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Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013www.realirm.com LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™
The linchpin between Corporate
Governance and IT Governance
Stuart Macgregor
The Open Group’s EA Forum
Johannesburg and Cape Town
November 2013
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
 Introduction
 Corporate Governance – King III
 IT Governance – COBIT® 5
 Enterprise Architecture – TOGAF® 9
 Conclusion
Contents
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Enterprise Architecture is a Strategic Imperative
Enterprise Architecture is required to transform a legacy of fragmented applications,
organisational structures and processes (both manual and automated) into an integrated
environment with optimised processes that are responsive to change and the delivery of
the business strategy.
Introduction
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Enterprise Architecture Domains
 Consists of current and future state
models
 Is implemented through the
Enterprise:
• Business Architecture,
• Information Architecture,
• Data Architecture,
• Applications portfolio, and
• Enterprise-wide technical
architecture
 Provides organizations with the
ability to conduct impact
assessments, analyze alternative
scenarios and implement
appropriate strategies
 (Re-)Defines the business design for
sustainable competitive advantage
Introduction
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
 The third report on corporate governance in South Africa became
necessary because of:
• The new Companies Act no. 71 of 2008 (‘the Act’) and
• Changes in international governance trends.
 Positioned at the forefront of governance internationally.
 Achieved because of the focus on the importance of conducting
business reporting annually in an integrated manner i.e. putting the
financial results in perspective by also reporting on:
• How a company has, both positively and negatively, impacted on the
economic life of the community in which it operated during the year
under review; and
• How the company intends to enhance those positive aspects and
eradicate or ameliorate the negative aspects in the year ahead.
Corporate Governance – King III
Corporate Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
 The King III Report is based on an “apply or explain” basis. This
enables companies to operate for the purposes for which they were
intended, without being bound to follow standards which are, by
nature, inflexible.
 In the USA, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was on a “comply or else”
basis. This forced all companies to comply and made no provision
for extraordinary circumstances.
• It is estimated that the implementation of the provisions of the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act has cost the USA, US$264 billion since 2002.
The Governance Regime
Corporate Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act or King III…addressing the
symptom or problem?
Quick Fixes
Problem Symptom
Unintended
Consequences
Improvements
Source of Problem
ADDICTION
LOOPS
SYMPTOM
CORRECTING
PROCESS
PROBLEM
CORRECTING
PROCESS
Time
State of the
System
Quick Fixes
Improvement
1. Every action produces a reaction.
2. Structure shapes behavior.
3. Complex interrelationships make a
system’s behavior difficult to understand.
4. Time clouds the picture.
5. "Hard" and "soft" factors interact.
6. Feedback reinforces and counteracts.
Corporate Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
King III added value to the organisation that outweighs
the costs and effort of application
Source: Perceptions and practice of King III in South African Companies (2013)
Corporate Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Improvements through application of King III
Source: Perceptions and practice of King III in South African Companies (2013)
Corporate Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
McKinsey: Board priorities appear to be misaligned
IT Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
King III Survey: Improvement through IT governance
Source: Perceptions and practice of King III in South African Companies (2013)
IT Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Business Value
Top-performing enterprises generate returns on their IT investments up to 40%
greater than their competitors.
 They clarify business strategies and the role of IT in achieving them.
 They measure and manage the amount spent on and the value received from IT.
 They assign accountability for the organizational changes required to benefit from
new IT capabilities
 They learn from each implementation, becoming more adept at sharing and
reusing IT assets.
Peter Weill and Jeanne W. Ross, IT Governance: How Top Performers Manage IT Decision Rights for Superior Results,
Harvard Business School Press, 2004
Effective IT governance is the single most important predictor of the
value an organization generates from IT…
…but there is no single model of good corporate governance
IT Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
King III Report on Governance
for South Africa 2009
IT Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
King III - Principles
The Institute of Directors in South Africa owns the copyright in King III
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
COBIT® 5 is…
 A governance and management framework for
information and related technology that starts
from stakeholder needs with regard to
information and technology.
 Intended for all enterprises, including
non‐profit and public sector.
 Designed to allow enterprises to achieve their
governance and management objectives, i.e.,
to create optimal value from information and
technology by maintaining a balance amongst
realising benefits, managing risk and
balancing resources.
IT Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Governance and Management Processes
IT Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
APO03 – Manage Enterprise Architecture - RACI
IT Governance
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
The Open Group Architecture Framework
TOGAF is an architecture framework developed by The Open Group to
provide the methods and tools for assisting in the acceptance,
production, use and maintenance of an enterprise architecture.
