SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 99
Download to read offline
Water Pollution
• The primary natural sources and basic
  need of living things is water
• It is existed in mainly
• Marine           97%
• Fresh water 03%
Supply of water

• Agriculture              69%
  Industry                 23%
  Domestic                 08%

  About 1.3billion people were unable to access
  water worldwide.
• Total volume of water in India 1850Km3
  , which 4 % fresh water resources of world
• 70% all available sources of waters of India are
  polluted
  80% domestic waste water is causing
  pollution.
  In India 70 million people live by the sewerage
  system.
  The water is contaminated by human
  activities.
Important words
• Aquifers - natural rock formations, which
  contain ground water.
• Eutrophication - The process of slowly filling
  in a water body with sediments and organic
  matter and lowering of oxygen.
• Point source - occurs when harmful
  substances are emitted directly into a body
  of water. i.g. One way in which this occurs, is
  when someone throws a coke can into a body
  of water.
• Non point source - delivers pollutants
  indirectly through environmental changes.
  One way in, which this occurs, is through run-
  off.
• Pathogens - or disease producing organism.
• Pollution - to make foul or unclean; dirty.
• Sediments - minerals or organic matter
  deposited by water, air, or ice...matter which
  settles to the bottom .
The sources of pollution categorized into

• Point sources: e.g. A pipe spewing toxic
  chemicals directly discharge into a river at a
  particular point.
Point Source - Example




• LUST - Leaky Underground Storage Tanks
• 22% of the 1.2 million UST are LUSTy
• Look at water pollution from gasoline...
Point source
examples
• Non-point sources: The waste water carried
  into a stream by surface runoff(without any
  pipe) e.g. Fertilizer mixing water from
  agriculture field.
Non-point source pollutants - nutrients
Non point source
examples
Water Pollution (Public place)
Garbage in water body
Agriculture waste water
Sewage water is mixing in water body
Stream polluted with crude oil.
           Trinidad
Plastic garbage patch in Atlantica
• Oil pollution of waterways can have devastating
  effects on aquatic vegetation and animal life.
• Oil contains toluene and benzene which are
  toxic, but these compounds evaporate quickly
  and do not do most of the damage.
• It is other compounds in crude oil - polycyclic
  aromatic hydrocarbons - that are the source of
  most of the environmental problems.
•
• These compounds persist in the environment
  much longer (do not evaporate) and coat
  shorelines and estuaries severely impacting
  ecosystems by blocking light and gas exchange.
• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons also negatively
  effect sea mammals and sea birds and can kill
  them.
• Interestingly, while big oil spills make the
  headlines, most oil pollution comes from runoff -
  used engine oil, industrial and commercial waste,
  etc.
Garbage in water
Garbage in polluted stream. Trinidad
Facts: Increasing economic an social development in Trinidad contributes to the degradation of the islands'
environment. Water pollution from agricultural, domestic, industrial and municipal sources is a particularly
             significant problem. Residential areas produce raw sewage and household wastes.
Polluted river running through a slum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Facts: Water pollution may pose significant health threats such as diseases like typhoid, cholera and dysentery.
Aquatic life in the river may also be affected by pollution, and some polluted rivers (like the one in the photo in
                                               Malaysia) are still fished.
Tilings settling pond with Sycrude processing plant in background. Photographed in
                          Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
• Syncrude utilizes the Clark hot water process
  which uses hot water to separate the bitumen
  from the sand after it is mined from the surface.
• The leftover water is dumped in the tailings
  ponds, which contain a mixture of
  clay, sand, water and hydrocarbons.
• Tailings ponds can be dangerous as the wastes
  are sometimes toxic and/or corrosive and
  detrimental to the environment.
Pollution - Sewage & Trash
                            Location: Tijuana River Estuary San Diego California
Winter storms flush huge quantities of raw sewage and floating trash from Tijuana Mexico down the Tijuana
                  River to be deposited in the river estuary and ultimately in the ocean.
Pollution - Sign Warning of Sewage Spill
                     Location: Imperial Beach San Diego California
On the beach next to Imperial Pier a family watches as a surfer who choose to ignore the
                                warnings exits the water.
Pollution - Spilled Gasoline and/or Oil Forms Patterns on Water Surface
Fish Die Offs - Tilapia at the Salton Sea
•
    Location: Salton Sea Imp. County California
    The Salton Sea has been in decline for years.

• Large scale fish die offs have become annual summer events since the late
  nineties.

• The major causes are believed to be the ever increasing salinity pollution
  from Mexico via the New River and agricultural runoff from the
  surrounding farmland on the southern end of the Sea.

• The pollutants include huge quantities of raw sewage industrial waste
  farm fertilizers and pesticides.
Garbage at the bottom of a Waterfall
Ferry crossing the Bosphorus, Istanbul Turkey
Blocks of ice on the Sainte Anne River, Quebec.
The village called Sainte Anne de la Perade is famous for ice fishing in winter.
                                 January 2004
Mining pollution Facts: Sludge flowing from a pipe at a copper mine.
                       Photographed in Chile
• Def: Water pollution may be defined as the addition of
  any substance to water, which may change the physical
  and chemical characters in any way, which may
  interfere with use for legitimate purposes.

•   Pollutants .Dissolved solids, minerals, dust, fibers etc.
•   Dissolved gases
•   Suspended matter
•   Microbes
 The effect of Pollutants on river water quality
  depends on
-The type of pollutant
-concentration of pollutant in the water
-the length of exposure to the community
Effect of water pollution
-Depletion of dissolved oxygen in surface water
  bodies affecting the fish and other water bodies
-The toxic substance render the water unfit for
    the down stream use.
-the pathogens from the domestic sewage
    contaminate the water and causes the
    transmission of water borne diseases
-The increased temperature due to discharge of
    effluent from thermal power stations cause
    direct responses.
i. Heat stress or death sensitive species
ii. Enhanced microorganisms respiration.
Effects

• When toxic substances enter lakes, streams,
  rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they
  get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get
  deposited on the bed.
• This results in the pollution of water whereby
  the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting
  aquatic ecosystems.
• Pollutants can also seep down and affect the
  groundwater deposits.
Sources
• Water pollution has many sources.
• The most polluting of them are the city
  sewage and
• Industrial waste discharged into the rivers.
  The facilities to treat waste water are not
  adequate in any city in India.
• Domestic sewage refers to waste water that is
  discarded from households. Also referred to as
  sanitary sewage, such water contains a wide
  variety of dissolved and suspended impurities.
• Wastewater from Domestic and
  Canteens, Hotels and Restaurants. ex. Bio-
  waste
Industrial effluents
During the last fifty years, the number of
  industries in India has grown rapidly.
Waste water from manufacturing or chemical
  processes in industries contributes to water
  pollution.
Industrial waste water usually contains specific
  and readily identifiable chemical compounds.
• Effluents from Industries: e.g.
  textiles, chemicals, dyeing, paper and
  pulp, pharmaceuticals, tanneries, dairy forms, nuclear power
  plants, thermal power plants, meat
  packing, sugar, refineries, mining, petroleum drilling wells and
  drainages
  -Pathogens: Bacteria, Warms

• Ecological Pollution: e.g. large animal deer drowns in a flood
  large amount of organic material added to the water. Land slide
  Farming: e.g. fertilizers increase the amount of nitrates and
  phosphates
• Pollen grains from water plants

   Flooding during rainy season

  -Disposal of human and animal waste

  -Agriculture Waste

  -Untreated Sewage
• Most of these defaulting industries are sugar
  mills, distilleries, leather processing
  industries, and thermal power stations.
• Most of the major industries have treatment
  facilities for industrial effluents.
• Presently, only about 10% of the waste water
  generated is treated; the rest is discharged as it is
  into our water bodies. Due to this, pollutants
  enter groundwater, rivers, and other water
  bodies.
• Agricultural run-off, or the water from the
  fields that drains into rivers, is another major
  water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and
  pesticides.
Path ways of water Pollution

•   Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of
    petroleum, radioactive substances, and heat.

