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Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015www.realirm.com LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™
You can lead a horse to water…
Managing the human aspects of change in
EA implementations
Joanne Macgregor
The Open Group EAPC
Johannesburg
2015
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
You can lead a horse to water…
Managing the human aspects of change in EA
implementations
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Overview
 What is Change Management?
 Differences between Change Leadership and Change
Management
 John Kotter’s 8 steps to successful change leadership
 Overview of Change Management process
 The psychology of change
Change Management in the EA Context
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
 Change management is the process, tools and techniques to manage the
people-side of business change to achieve the required business outcome,
and to realize that business change effectively within the social
infrastructure of the workplace.
(Change Management Learning Center)
 “...a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the
perspective of an organization and on the individual level...proactively
addressing adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting
change.”
(Case Western Reserve University)
What is Change Management?
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
 Draws on multiple disciplines
(psychology, behavioural sciences,
business science, engineering,
systems thinking)
 Underlying principle:
Change does not / cannot happen in isolation – it impacts the whole
organization (system) around it, and all the people touched by it, and is in
turn influenced by them
What is Change Management?
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
What is Change Management?
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
 Overlap, both necessary
 CM: tools, techniques, interventions to keep change under control,
aims to minimize disruption and negative impacts of change
 CL: driving forces, visions and
processes that fuel
large-scale transformations
The difference between Change Management (CM)
and Change Leadership (CL)
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Managing versus Leading Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Managing versus Leading Change
Managers Leaders
Are operational: they plan, budget, staff,
organize, delegate, monitor, solve problems
Are strategic: they create visions, establish
direction, create strategies, steer the
business
Work at level of detail Work on macro-level
Short – to medium – term focus Long term focus
Use policies and procedures to guide staff Align people/teams/divisions to each other
and the vision
Identify deviations from plan and course-
correct
Identify deviations from vision and course-
correct
Produce stability and predictability Produce change
Are obeyed Are followed
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Leading Change:
John Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change’
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Leading Change:
John Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change’
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Managing Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
The change management process
Unfreeze, Change, Refreeze. (Kurt Lewin)
Prepare Implement Maintain
for change change change
Managing Change - Overview
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
1. Prepare for Change
 Form the change team
 Understand Current Scenario
 Develop Preferred Scenario
 Create Clear Vision
 Identify obstacles to change
Managing Change - Overview
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
2. Implement Change
 Develop a change management action plan
 Awareness / persuasion
 Training
 Empower action
 Communication
Managing Change - Overview
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
2. Implement Change
• Communications
Early, often, continual
Formal and informal
Managing Change - Overview
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
2. Implement Change
• Communications
Relevant
Tailored to audience
Managing Change - Overview
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Managing Change - Overview
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
3. Maintain Change
 Identify and manage resistance
 Reinforce and reward change
 Collect and analyse feedback
 Iterative cycles and continuous improvement
 Embed the changes
Managing Change - Overview
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
How do people resist?
 Refusal, continue unchanged
 Passive-resistance
 “Yes, but…”
 Stigmatize the EA and CM programmes, mock the change team
 Leave the organisation
 Absenteeism
 Bunk training
 Maintain duplicate systems/processes
 Undermine change (termites)
 Warp the message (gossip, rumour)
 Industrial sabotage
 Dissuade the customer
 Strikes, go-slows, underperformance
 Theft, sabotage
 Dirty laundry in public (e.g., social media accounts)
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Resistance
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Why do people resist?
 Fear
 Inertia
 Fight, flight, freeze
 Conflicting performance measures / commitments
 Perceived lack of ownership/involvement
 Parochial self-interest and organisational silos
 Organisational politics
 Lack of trust in product/change agents/management
 Lack of skills (or ability to learn)
 Perceived lack of incentive to change
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
People do what works
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
People do what they can get away with
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
People do what they are rewarded for
And
Avoid what they are sanctioned for
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
People do what is easiest
And
People are pleasure-seeking
and pain-avoiding
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Change “hurts”
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Behaviour-change drives attitude-change
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Procrastination….
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Change not consistent, or predictable.
And
People seek control.
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Continuous vs step-change
 Business environment demands continuous change
 But excellent service and consistently great products come from
regular, optimized routines
 Leads to conflict between delivering the goods and changing
 Therefore need islands of stability to catch breath and optimise
performance
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Change is non-linear
The Psychology of Change
Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
Success breeds success
The Psychology of Change

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You can lead a horse to water… (Managing the Human Aspects of Change in EA Implementations)

  • 1. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015www.realirm.com LEADING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE VALUE™ You can lead a horse to water… Managing the human aspects of change in EA implementations Joanne Macgregor The Open Group EAPC Johannesburg 2015
  • 2. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 You can lead a horse to water… Managing the human aspects of change in EA implementations
  • 3. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Overview  What is Change Management?  Differences between Change Leadership and Change Management  John Kotter’s 8 steps to successful change leadership  Overview of Change Management process  The psychology of change Change Management in the EA Context
  • 4. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2013
  • 5. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
  • 6. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015
  • 7. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015  Change management is the process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of business change to achieve the required business outcome, and to realize that business change effectively within the social infrastructure of the workplace. (Change Management Learning Center)  “...a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the perspective of an organization and on the individual level...proactively addressing adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change.” (Case Western Reserve University) What is Change Management?
