://www.who.int/en/ • http://en.unesco.org/ • http://eschooltoday.com/pollution/waterpollution/important-water-pollution-facts.html • www.wasa.gov.tt/