•    Petroleum often pollutes water bodies in the form of oil, resulting from oil
    spills.

•   The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water
    pollution.

•   These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important
    cause of pollution along shore lines. Besides the supertankers, off-shore
    drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution.

•    One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil
    transported. This is equal to about 0.0001 percent.
• Radioactive substances are produced in the form of
  waste from nuclear power plants, and from the
  industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive
  materials.
• Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium
  mining and refining. The last form of water pollution is
  heat.
• Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures
  result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms.
• These decreases in temperatures are caused when a
  discharge of cooling water by factories and power
  plants occurs.
Major Pollutants
Organic Compounds
•   Phenols
•   Hydrocarbons
•   Proteins
•   Carbohydrates
•   Dye stuffs
•   Organic acids
•   Detergents
•   Organic pesticides
•   Fats and Oils
•   CFCs etc
Inorganic compounds
• Acids
  Alkalis
  Cyanides
  Halogens
  Nitrites
  Nitrates
  Sulphides
  Sulphur
  Phosphates
• Calcium
  Magnesium
  Iron
  Arsenic
  Zinc, Chromium3+
  Chromium 6+
  Lead, Silver
  Mercury
  Cadmium
  Copper
• Garbage
  Cans
  bottles,
  plastics
  vegetable waste
  needles
  Glass
• Medical waste
Water quality Parameters
• Colour, pH,
  Odour,
• Temperature
  TSS,
  TDS,
  DO,
  BOD,
  COD
  SO2, S,
  Cl, F,Br, I,
  P, N,
  NO3, N,                  Tra
  ces of metals
• Definition of pH
• pH can be viewed as an abbreviation for power of
  hydrogen or more completely, power of the concentration
  of hydrogen ion.
• The mathematical definition of pH is a bit less intuitive, but
  with a calculator in hand, more useful. It says that the pH is
  equal to the negative log of the hydrogen ion
  concentration, or pH = -log [H+].
• Range for pH 1-14
• Acidic: 1-6.5
• Neutral: 7
• Alkali: 7.5 -14
• Dissolved oxygen
• Dissolved oxygen (Science: biochemistry) The
  concentration of oxygen dissolved in
  water, expressed in mg/l or as percent
  saturation, where saturation is the maximum
  amount of oxygen that can theoretically be
  dissolved in water at a given altitude and
  temperature.
• Total suspended solids is a water quality
  measurement usually abbreviated TSS.
• This parameter was at one time called non-
  filterable residue (NFR).
• Definitions, "filterable" means just the
  opposite: the material passed by a filter,
  usually called "Total dissolved solids" or TDS.
• Thus in chemistry the non-filterable solids are
  the retained material called the residue.
• Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): laboratory
  measurement of the amount of oxygen used in
  chemical reactions that occur in water as a result
  of the addition of wastes.
• A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all
  compounds, both organic and inorganic, in water.
• A measure of the oxygen-consuming capacity of
  inorganic and organic matter present in water or
  wastewater. the amount of oxygen consumed
  from a chemical oxidant in a specific test
• Biochemical Oxygen Demand - the rate at
  which microorganisms use the oxygen in
  water or wastewater while stabilizing
  decomposable organic matter under aerobic
  conditions.
• In decomposition, organic matter serves as
  food for the bacteria and energy results from
  this oxidation.
• www.alken-murray.com/glossarybug.html
Characterization of waste waters

•   Physical Characters: Colour, odour,
•   Dissolved Oxygen
•   Insoluble substances
•   Corrosive properties
•   Radio activity
•   Temperature range
•   Foamability
Chemical characters
•   pH
•    Chemical oxygen demand(COD)
•   Acidity
•   Alkalinity
•   Hardness
•   Total carbon
•   Total Dissolved solids
•   Chlorine demand
•   Known organic and inorganic components
•   E.g.Cr,S2,SO42-,N,Pb,Cd,Hg,As, are inorganic
•   phenols, hydrocarbon, oils and greases are
    organic
Chemical characters

•   Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
•   Pathogenic bacteria,
•   Toxicity to man
•   Aquatic organisms
•   Plants and other forms
Waste water treatment
• Physical methods
• Removing floating or suspended solids or
  liquid pollutants based on their density
  difference from water.
• Reverser osmosis
• Filtration
• Form separation
• Porous bed filtration, adsorption
• Crystalization
Chemical methods
•   Industrial effluents contains
•   Acids
•   Alkalis
•   Undesirable chlorides
•   Phenols
•   Sulphates
•   Chromates
•   Phosphates
•   Salts of mercury, lead, calcium, barium, zinc
•   Acid and base neutralization before they
    discharge into water bodies
• Biological treatment method
• Colloidal or dissolved solids are converted into
  settleable solids by microorganisms under
  favourable conditions.
• Anaerobic treatment takes place in the total
  absence of oxygen and is a slow process.
• Aerobic biological treatment methods include
  the activated sludge process, trickling filter
  process and stabilization pond
Food Industry
• Raw sewage includes waste from
• Sinks, toilets, and industrial processes.
• Treatment of the sewage is required before it
  can be safely buried, used, or released back
  into local water systems.
• In a treatment plant, the waste is passed
  through a series of screens, chambers, and
  chemical processes to reduce its bulk and
  toxicity.
• The three general phases of treatment are
  primary, secondary, and tertiary. During primary
  treatment, a large percentage of the suspended solids
  and inorganic material is removed from the sewage.
• The focus of secondary treatment is reducing organic
  material by accelerating natural biological processes.
• Tertiary treatment is necessary when the water will be
  reused;
• 99 percent of solids are removed and various chemical
  processes are used to ensure the water is as free from
  impurity as possible.
Case study. e.g.Texas
• The causes of surface water pollution.
  Collected water from 190 segments impacted high
  bacteria levels,
  103 segments low dissolved oxygen18 segments high
  metal contents
  19 segments organics (dioxins)
  12 segments dissolved solids
  8 segments chlorides
  7 segments metals
  They found in fish and shellfish
Pie diagram showing contaminants in
               water

                   DO pH
         Met als
                   5%2%
             5%
                                        Pat hogens
   pest icides
      11%                               Chlorides
                                        pest icides

                           Pat hogens   Met als
   Chlorides
     16%                      61%       DO
                                        pH
There is no pipe line to surface water run off into rivers.
                  EPA estimated non point sources