  • 8. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015  Draws on multiple disciplines (psychology, behavioural sciences, business science, engineering, systems thinking)  Underlying principle: Change does not / cannot happen in isolation – it impacts the whole organization (system) around it, and all the people touched by it, and is in turn influenced by them What is Change Management?
  • 9. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 What is Change Management?
  • 10. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015  Overlap, both necessary  CM: tools, techniques, interventions to keep change under control, aims to minimize disruption and negative impacts of change  CL: driving forces, visions and processes that fuel large-scale transformations The difference between Change Management (CM) and Change Leadership (CL)
  • 11. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Managing versus Leading Change
  • 12. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Managing versus Leading Change Managers Leaders Are operational: they plan, budget, staff, organize, delegate, monitor, solve problems Are strategic: they create visions, establish direction, create strategies, steer the business Work at level of detail Work on macro-level Short – to medium – term focus Long term focus Use policies and procedures to guide staff Align people/teams/divisions to each other and the vision Identify deviations from plan and course- correct Identify deviations from vision and course- correct Produce stability and predictability Produce change Are obeyed Are followed
  • 13. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Leading Change: John Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change’
  • 14. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Leading Change: John Kotter's 'eight steps to successful change’
  • 15. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Managing Change
  • 16. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 The change management process Unfreeze, Change, Refreeze. (Kurt Lewin) Prepare Implement Maintain for change change change Managing Change - Overview
  • 17. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 1. Prepare for Change  Form the change team  Understand Current Scenario  Develop Preferred Scenario  Create Clear Vision  Identify obstacles to change Managing Change - Overview
  • 18. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 2. Implement Change  Develop a change management action plan  Awareness / persuasion  Training  Empower action  Communication Managing Change - Overview
  • 19. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 2. Implement Change • Communications Early, often, continual Formal and informal Managing Change - Overview
  • 20. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 2. Implement Change • Communications Relevant Tailored to audience Managing Change - Overview
  • 21. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Managing Change - Overview
  • 22. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 3. Maintain Change  Identify and manage resistance  Reinforce and reward change  Collect and analyse feedback  Iterative cycles and continuous improvement  Embed the changes Managing Change - Overview
  • 23. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 The Psychology of Change
  • 24. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 How do people resist?  Refusal, continue unchanged  Passive-resistance  “Yes, but…”  Stigmatize the EA and CM programmes, mock the change team  Leave the organisation  Absenteeism  Bunk training  Maintain duplicate systems/processes  Undermine change (termites)  Warp the message (gossip, rumour)  Industrial sabotage  Dissuade the customer  Strikes, go-slows, underperformance  Theft, sabotage  Dirty laundry in public (e.g., social media accounts) The Psychology of Change
  • 25. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Resistance The Psychology of Change
  • 26. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Why do people resist?  Fear  Inertia  Fight, flight, freeze  Conflicting performance measures / commitments  Perceived lack of ownership/involvement  Parochial self-interest and organisational silos  Organisational politics  Lack of trust in product/change agents/management  Lack of skills (or ability to learn)  Perceived lack of incentive to change The Psychology of Change
  • 27. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 People do what works The Psychology of Change
  • 28. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 People do what they can get away with The Psychology of Change
  • 29. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 People do what they are rewarded for And Avoid what they are sanctioned for The Psychology of Change
  • 30. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 People do what is easiest And People are pleasure-seeking and pain-avoiding The Psychology of Change
  • 31. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Change “hurts” The Psychology of Change
  • 32. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Behaviour-change drives attitude-change The Psychology of Change
  • 33. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Procrastination…. The Psychology of Change
  • 34. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Change not consistent, or predictable. And People seek control. The Psychology of Change
  • 35. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Continuous vs step-change  Business environment demands continuous change  But excellent service and consistently great products come from regular, optimized routines  Leads to conflict between delivering the goods and changing  Therefore need islands of stability to catch breath and optimise performance The Psychology of Change
  • 36. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Change is non-linear The Psychology of Change
  • 37. Copyright © Real IRM Solutions (Pty) Ltd 2001-2015 Success breeds success The Psychology of Change