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  1. 1. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Session 7 MOTION OF RIGID BODY
  2. 2. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Topics to be covered • Centre of mass of a Rigid body. • Definition of CM. • CM of some Bodies. • Translational and Rotational Motion. • Moment Of Inertia. • Moment of Inertia of Uniform Bodies. • Memory map of Moment of Inertia. • Theorem of Parallel Axis. • Theorem of Perpendicular Axis. , l l l
  3. 3. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Topics To be Covered • Torque and couple . • Rotational and Translational Motion. • Angular Momentum. • Conservation of Angular Momentum. • Example of conservation of Angular Momentum. • Simultaneous Rotation and Translational Motion
  4. 4. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Centre of Mass Of a Rigid Body .The potiential energies of particles 1 and 2 are and respectively.The potential energy of the particle at C is 2mgz. • The point C is called the centre of mass (CM) of the system. .
  5. 5. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Definition of CM • Some forces can be due to sources outside the body. These forces are called the external forces.Some other forces arise due to the interaction among the particles of the body. These are called internal forces. • In the case of a rigid body, the sum of the internal forces is zero because they cancel each other in pairs. • The CM of a body moves as though the entire mass of the body were located at that point and it was acted upon by the sum of all the external forces acting on the body.
  6. 6. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 CM of Some Bodies
  7. 7. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Translation and Rotational Motion
  8. 8. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Moment Of Inertia The moment of Inertia must be specified with respect to a chosen axis of rotation.For a point mass the moment of inertia is just the mass times the square of perpendicular distance of the rotational axis.
  9. 9. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Moment of Inertia of Uniform Bodies
  10. 10. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Memory Map Of Moment of Inertia
  11. 11. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Theorem Of Parallel Axis • The moment of inertia about an axis parallel to the axis passing through its centre of mass is equal to the moment of inertia about its centre of mass plus the product of mass and square of the perpendicular distance between the parallel axes
  12. 12. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Theorem of perpendicular axes • The sum of the moments of inertia about x and y axes is equal to the moment of inertia about the z–axis.
  13. 13. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Torque and Couple • A couple is two equal forces which act on two opposite direction on an object but not from the same point so have a turning effect. • Torque is calculated by the product of either of forces forming the couple and the arm of couple.
  14. 14. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Rotational and Translational Motion
  15. 15. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Angular Momentum The product of linear momentum and the distance from the axis is called angular momentum, denoted by L The rate of change of angular momentum is equal to torque.
  16. 16. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Conservation of angular momentum • If there is no net torque acting on the body, This means that there is no change in angular momentum, i.e. the angular momentum is constant. This is the principle of conservation of angular momentum.
  17. 17. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Conservation of Angular momentum • In the above, If smaller pieces break off a larger spinning object,they too will inherit the same pin I.e. the same angular momentum
  18. 18. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Simultaneous Rotational and Translational Motions • If a point in a rigid body is not fixed, it can possess rotational motion as well as translational motion. The general motion of a rigid body consists of both these motions.
  19. 19. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Example for Moment Of Inertia • Four particles of mass m each are located at the corners of a square of side L. Calculate their moment of inertia about an-axis passing through the centre of the square and perpendicular to its plane. • Solution : Simple geometry tells us that the distance of each particle from the axis of rotation is .
  20. 20. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Do It Yourself • Calculate the radius of gyration of a solid sphere if the axis is a tangent to the sphere. • A uniform circular disc of mass 2.0 kg and radius 20 cm is rotated about one of its diameters at an angular speed of 10 rad s–1. Calculate its angular momentum about the axis of rotation. • It is said that the earth was formed from a contracting gas cloud. Suppose some time in the past, the radius of the earth was 25 times its present radius. What was then its period of rotation on its own axis?
  21. 21. © Copyright PCTI Limited 2012 Do it yourself • A solid sphere rolls down a slope without slipping. What will be its velocity in terms of the height of the slope? • A solid cylinder rolls down an inclined plane without slipping. What fraction of its kinetic energy is translational? What is the magnitude of its velocity after falling through a height h? • Is it possible for the centre of mass of a body to lie outside the body? Give two examples to justify your answer?