• Pollution at Texas
  Rivers                    65%
  Lakes                     76%
  Estuaries                 45%
  Texas Commission of Environment Quality
  identified 220 out of 238 water bodies or 92%
  damaged.
• State Funded Project has taken up Clean River
  project
Wastewater Treatment Process
Contaminant        Treatment system      Treatment
                   process               plants/Unit
Pathogenic         Chlorination,         Chlorinator,
organisms          ozonation             ozonator
Turbidity and      Screening,            Screeners/clarifiers,
suspended solids   sedimentation,        filters
                   Filtration
                   Coagulation/floccul   Clariflocculator and
                   ation/                filter
                   Sedimentation/
                   filtration
Color              Adsorption, Ion-      Adsorption towers
                   exchange,
                   coagulation and
                   flocculation/         Clariflocculator and
                   sedimentation/        filter
                   filtration
Tastes and odors           Oxidation (aeration),       Aerator, Activated carbon
                           adsorption, Chemical        filter,
                           oxidation,
Organic matter             Biological oxidation,       Activated sludge process,
                           Adsorption, Ion-exchange,   trickling filter,
                           ozonation                   Softenerozonator,
                                                       Rotating biological
                                                       contactor,
                                                       Upflow anaerobic sludge
                                                       blanket,
Hardness ions Ca+2, Mg +   Chemical precipitation,     clarifier, Softeners
                           Ion-exchange
Dissolved gases             Aeration, Vacuum          Aerator
                            deaeration                Degassifier
                                                      Chlorinator
Heavy metals                Chemical precipitation,   Clariflocculator
                            ion-exchange              Ion-exchange column
Iron and manganese          Ion exchange, Oxidation   Ion exchange
precipitation/ filtration                             Aerator/settler/filter
Dissolved solids            Reverse osmosis,          Reverse osmosis Plant
                            Distillation              Evaporator
Residents of the Love Canal area in Niagara Falls were forced to evacuate when
  hazardous wastes leaking from a former disposal site threatened their health and
                                 homes in the late 1970s.
 One of the most notorious cases of toxic waste leakage, the crisis received attention
on both local and national levels. Investigation spurred by public outrage revealed that
             many waste disposal sites like Love Canal existed nationwide.
                          New York alone had several hundred.
 Several states have since passed stricter regulations on industrial waste disposal and
          allocated billions of dollars for the cleanup of contaminated areas.
• Industrial Pollution
• In the United States industry is the greatest source of pollution,
  accounting for more than half the volume of all water pollution and for
  the most deadly pollutants.
• Some 370,000 manufacturing facilities use huge quantities of freshwater
  to carry away wastes of many kinds.
• The waste-bearing water, or effluent, is discharged into streams, lakes, or
  oceans, which in turn disperse the polluting substances.
• In its National Water Quality Inventory, reported to Congress in 1996,
• the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that approximately
  40% of the nation's surveyed lakes, rivers, and estuaries were too polluted
  for such basic uses as drinking supply, fishing, and swimming.
• The pollutants include grit, asbestos, phosphates and nitrates, mercury,
  lead, caustic soda and other sodium compounds, sulfur and sulfuric acid,
  oils, and petrochemicals.
• In addition, numerous manufacturing plants pour
  off undiluted corrosives, poisons, and other
  noxious byproducts.
• The construction industry discharges slurries of
  gypsum, cement, abrasives, metals, and
  poisonous solvents.
• Another pervasive group of contaminants
  entering food chains is the polychlorinated
  biphenyl (PCB) compounds, components of
  lubricants, plastic wrappers, and adhesives.
• In yet another instance of pollution, hot water
  discharged by factories and power plants
  causes so-called thermal pollution by
  increasing water temperatures.
• Such increases change the level of oxygen
  dissolved in a body of water, thereby
  disrupting the water's ecological
  balance, killing off some plant and animal
  species while encouraging the overgrowth of
  others.
http://www.questia.com/library/encyclopedia/water-pollution.jsp dt 16/4/10



• Legislation and Control
• The United States has enacted extensive
  federal legislation to fight water pollution.
• In the United States in 1996, nearly $10 billion
  was spent on water and wastewater
  treatment alone.
• Laws include the Federal Water Pollution
  Control Act (1972),
• The Marine Protection, Research, and
  Sanctuaries Act (1972),
• The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974), and the
  Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and
  Rodenticide Act, as amended in 1988.
• International cooperation is being promoted
  by the Inter-Governmental Maritime
  Consultive Organization (IMCO), a UN agency.
• An international ban on ocean dumping in
  1988 set further restrictions.
• The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition
  Copyright© 2004, Columbia University Press.
  Licensed from Lernout & Hauspie Speech
  Products N.V. All rights reserved.
• Limitation of ocean dumping was proposed at
  the 80-nation London Conference of
  1972, and in the same year 12 European
  nations meeting in Oslo adopted rules to
  regulate dumping in the North Atlantic.
Effects of water pollution on living things

• Water-borne diseases affect around 3.4
  million people globally.
• In India around 5, 63, 000 people are affected
  annually.
• One fourth of children affected according to
  Ministry of Health and Family Planning Report
  Government Of India
• The depletion of dissolved oxygen in surface
  water bodies thus affecting the fish and other
  aquatic life
• The toxic substances render the water unfit for
  down stream use.
• The pathogens from the domestic sewage
  contaminate the water and cause the
  transmission of water borne diseases.
• Thermal power stations discharge heated effluent
  in to the water bodies, which increase
  temperature in the water bodies and causes heat
  stress or death of sensitive species.
• In the mid 1950s the people of
  Minamata, Japan, on the coast of the Shiranui
  Sea, began to notice something wrong with
  the cats in their town.
• The cats appeared to be going insane, and
  were falling into the sea.
• The people thought the cats were committing
  suicide.
•
• Soon the people in the town were also
  contracting a strange illness.
• Individuals began to have numbness in their
  limbs and lips. Some had difficulty hearing or
  seeing.
• Others developed shaking (tremors) in their arms
  and legs, difficulty walking, even brain damage.
• Others seemed to be going crazy, shouting
  uncontrollably.
• Unknown syndrome called Minamata disease
  In 1956, researchers worked to find the source of
  the illness, which they termed Minamata disease.
• Something was affecting the nervous systems of
  the people.
• One thing people in this fishing town had in
  common was that they all ate fish, so scientists
  suspected that the fish in Minamata Bay were
  being poisoned.
• Chisso Corporation source of environmental pollution
  A large petrochemical plant in Minamata run by Chisso Corporation
  was immediately suspect.
• Chisso denied the allegations and continued its manufacturing with
  no changes to the method of production.
• Finally, in July 1959 researchers from Kumamoto University found
  that organic mercury was the cause of Minamata disease.
• Chisso continued to refuse the information and any link of its
  mercury waste to the illness.
• It was later discovered that Chisso Corporation had dumped an
  estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay.
• People severely affected
  As the mercury dumping continued, babies were
  born to poisoned mothers.
• The children were born with severe deformities,
  including gnarled limbs, mental retardation,
  deafness, and blindness.
• A photographer, W. Eugene Smith, traveled to
  Minamata in the 1970s, and his series of
  photographs of the suffering of the people there
  were published and seen around the world.
• A poisoning epidemic
  Chisso finally quit poisoning the waters in Minamata in
  1968.
• According to Japanese government figures, 2,955
  people contracted Minamata disease, and 1,784
  people have since died.
• Researchers believe, however, that the criteria the
  government uses to diagnose Minamata disease is too
  strict, and that anyone who showed any impairment in
  his/her senses should be certified as a victim.
• A group of these yet-to-be-recognized victims plans to
  file a compensation suit against the government.
• In April 2001 the Osaka High Court
  determined that the government's Health and
  Welfare Ministry should have begun taking
  regulatory action to stop the poisoning
• at the end of 1959, after it concluded that
  Minamata disease was caused by mercury
  poisoning.
• The court also ordered Chisso to pay $2.18
  million in damages to the plaintiffs.
• On October 16, 2004, the Supreme Court of
  Japan ordered the government to pay 71.5
  million yen ($703,000) in damages to the
  Minamata disease victims.
• The Environment Minister bowed in apology
  to the plaintiffs.
• After 22 years, the plaintiffs achieved their
  goal of making those responsible for Japan's
  worst case of industrial pollution pay for their
  negligence.
• No amount of money, though, can ever make
  up for the lives needlessly lost to Minamata
  disease.
• http://rarediseases.about.com/od/raredisease
  s1/a/102304.htm
• Conclusions: The water pollution creates
  various health problems and damaging public
  property. The people should strictly follow
  regulations. Then we can achieve zero
  pollution.