Enterprise Architecture
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Mapping COBIT 5 to TOGAF 9
COBIT and TOGAF
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Mapping COBIT 5 to TOGAF 9
COBIT and TOGAF
COBIT 5 Management Practice
Develop the enterprise architecture visionAPO03.01
APO03.02 Define reference architecture
APO03.03 Select opportunities and solutions
APO03.04 Define architecture implementation
APO03.05 Provide enterprise architecture services
TOGAF
H, Prelim. + A
B, C, D
E
F
G +
Requirements
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Roads leading to Enterprise Architecture
June 2004June 1998 August 2006
“In 1995 we started our study of enterprise architecture – we just did not know it. At the
time we thought we were studying information technology infrastructure
transformations. In 1998 we thought we were studying enterprise system
implementations. In 2000 it was e-business. But sometime in 2000, we recognized
that each of these studies examined basically the same thing: Enterprise
Architecture”
Conclusion
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Enterprise Architecture as Competitive Advantage
August 2006
“Top-performing companies define how they will
do business (an operating model) and design
the processes and infrastructure critical to their
current and future operations (enterprise
architecture), which guide the evolution of their
foundation for execution.
Then these smart companies exploit their
foundation, embedding new initiatives to make
that foundation stronger, and using it as a
competitive weapon to seize new business
opportunities. And what makes this capability
a competitive advantage is that only a small
percentage of companies do it well - we
estimate 5 percent of firms or less”
Conclusion
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
 Cisco: Leveraging business architecture for corporate agility
"This EA practice has delivered tangible results that are well embedded into
a large business in a highly scalable and repeatable manner."
 MasterCard: Business-centric enterprise architecture
“They are an excellent example of an EA program that helps organizations
find common ground for decisions and action through shared models, which
become integrated into strategy and implementation."
 National Bank of Abu Dhabi: Building a global business roadmap
'EA established credibility in strategic planning, and was moved into the
office of the CEO reporting to the Transformation Management Office.' This
is the holy grail of enterprise architecture!"
 Yum Brands: Using innovation to focus on customers
 National Grid:
"The team's enterprise capability model has changed the way business and
IT staff communicate, a key foundation for improving resource allocation and
process performance."
InfoWorld/Forrester Enterprise Architecture Awards
Conclusion
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
 King III added value outweighs the costs and effort of application
 A synergistic approach will further increase value and reduce cost
• Corporate Governance
• Enterprise Architecture Capability
• IT Governance
 Enterprise Architecture is the linchpin between Corporate and IT
Governance that could in itself become a source of competitive
advantage
 This necessitates moving from “Enterprise Architecture for IT” to
real Enterprise Architecture
 In essence, the management of intellectual capital / content
(principles, models, inventory and standards) in support of
Strategy, Governance, Risk and Compliance
 Facilitated by running the EA Practice like a business
Take-away
Conclusion
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
 Perceptions and practice of King III in South African Companies
• Compiled by Cloete Jansen van Vuuren & Jess Schulschenk
March 2013
• A joint publication of the Institute of Directors in Southern Africa and
the Albert Luthuli Centre for Responsible Leadership, University of
Pretoria
 IoDSA Institute of Directors in Southern Africa – King III
 ISACA – COBIT® 5
 The Open Group – TOGAF® 9
 Enterprise Architecture Case Studies
• 2012 InfoWorld/Forrester Enterprise Architecture Awards
• 2013 InfoWorld/Forrester Enterprise Architecture Awards
• Nissan Group Uses Enterprise Architecture to Weather Perfect Storm
References
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Contact Details
Stuart Macgregor
+27 11 805 3734 (office)
+27 11 805 2823 (fax)
stuart.macgregor@realirm.com
Twitter: @RealiRM
Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd
Registration number: 2001/026036/07
Stuart Macgregor is the CEO of Real IRM and
The Open Group - South Africa. Through his
personal achievements, he has gained the
reputation of an Enterprise Architecture and IT
Governance specialist, both in South Africa and
internationally. He is openly obsessed with
Enterprise Architecture with a definite business
bias.
Stuart is a member of John Zachman’s advisory
committee. He has participated in the
development of both COBIT® and TOGAF®
over a number of years. As the lead researcher,
Stuart assisted the IT Governance Institute map
COBIT to TOGAF® which was published by
ISACA and The Open Group. In the role of lead
consultant, he has assisted numerous
organisations establish their Enterprise
Architecture practices and has also used COBIT
to develop IT Governance frameworks for NYSE
Top 100 companies. Stuart participated in the
COBIT 5 development workshops held in
London and Washington.