More Related Content

What's hot

Water pollution
Water pollution Water pollution
Water pollution Veneraiko
 
Environmental Pollution
Environmental PollutionEnvironmental Pollution
Environmental PollutionHarshitha Rao
 
Environmental pollution
Environmental pollutionEnvironmental pollution
Environmental pollutionAsif Ashraf
 
EFFECTS OF OXIDES OF, SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN. SMOG, INDUSTRIAL, SULFUROUS, ...
EFFECTS OF OXIDES OF, SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN. SMOG, INDUSTRIAL, SULFUROUS, ...EFFECTS OF OXIDES OF, SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN. SMOG, INDUSTRIAL, SULFUROUS, ...
EFFECTS OF OXIDES OF, SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN. SMOG, INDUSTRIAL, SULFUROUS, ...AMIR HASSAN
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollutionHome
 
Acid rain - Causes , effects and remediation
Acid rain - Causes , effects and remediationAcid rain - Causes , effects and remediation
Acid rain - Causes , effects and remediationPourani SGM
 
Water pollution effects,causes,and how it is dandages to human life.
Water pollution effects,causes,and how it is dandages to human life.Water pollution effects,causes,and how it is dandages to human life.
Water pollution effects,causes,and how it is dandages to human life.Navyasri Kallam
 
Water pollution causes and prevention
Water pollution causes and preventionWater pollution causes and prevention
Water pollution causes and preventionMd Faridujaman Nayeem
 
Chemistry project on Water Pollution
Chemistry project on Water PollutionChemistry project on Water Pollution
Chemistry project on Water Pollutionashishkumar2011
 

What's hot (20)

Water pollution
Water pollution Water pollution
Water pollution
 
WATER POLLUTION
WATER POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION
WATER POLLUTION
 
water pollution
water pollutionwater pollution
water pollution
 
Environmental Pollution
Environmental PollutionEnvironmental Pollution
Environmental Pollution
 
Environmental pollution
Environmental pollutionEnvironmental pollution
Environmental pollution
 
Water Pollution
Water PollutionWater Pollution
Water Pollution
 
Water Pollution
Water PollutionWater Pollution
Water Pollution
 
EFFECTS OF OXIDES OF, SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN. SMOG, INDUSTRIAL, SULFUROUS, ...
EFFECTS OF OXIDES OF, SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN. SMOG, INDUSTRIAL, SULFUROUS, ...EFFECTS OF OXIDES OF, SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN. SMOG, INDUSTRIAL, SULFUROUS, ...
EFFECTS OF OXIDES OF, SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN. SMOG, INDUSTRIAL, SULFUROUS, ...
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Atmospheric chemistry ppt
Atmospheric chemistry pptAtmospheric chemistry ppt
Atmospheric chemistry ppt
 
Air Pollution and Sulphur Dioxide
Air Pollution and Sulphur DioxideAir Pollution and Sulphur Dioxide
Air Pollution and Sulphur Dioxide
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Water pollution i
Water pollution iWater pollution i
Water pollution i
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
air pollution
air pollutionair pollution
air pollution
 
Acid rain - Causes , effects and remediation
Acid rain - Causes , effects and remediationAcid rain - Causes , effects and remediation
Acid rain - Causes , effects and remediation
 
Water pollution effects,causes,and how it is dandages to human life.
Water pollution effects,causes,and how it is dandages to human life.Water pollution effects,causes,and how it is dandages to human life.
Water pollution effects,causes,and how it is dandages to human life.
 
Water pollution causes and prevention
Water pollution causes and preventionWater pollution causes and prevention
Water pollution causes and prevention
 
Chemistry project on Water Pollution
Chemistry project on Water PollutionChemistry project on Water Pollution
Chemistry project on Water Pollution
 

Viewers also liked

Water pollution from households_Karan Rajpal_2012
Water pollution from households_Karan Rajpal_2012Water pollution from households_Karan Rajpal_2012
Water pollution from households_Karan Rajpal_2012India Water Portal
 
Types of pollution
Types of pollutionTypes of pollution
Types of pollutionvatsal123
 
Pollution
PollutionPollution
PollutionMissST
 
Ozone Depletion
Ozone DepletionOzone Depletion
Ozone Depletiondrloewen
 
Air pollution: its causes,effects and pollutants
Air pollution: its causes,effects and pollutantsAir pollution: its causes,effects and pollutants
Air pollution: its causes,effects and pollutantsMaliha Eesha
 
Pollution its types, causes and effects by naveed.m
Pollution its types, causes and effects by naveed.mPollution its types, causes and effects by naveed.m
Pollution its types, causes and effects by naveed.mNaveed Abbas Malik
 

Viewers also liked (9)

Water pollution from households_Karan Rajpal_2012
Water pollution from households_Karan Rajpal_2012Water pollution from households_Karan Rajpal_2012
Water pollution from households_Karan Rajpal_2012
 
8.water pollution
8.water pollution8.water pollution
8.water pollution
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Pollution
PollutionPollution
Pollution
 
Types of pollution
Types of pollutionTypes of pollution
Types of pollution
 
Pollution
PollutionPollution
Pollution
 
Ozone Depletion
Ozone DepletionOzone Depletion
Ozone Depletion
 
Air pollution: its causes,effects and pollutants
Air pollution: its causes,effects and pollutantsAir pollution: its causes,effects and pollutants
Air pollution: its causes,effects and pollutants
 
Pollution its types, causes and effects by naveed.m
Pollution its types, causes and effects by naveed.mPollution its types, causes and effects by naveed.m
Pollution its types, causes and effects by naveed.m
 

Similar to Water pollution

Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollutionRami Taleb
 
Water Management
Water ManagementWater Management
Water ManagementBobby Lam
 
Water pollution.pp .
Water pollution.pp .Water pollution.pp .
Water pollution.pp .OrnellaRN
 
Water pollution ppt
Water pollution pptWater pollution ppt
Water pollution pptsahinlaskar1
 
Water Pollution environmental microbiology
Water Pollution environmental microbiologyWater Pollution environmental microbiology
Water Pollution environmental microbiologyDENNISMMONDAH1
 
water pollution.docx
water pollution.docxwater pollution.docx
water pollution.docxRamyaDG
 
Water pollutio nswaranjali
Water pollutio nswaranjaliWater pollutio nswaranjali
Water pollutio nswaranjaliShephali Bose
 
presentation on water pollution
presentation on water pollutionpresentation on water pollution
presentation on water pollutionakshat2010
 
Unit 7 ch 11 s3 water pollution
Unit 7 ch 11 s3  water pollutionUnit 7 ch 11 s3  water pollution
Unit 7 ch 11 s3 water pollutionwja10255
 
waterpollution.pptx
waterpollution.pptxwaterpollution.pptx
waterpollution.pptxSonu319253
 
waterpollution.pdf
waterpollution.pdfwaterpollution.pdf
waterpollution.pdfbeastyboy3
 

Similar to Water pollution (20)

Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Water Management
Water ManagementWater Management
Water Management
 
Water pollution.pp .
Water pollution.pp .Water pollution.pp .
Water pollution.pp .
 
Water pollution ppt
Water pollution pptWater pollution ppt
Water pollution ppt
 
Water Pollution environmental microbiology
Water Pollution environmental microbiologyWater Pollution environmental microbiology
Water Pollution environmental microbiology
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Water Pollution 1 (1).pptx
Water Pollution 1 (1).pptxWater Pollution 1 (1).pptx
Water Pollution 1 (1).pptx
 
water pollution.docx
water pollution.docxwater pollution.docx
water pollution.docx
 
Water pollutio nswaranjali
Water pollutio nswaranjaliWater pollutio nswaranjali
Water pollutio nswaranjali
 
Water Treatment Plant
Water Treatment PlantWater Treatment Plant
Water Treatment Plant
 
presentation on water pollution
presentation on water pollutionpresentation on water pollution
presentation on water pollution
 
Global problems
Global problemsGlobal problems
Global problems
 
Unit 7 ch 11 s3 water pollution
Unit 7 ch 11 s3  water pollutionUnit 7 ch 11 s3  water pollution
Unit 7 ch 11 s3 water pollution
 
waterpollution.pptx
waterpollution.pptxwaterpollution.pptx
waterpollution.pptx
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 
waterpollution.pdf
waterpollution.pdfwaterpollution.pdf
waterpollution.pdf
 
Water pollution
Water pollutionWater pollution
Water pollution
 

More from Kumar

Graphics devices
Graphics devicesGraphics devices
Graphics devicesKumar
 
Fill area algorithms
Fill area algorithmsFill area algorithms
Fill area algorithmsKumar
 
region-filling
region-fillingregion-filling
region-fillingKumar
 
Bresenham derivation
Bresenham derivationBresenham derivation
Bresenham derivationKumar
 
Bresenham circles and polygons derication
Bresenham circles and polygons dericationBresenham circles and polygons derication
Bresenham circles and polygons dericationKumar
 
Introductionto xslt
Introductionto xsltIntroductionto xslt
Introductionto xsltKumar
 
Extracting data from xml
Extracting data from xmlExtracting data from xml
Extracting data from xmlKumar
 
Xml basics
Xml basicsXml basics
Xml basicsKumar
 
XML Schema
XML SchemaXML Schema
XML SchemaKumar
 
Publishing xml
Publishing xmlPublishing xml
Publishing xmlKumar
 
Applying xml
Applying xmlApplying xml
Applying xmlKumar
 
Introduction to XML
Introduction to XMLIntroduction to XML
Introduction to XMLKumar
 
How to deploy a j2ee application
How to deploy a j2ee applicationHow to deploy a j2ee application
How to deploy a j2ee applicationKumar
 
JNDI, JMS, JPA, XML
JNDI, JMS, JPA, XMLJNDI, JMS, JPA, XML
JNDI, JMS, JPA, XMLKumar
 
EJB Fundmentals
EJB FundmentalsEJB Fundmentals
EJB FundmentalsKumar
 
JSP and struts programming
JSP and struts programmingJSP and struts programming
JSP and struts programmingKumar
 
java servlet and servlet programming
java servlet and servlet programmingjava servlet and servlet programming
java servlet and servlet programmingKumar
 
Introduction to JDBC and JDBC Drivers
Introduction to JDBC and JDBC DriversIntroduction to JDBC and JDBC Drivers
Introduction to JDBC and JDBC DriversKumar
 
Introduction to J2EE
Introduction to J2EEIntroduction to J2EE
Introduction to J2EEKumar
 

More from Kumar (20)

Graphics devices
Graphics devicesGraphics devices
Graphics devices
 
Fill area algorithms
Fill area algorithmsFill area algorithms
Fill area algorithms
 
region-filling
region-fillingregion-filling
region-filling
 
Bresenham derivation
Bresenham derivationBresenham derivation
Bresenham derivation
 
Bresenham circles and polygons derication
Bresenham circles and polygons dericationBresenham circles and polygons derication
Bresenham circles and polygons derication
 
Introductionto xslt
Introductionto xsltIntroductionto xslt
Introductionto xslt
 
Extracting data from xml
Extracting data from xmlExtracting data from xml
Extracting data from xml
 
Xml basics
Xml basicsXml basics
Xml basics
 
XML Schema
XML SchemaXML Schema
XML Schema
 
Publishing xml
Publishing xmlPublishing xml
Publishing xml
 
DTD
DTDDTD
DTD
 
Applying xml
Applying xmlApplying xml
Applying xml
 
Introduction to XML
Introduction to XMLIntroduction to XML
Introduction to XML
 
How to deploy a j2ee application
How to deploy a j2ee applicationHow to deploy a j2ee application
How to deploy a j2ee application
 
JNDI, JMS, JPA, XML
JNDI, JMS, JPA, XMLJNDI, JMS, JPA, XML
JNDI, JMS, JPA, XML
 
EJB Fundmentals
EJB FundmentalsEJB Fundmentals
EJB Fundmentals
 
JSP and struts programming
JSP and struts programmingJSP and struts programming
JSP and struts programming
 
java servlet and servlet programming
java servlet and servlet programmingjava servlet and servlet programming
java servlet and servlet programming
 
Introduction to JDBC and JDBC Drivers
Introduction to JDBC and JDBC DriversIntroduction to JDBC and JDBC Drivers
Introduction to JDBC and JDBC Drivers
 
Introduction to J2EE
Introduction to J2EEIntroduction to J2EE
Introduction to J2EE
 

Recently uploaded

Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical InfrastructureVarsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructureitnewsafrica
 
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Alkin Tezuysal
 
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorialKuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorialJoão Esperancinha
 
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsInfrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsYoss Cohen
 
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentDigital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentMahmoud Rabie
 
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxA Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxAna-Maria Mihalceanu
 
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a realityDecarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a realityIES VE
 
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architecturesQCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architecturesBernd Ruecker
 
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Mark Goldstein
 
Bridging Between CAD & GIS: 6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
Bridging Between CAD & GIS:  6 Ways to Automate Your Data IntegrationBridging Between CAD & GIS:  6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
Bridging Between CAD & GIS: 6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integrationmarketing932765
 
Zeshan Sattar- Assessing the skill requirements and industry expectations for...
Zeshan Sattar- Assessing the skill requirements and industry expectations for...Zeshan Sattar- Assessing the skill requirements and industry expectations for...
Zeshan Sattar- Assessing the skill requirements and industry expectations for...itnewsafrica
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfNeo4j
 
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsPotential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsRavi Sanghani
 
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024TopCSSGallery
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesKari Kakkonen
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Kaya Weers
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...panagenda
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Nikki Chapple
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Nikki Chapple
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Mark Simos
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical InfrastructureVarsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
Varsha Sewlal- Cyber Attacks on Critical Critical Infrastructure
 
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
Unleashing Real-time Insights with ClickHouse_ Navigating the Landscape in 20...
 