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The linchpin between Corporate Governance and IT Governance

  • 1. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013www.realirm.com LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™ The linchpin between Corporate Governance and IT Governance Stuart Macgregor The Open Group’s EA Forum Johannesburg and Cape Town November 2013
  • 2. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013  Introduction  Corporate Governance – King III  IT Governance – COBIT® 5  Enterprise Architecture – TOGAF® 9  Conclusion Contents
  • 3. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Enterprise Architecture is a Strategic Imperative Enterprise Architecture is required to transform a legacy of fragmented applications, organisational structures and processes (both manual and automated) into an integrated environment with optimised processes that are responsive to change and the delivery of the business strategy. Introduction
  • 4. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Enterprise Architecture Domains  Consists of current and future state models  Is implemented through the Enterprise: • Business Architecture, • Information Architecture, • Data Architecture, • Applications portfolio, and • Enterprise-wide technical architecture  Provides organizations with the ability to conduct impact assessments, analyze alternative scenarios and implement appropriate strategies  (Re-)Defines the business design for sustainable competitive advantage Introduction
  • 5. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013  The third report on corporate governance in South Africa became necessary because of: • The new Companies Act no. 71 of 2008 (‘the Act’) and • Changes in international governance trends.  Positioned at the forefront of governance internationally.  Achieved because of the focus on the importance of conducting business reporting annually in an integrated manner i.e. putting the financial results in perspective by also reporting on: • How a company has, both positively and negatively, impacted on the economic life of the community in which it operated during the year under review; and • How the company intends to enhance those positive aspects and eradicate or ameliorate the negative aspects in the year ahead. Corporate Governance – King III Corporate Governance
  • 6. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013  The King III Report is based on an “apply or explain” basis. This enables companies to operate for the purposes for which they were intended, without being bound to follow standards which are, by nature, inflexible.  In the USA, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was on a “comply or else” basis. This forced all companies to comply and made no provision for extraordinary circumstances. • It is estimated that the implementation of the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has cost the USA, US$264 billion since 2002. The Governance Regime Corporate Governance
  • 7. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 The Sarbanes-Oxley Act or King III…addressing the symptom or problem? Quick Fixes Problem Symptom Unintended Consequences Improvements Source of Problem ADDICTION LOOPS SYMPTOM CORRECTING PROCESS PROBLEM CORRECTING PROCESS Time State of the System Quick Fixes Improvement 1. Every action produces a reaction. 2. Structure shapes behavior. 3. Complex interrelationships make a system’s behavior difficult to understand. 4. Time clouds the picture. 5. "Hard" and "soft" factors interact. 6. Feedback reinforces and counteracts. Corporate Governance
  • 8. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 King III added value to the organisation that outweighs the costs and effort of application Source: Perceptions and practice of King III in South African Companies (2013) Corporate Governance
  • 9. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Improvements through application of King III Source: Perceptions and practice of King III in South African Companies (2013) Corporate Governance
  • 10. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 McKinsey: Board priorities appear to be misaligned IT Governance
  • 11. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 King III Survey: Improvement through IT governance Source: Perceptions and practice of King III in South African Companies (2013) IT Governance
  • 12. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Business Value Top-performing enterprises generate returns on their IT investments up to 40% greater than their competitors.  They clarify business strategies and the role of IT in achieving them.  They measure and manage the amount spent on and the value received from IT.  They assign accountability for the organizational changes required to benefit from new IT capabilities  They learn from each implementation, becoming more adept at sharing and reusing IT assets. Peter Weill and Jeanne W. Ross, IT Governance: How Top Performers Manage IT Decision Rights for Superior Results, Harvard Business School Press, 2004 Effective IT governance is the single most important predictor of the value an organization generates from IT… …but there is no single model of good corporate governance IT Governance
  • 13. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 King III Report on Governance for South Africa 2009 IT Governance
  • 14. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 King III - Principles The Institute of Directors in South Africa owns the copyright in King III
  • 15. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 COBIT® 5 is…  A governance and management framework for information and related technology that starts from stakeholder needs with regard to information and technology.  Intended for all enterprises, including non‐profit and public sector.  Designed to allow enterprises to achieve their governance and management objectives, i.e., to create optimal value from information and technology by maintaining a balance amongst realising benefits, managing risk and balancing resources. IT Governance