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorialKuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
Kuma Meshes Part I - The basics - A tutorial
 
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platformsInfrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
Infrared simulation and processing on Nvidia platforms
 
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career DevelopmentDigital Tools & AI in Career Development
Digital Tools & AI in Career Development
 
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance ToolboxA Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
A Glance At The Java Performance Toolbox
 
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a realityDecarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
Decarbonising Buildings: Making a net-zero built environment a reality
 
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architecturesQCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
QCon London: Mastering long-running processes in modern architectures
 
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
Arizona Broadband Policy Past, Present, and Future Presentation 3/25/24
 
Bridging Between CAD & GIS: 6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
Bridging Between CAD & GIS:  6 Ways to Automate Your Data IntegrationBridging Between CAD & GIS:  6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
Bridging Between CAD & GIS: 6 Ways to Automate Your Data Integration
 
Zeshan Sattar- Assessing the skill requirements and industry expectations for...
Zeshan Sattar- Assessing the skill requirements and industry expectations for...Zeshan Sattar- Assessing the skill requirements and industry expectations for...
Zeshan Sattar- Assessing the skill requirements and industry expectations for...
 
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdfConnecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
Connecting the Dots for Information Discovery.pdf
 
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and InsightsPotential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
Potential of AI (Generative AI) in Business: Learnings and Insights
 
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
Top 10 Hubspot Development Companies in 2024
 
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examplesTesting tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
Testing tools and AI - ideas what to try with some tool examples
 
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
Design pattern talk by Kaya Weers - 2024 (v2)
 
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
Why device, WIFI, and ISP insights are crucial to supporting remote Microsoft...
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part one: Ado...
 
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
Microsoft 365 Copilot: How to boost your productivity with AI – Part two: Dat...
 
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
Tampa BSides - The No BS SOC (slides from April 6, 2024 talk)
 

Water pollution

  • 1. Water Pollution • The primary natural sources and basic need of living things is water • It is existed in mainly • Marine 97% • Fresh water 03%
  • 2. Supply of water • Agriculture 69% Industry 23% Domestic 08% About 1.3billion people were unable to access water worldwide. • Total volume of water in India 1850Km3 , which 4 % fresh water resources of world
  • 3. • 70% all available sources of waters of India are polluted 80% domestic waste water is causing pollution. In India 70 million people live by the sewerage system. The water is contaminated by human activities.
  • 4. Important words • Aquifers - natural rock formations, which contain ground water. • Eutrophication - The process of slowly filling in a water body with sediments and organic matter and lowering of oxygen. • Point source - occurs when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water. i.g. One way in which this occurs, is when someone throws a coke can into a body of water.
  • 5. • Non point source - delivers pollutants indirectly through environmental changes. One way in, which this occurs, is through run- off. • Pathogens - or disease producing organism. • Pollution - to make foul or unclean; dirty. • Sediments - minerals or organic matter deposited by water, air, or ice...matter which settles to the bottom .
  • 6. The sources of pollution categorized into • Point sources: e.g. A pipe spewing toxic chemicals directly discharge into a river at a particular point.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Point Source - Example • LUST - Leaky Underground Storage Tanks • 22% of the 1.2 million UST are LUSTy • Look at water pollution from gasoline...
  • 11. • Non-point sources: The waste water carried into a stream by surface runoff(without any pipe) e.g. Fertilizer mixing water from agriculture field.
  • 17. Sewage water is mixing in water body
  • 18. Stream polluted with crude oil. Trinidad
  • 19. Plastic garbage patch in Atlantica
  • 20. • Oil pollution of waterways can have devastating effects on aquatic vegetation and animal life. • Oil contains toluene and benzene which are toxic, but these compounds evaporate quickly and do not do most of the damage. • It is other compounds in crude oil - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - that are the source of most of the environmental problems. •
  • 21. • These compounds persist in the environment much longer (do not evaporate) and coat shorelines and estuaries severely impacting ecosystems by blocking light and gas exchange. • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons also negatively effect sea mammals and sea birds and can kill them. • Interestingly, while big oil spills make the headlines, most oil pollution comes from runoff - used engine oil, industrial and commercial waste, etc.
  • 23. Garbage in polluted stream. Trinidad Facts: Increasing economic an social development in Trinidad contributes to the degradation of the islands' environment. Water pollution from agricultural, domestic, industrial and municipal sources is a particularly significant problem. Residential areas produce raw sewage and household wastes.
  • 24. Polluted river running through a slum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Facts: Water pollution may pose significant health threats such as diseases like typhoid, cholera and dysentery. Aquatic life in the river may also be affected by pollution, and some polluted rivers (like the one in the photo in Malaysia) are still fished.
  • 25. Tilings settling pond with Sycrude processing plant in background. Photographed in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
  • 26. • Syncrude utilizes the Clark hot water process which uses hot water to separate the bitumen from the sand after it is mined from the surface. • The leftover water is dumped in the tailings ponds, which contain a mixture of clay, sand, water and hydrocarbons. • Tailings ponds can be dangerous as the wastes are sometimes toxic and/or corrosive and detrimental to the environment.
  • 27. Pollution - Sewage & Trash Location: Tijuana River Estuary San Diego California Winter storms flush huge quantities of raw sewage and floating trash from Tijuana Mexico down the Tijuana River to be deposited in the river estuary and ultimately in the ocean.
  • 28. Pollution - Sign Warning of Sewage Spill Location: Imperial Beach San Diego California On the beach next to Imperial Pier a family watches as a surfer who choose to ignore the warnings exits the water.
  • 29. Pollution - Spilled Gasoline and/or Oil Forms Patterns on Water Surface
  • 30. Fish Die Offs - Tilapia at the Salton Sea
  • 31. Location: Salton Sea Imp. County California The Salton Sea has been in decline for years. • Large scale fish die offs have become annual summer events since the late nineties. • The major causes are believed to be the ever increasing salinity pollution from Mexico via the New River and agricultural runoff from the surrounding farmland on the southern end of the Sea. • The pollutants include huge quantities of raw sewage industrial waste farm fertilizers and pesticides.
  • 32. Garbage at the bottom of a Waterfall
  • 33. Ferry crossing the Bosphorus, Istanbul Turkey
  • 34. Blocks of ice on the Sainte Anne River, Quebec. The village called Sainte Anne de la Perade is famous for ice fishing in winter. January 2004
  • 35. Mining pollution Facts: Sludge flowing from a pipe at a copper mine. Photographed in Chile
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. • Def: Water pollution may be defined as the addition of any substance to water, which may change the physical and chemical characters in any way, which may interfere with use for legitimate purposes. • Pollutants .Dissolved solids, minerals, dust, fibers etc. • Dissolved gases • Suspended matter • Microbes
  • 40.  The effect of Pollutants on river water quality depends on -The type of pollutant -concentration of pollutant in the water -the length of exposure to the community Effect of water pollution -Depletion of dissolved oxygen in surface water bodies affecting the fish and other water bodies
  • 41. -The toxic substance render the water unfit for the down stream use. -the pathogens from the domestic sewage contaminate the water and causes the transmission of water borne diseases -The increased temperature due to discharge of effluent from thermal power stations cause direct responses. i. Heat stress or death sensitive species ii. Enhanced microorganisms respiration.
  • 42. Effects • When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. • This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. • Pollutants can also seep down and affect the groundwater deposits.
  • 43. Sources • Water pollution has many sources. • The most polluting of them are the city sewage and • Industrial waste discharged into the rivers. The facilities to treat waste water are not adequate in any city in India.
  • 44. • Domestic sewage refers to waste water that is discarded from households. Also referred to as sanitary sewage, such water contains a wide variety of dissolved and suspended impurities. • Wastewater from Domestic and Canteens, Hotels and Restaurants. ex. Bio- waste
  • 45. Industrial effluents During the last fifty years, the number of industries in India has grown rapidly. Waste water from manufacturing or chemical processes in industries contributes to water pollution. Industrial waste water usually contains specific and readily identifiable chemical compounds.
  • 46. • Effluents from Industries: e.g. textiles, chemicals, dyeing, paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, tanneries, dairy forms, nuclear power plants, thermal power plants, meat packing, sugar, refineries, mining, petroleum drilling wells and drainages -Pathogens: Bacteria, Warms • Ecological Pollution: e.g. large animal deer drowns in a flood large amount of organic material added to the water. Land slide Farming: e.g. fertilizers increase the amount of nitrates and phosphates
  • 47. • Pollen grains from water plants Flooding during rainy season -Disposal of human and animal waste -Agriculture Waste -Untreated Sewage
  • 48. • Most of these defaulting industries are sugar mills, distilleries, leather processing industries, and thermal power stations. • Most of the major industries have treatment facilities for industrial effluents. • Presently, only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated; the rest is discharged as it is into our water bodies. Due to this, pollutants enter groundwater, rivers, and other water bodies.
  • 49. • Agricultural run-off, or the water from the fields that drains into rivers, is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides.
  • 50.
  • 51. Path ways of water Pollution • Three last forms of water pollution exist in the forms of petroleum, radioactive substances, and heat. • Petroleum often pollutes water bodies in the form of oil, resulting from oil spills. • The previously mentioned Exxon Valdez is an example of this type of water pollution. • These large-scale accidental discharges of petroleum are an important cause of pollution along shore lines. Besides the supertankers, off-shore drilling operations contribute a large share of pollution. • One estimate is that one ton of oil is spilled for every million tons of oil transported. This is equal to about 0.0001 percent.
  • 52. • Radioactive substances are produced in the form of waste from nuclear power plants, and from the industrial, medical, and scientific use of radioactive materials. • Specific forms of waste are uranium and thorium mining and refining. The last form of water pollution is heat. • Heat is a pollutant because increased temperatures result in the deaths of many aquatic organisms. • These decreases in temperatures are caused when a discharge of cooling water by factories and power plants occurs.
  • 53. Major Pollutants Organic Compounds • Phenols • Hydrocarbons • Proteins • Carbohydrates • Dye stuffs • Organic acids • Detergents • Organic pesticides • Fats and Oils • CFCs etc
  • 54. Inorganic compounds • Acids Alkalis Cyanides Halogens Nitrites Nitrates Sulphides Sulphur Phosphates
  • 55. • Calcium Magnesium Iron Arsenic Zinc, Chromium3+ Chromium 6+ Lead, Silver Mercury Cadmium Copper
  • 56. • Garbage Cans bottles, plastics vegetable waste needles Glass • Medical waste
  • 57. Water quality Parameters • Colour, pH, Odour, • Temperature TSS, TDS, DO, BOD, COD SO2, S, Cl, F,Br, I, P, N, NO3, N, Tra ces of metals
  • 58. • Definition of pH • pH can be viewed as an abbreviation for power of hydrogen or more completely, power of the concentration of hydrogen ion. • The mathematical definition of pH is a bit less intuitive, but with a calculator in hand, more useful. It says that the pH is equal to the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration, or pH = -log [H+]. • Range for pH 1-14 • Acidic: 1-6.5 • Neutral: 7 • Alkali: 7.5 -14
  • 59. • Dissolved oxygen • Dissolved oxygen (Science: biochemistry) The concentration of oxygen dissolved in water, expressed in mg/l or as percent saturation, where saturation is the maximum amount of oxygen that can theoretically be dissolved in water at a given altitude and temperature.
  • 60. • Total suspended solids is a water quality measurement usually abbreviated TSS. • This parameter was at one time called non- filterable residue (NFR). • Definitions, "filterable" means just the opposite: the material passed by a filter, usually called "Total dissolved solids" or TDS. • Thus in chemistry the non-filterable solids are the retained material called the residue.
  • 61. • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): laboratory measurement of the amount of oxygen used in chemical reactions that occur in water as a result of the addition of wastes. • A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all compounds, both organic and inorganic, in water. • A measure of the oxygen-consuming capacity of inorganic and organic matter present in water or wastewater. the amount of oxygen consumed from a chemical oxidant in a specific test
  • 62. • Biochemical Oxygen Demand - the rate at which microorganisms use the oxygen in water or wastewater while stabilizing decomposable organic matter under aerobic conditions. • In decomposition, organic matter serves as food for the bacteria and energy results from this oxidation. • www.alken-murray.com/glossarybug.html