  • 16. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Governance and Management Processes IT Governance
  • 17. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
  • 18. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 APO03 – Manage Enterprise Architecture - RACI IT Governance
  • 19. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 The Open Group Architecture Framework TOGAF is an architecture framework developed by The Open Group to provide the methods and tools for assisting in the acceptance, production, use and maintenance of an enterprise architecture. Enterprise Architecture
  • 20. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Mapping COBIT 5 to TOGAF 9 COBIT and TOGAF
  • 21. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Mapping COBIT 5 to TOGAF 9 COBIT and TOGAF COBIT 5 Management Practice Develop the enterprise architecture visionAPO03.01 APO03.02 Define reference architecture APO03.03 Select opportunities and solutions APO03.04 Define architecture implementation APO03.05 Provide enterprise architecture services TOGAF H, Prelim. + A B, C, D E F G + Requirements
  • 22. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Roads leading to Enterprise Architecture June 2004June 1998 August 2006 “In 1995 we started our study of enterprise architecture – we just did not know it. At the time we thought we were studying information technology infrastructure transformations. In 1998 we thought we were studying enterprise system implementations. In 2000 it was e-business. But sometime in 2000, we recognized that each of these studies examined basically the same thing: Enterprise Architecture” Conclusion
  • 23. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Enterprise Architecture as Competitive Advantage August 2006 “Top-performing companies define how they will do business (an operating model) and design the processes and infrastructure critical to their current and future operations (enterprise architecture), which guide the evolution of their foundation for execution. Then these smart companies exploit their foundation, embedding new initiatives to make that foundation stronger, and using it as a competitive weapon to seize new business opportunities. And what makes this capability a competitive advantage is that only a small percentage of companies do it well - we estimate 5 percent of firms or less” Conclusion
  • 24. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013  Cisco: Leveraging business architecture for corporate agility "This EA practice has delivered tangible results that are well embedded into a large business in a highly scalable and repeatable manner."  MasterCard: Business-centric enterprise architecture “They are an excellent example of an EA program that helps organizations find common ground for decisions and action through shared models, which become integrated into strategy and implementation."  National Bank of Abu Dhabi: Building a global business roadmap 'EA established credibility in strategic planning, and was moved into the office of the CEO reporting to the Transformation Management Office.' This is the holy grail of enterprise architecture!"  Yum Brands: Using innovation to focus on customers  National Grid: "The team's enterprise capability model has changed the way business and IT staff communicate, a key foundation for improving resource allocation and process performance." InfoWorld/Forrester Enterprise Architecture Awards Conclusion
  • 25. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013  King III added value outweighs the costs and effort of application  A synergistic approach will further increase value and reduce cost • Corporate Governance • Enterprise Architecture Capability • IT Governance  Enterprise Architecture is the linchpin between Corporate and IT Governance that could in itself become a source of competitive advantage  This necessitates moving from “Enterprise Architecture for IT” to real Enterprise Architecture  In essence, the management of intellectual capital / content (principles, models, inventory and standards) in support of Strategy, Governance, Risk and Compliance  Facilitated by running the EA Practice like a business Take-away Conclusion
  • 26. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013  Perceptions and practice of King III in South African Companies • Compiled by Cloete Jansen van Vuuren & Jess Schulschenk March 2013 • A joint publication of the Institute of Directors in Southern Africa and the Albert Luthuli Centre for Responsible Leadership, University of Pretoria  IoDSA Institute of Directors in Southern Africa – King III  ISACA – COBIT® 5  The Open Group – TOGAF® 9  Enterprise Architecture Case Studies • 2012 InfoWorld/Forrester Enterprise Architecture Awards • 2013 InfoWorld/Forrester Enterprise Architecture Awards • Nissan Group Uses Enterprise Architecture to Weather Perfect Storm References
  • 27. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013 Contact Details Stuart Macgregor +27 11 805 3734 (office) +27 11 805 2823 (fax) stuart.macgregor@realirm.com Twitter: @RealiRM Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd Registration number: 2001/026036/07 Stuart Macgregor is the CEO of Real IRM and The Open Group - South Africa. Through his personal achievements, he has gained the reputation of an Enterprise Architecture and IT Governance specialist, both in South Africa and internationally. He is openly obsessed with Enterprise Architecture with a definite business bias. Stuart is a member of John Zachman’s advisory committee. He has participated in the development of both COBIT® and TOGAF® over a number of years. As the lead researcher, Stuart assisted the IT Governance Institute map COBIT to TOGAF® which was published by ISACA and The Open Group. In the role of lead consultant, he has assisted numerous organisations establish their Enterprise Architecture practices and has also used COBIT to develop IT Governance frameworks for NYSE Top 100 companies. Stuart participated in the COBIT 5 development workshops held in London and Washington.