  • 63. Characterization of waste waters • Physical Characters: Colour, odour, • Dissolved Oxygen • Insoluble substances • Corrosive properties • Radio activity • Temperature range • Foamability
  • 64. Chemical characters • pH • Chemical oxygen demand(COD) • Acidity • Alkalinity • Hardness • Total carbon • Total Dissolved solids • Chlorine demand • Known organic and inorganic components • E.g.Cr,S2,SO42-,N,Pb,Cd,Hg,As, are inorganic • phenols, hydrocarbon, oils and greases are organic
  • 65. Chemical characters • Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) • Pathogenic bacteria, • Toxicity to man • Aquatic organisms • Plants and other forms
  • 66. Waste water treatment • Physical methods • Removing floating or suspended solids or liquid pollutants based on their density difference from water. • Reverser osmosis • Filtration • Form separation • Porous bed filtration, adsorption • Crystalization
  • 67. Chemical methods • Industrial effluents contains • Acids • Alkalis • Undesirable chlorides • Phenols • Sulphates • Chromates • Phosphates • Salts of mercury, lead, calcium, barium, zinc • Acid and base neutralization before they discharge into water bodies
  • 68. • Biological treatment method • Colloidal or dissolved solids are converted into settleable solids by microorganisms under favourable conditions. • Anaerobic treatment takes place in the total absence of oxygen and is a slow process. • Aerobic biological treatment methods include the activated sludge process, trickling filter process and stabilization pond
  • 70.
  • 71. • Raw sewage includes waste from • Sinks, toilets, and industrial processes. • Treatment of the sewage is required before it can be safely buried, used, or released back into local water systems. • In a treatment plant, the waste is passed through a series of screens, chambers, and chemical processes to reduce its bulk and toxicity.
  • 72. • The three general phases of treatment are primary, secondary, and tertiary. During primary treatment, a large percentage of the suspended solids and inorganic material is removed from the sewage. • The focus of secondary treatment is reducing organic material by accelerating natural biological processes. • Tertiary treatment is necessary when the water will be reused; • 99 percent of solids are removed and various chemical processes are used to ensure the water is as free from impurity as possible.
  • 73. Case study. e.g.Texas • The causes of surface water pollution. Collected water from 190 segments impacted high bacteria levels, 103 segments low dissolved oxygen18 segments high metal contents 19 segments organics (dioxins) 12 segments dissolved solids 8 segments chlorides 7 segments metals They found in fish and shellfish
  • 74. Pie diagram showing contaminants in water DO pH Met als 5%2% 5% Pat hogens pest icides 11% Chlorides pest icides Pat hogens Met als Chlorides 16% 61% DO pH
  • 75. There is no pipe line to surface water run off into rivers. EPA estimated non point sources • Pollution at Texas Rivers 65% Lakes 76% Estuaries 45% Texas Commission of Environment Quality identified 220 out of 238 water bodies or 92% damaged. • State Funded Project has taken up Clean River project
  • 76. Wastewater Treatment Process Contaminant Treatment system Treatment process plants/Unit Pathogenic Chlorination, Chlorinator, organisms ozonation ozonator Turbidity and Screening, Screeners/clarifiers, suspended solids sedimentation, filters Filtration Coagulation/floccul Clariflocculator and ation/ filter Sedimentation/ filtration Color Adsorption, Ion- Adsorption towers exchange, coagulation and flocculation/ Clariflocculator and sedimentation/ filter filtration
  • 77. Tastes and odors Oxidation (aeration), Aerator, Activated carbon adsorption, Chemical filter, oxidation, Organic matter Biological oxidation, Activated sludge process, Adsorption, Ion-exchange, trickling filter, ozonation Softenerozonator, Rotating biological contactor, Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, Hardness ions Ca+2, Mg + Chemical precipitation, clarifier, Softeners Ion-exchange
  • 78. Dissolved gases Aeration, Vacuum Aerator deaeration Degassifier Chlorinator Heavy metals Chemical precipitation, Clariflocculator ion-exchange Ion-exchange column Iron and manganese Ion exchange, Oxidation Ion exchange precipitation/ filtration Aerator/settler/filter Dissolved solids Reverse osmosis, Reverse osmosis Plant Distillation Evaporator
  • 79. Residents of the Love Canal area in Niagara Falls were forced to evacuate when hazardous wastes leaking from a former disposal site threatened their health and homes in the late 1970s. One of the most notorious cases of toxic waste leakage, the crisis received attention on both local and national levels. Investigation spurred by public outrage revealed that many waste disposal sites like Love Canal existed nationwide. New York alone had several hundred. Several states have since passed stricter regulations on industrial waste disposal and allocated billions of dollars for the cleanup of contaminated areas.
  • 80. • Industrial Pollution • In the United States industry is the greatest source of pollution, accounting for more than half the volume of all water pollution and for the most deadly pollutants. • Some 370,000 manufacturing facilities use huge quantities of freshwater to carry away wastes of many kinds. • The waste-bearing water, or effluent, is discharged into streams, lakes, or oceans, which in turn disperse the polluting substances. • In its National Water Quality Inventory, reported to Congress in 1996, • the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that approximately 40% of the nation's surveyed lakes, rivers, and estuaries were too polluted for such basic uses as drinking supply, fishing, and swimming. • The pollutants include grit, asbestos, phosphates and nitrates, mercury, lead, caustic soda and other sodium compounds, sulfur and sulfuric acid, oils, and petrochemicals.
  • 81. • In addition, numerous manufacturing plants pour off undiluted corrosives, poisons, and other noxious byproducts. • The construction industry discharges slurries of gypsum, cement, abrasives, metals, and poisonous solvents. • Another pervasive group of contaminants entering food chains is the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds, components of lubricants, plastic wrappers, and adhesives.
  • 82. • In yet another instance of pollution, hot water discharged by factories and power plants causes so-called thermal pollution by increasing water temperatures. • Such increases change the level of oxygen dissolved in a body of water, thereby disrupting the water's ecological balance, killing off some plant and animal species while encouraging the overgrowth of others.
  • 83. http://www.questia.com/library/encyclopedia/water-pollution.jsp dt 16/4/10 • Legislation and Control • The United States has enacted extensive federal legislation to fight water pollution. • In the United States in 1996, nearly $10 billion was spent on water and wastewater treatment alone.
  • 84. • Laws include the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972), • The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (1972), • The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974), and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended in 1988.
  • 85. • International cooperation is being promoted by the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultive Organization (IMCO), a UN agency. • An international ban on ocean dumping in 1988 set further restrictions. • The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition Copyright© 2004, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Lernout & Hauspie Speech Products N.V. All rights reserved.
  • 86. • Limitation of ocean dumping was proposed at the 80-nation London Conference of 1972, and in the same year 12 European nations meeting in Oslo adopted rules to regulate dumping in the North Atlantic.
  • 87. Effects of water pollution on living things • Water-borne diseases affect around 3.4 million people globally. • In India around 5, 63, 000 people are affected annually. • One fourth of children affected according to Ministry of Health and Family Planning Report Government Of India
  • 88. • The depletion of dissolved oxygen in surface water bodies thus affecting the fish and other aquatic life • The toxic substances render the water unfit for down stream use. • The pathogens from the domestic sewage contaminate the water and cause the transmission of water borne diseases. • Thermal power stations discharge heated effluent in to the water bodies, which increase temperature in the water bodies and causes heat stress or death of sensitive species.
  • 89. • In the mid 1950s the people of Minamata, Japan, on the coast of the Shiranui Sea, began to notice something wrong with the cats in their town. • The cats appeared to be going insane, and were falling into the sea. • The people thought the cats were committing suicide. •
  • 90. • Soon the people in the town were also contracting a strange illness. • Individuals began to have numbness in their limbs and lips. Some had difficulty hearing or seeing. • Others developed shaking (tremors) in their arms and legs, difficulty walking, even brain damage. • Others seemed to be going crazy, shouting uncontrollably.
  • 91. • Unknown syndrome called Minamata disease In 1956, researchers worked to find the source of the illness, which they termed Minamata disease. • Something was affecting the nervous systems of the people. • One thing people in this fishing town had in common was that they all ate fish, so scientists suspected that the fish in Minamata Bay were being poisoned.
  • 92. • Chisso Corporation source of environmental pollution A large petrochemical plant in Minamata run by Chisso Corporation was immediately suspect. • Chisso denied the allegations and continued its manufacturing with no changes to the method of production. • Finally, in July 1959 researchers from Kumamoto University found that organic mercury was the cause of Minamata disease. • Chisso continued to refuse the information and any link of its mercury waste to the illness. • It was later discovered that Chisso Corporation had dumped an estimated 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay.
  • 93. • People severely affected As the mercury dumping continued, babies were born to poisoned mothers. • The children were born with severe deformities, including gnarled limbs, mental retardation, deafness, and blindness. • A photographer, W. Eugene Smith, traveled to Minamata in the 1970s, and his series of photographs of the suffering of the people there were published and seen around the world.
  • 94. • A poisoning epidemic Chisso finally quit poisoning the waters in Minamata in 1968. • According to Japanese government figures, 2,955 people contracted Minamata disease, and 1,784 people have since died. • Researchers believe, however, that the criteria the government uses to diagnose Minamata disease is too strict, and that anyone who showed any impairment in his/her senses should be certified as a victim. • A group of these yet-to-be-recognized victims plans to file a compensation suit against the government.
  • 95. • In April 2001 the Osaka High Court determined that the government's Health and Welfare Ministry should have begun taking regulatory action to stop the poisoning
  • 96. • at the end of 1959, after it concluded that Minamata disease was caused by mercury poisoning. • The court also ordered Chisso to pay $2.18 million in damages to the plaintiffs.
  • 97. • On October 16, 2004, the Supreme Court of Japan ordered the government to pay 71.5 million yen ($703,000) in damages to the Minamata disease victims. • The Environment Minister bowed in apology to the plaintiffs.
  • 98. • After 22 years, the plaintiffs achieved their goal of making those responsible for Japan's worst case of industrial pollution pay for their negligence. • No amount of money, though, can ever make up for the lives needlessly lost to Minamata disease. • http://rarediseases.about.com/od/raredisease s1/a/102304.htm
  • 99. • Conclusions: The water pollution creates various health problems and damaging public property. The people should strictly follow regulations. Then we can achieve zero pollution.