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Prononuns

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Prononuns

  1. 1. Prononuns
  2. 2. Pronouns  Words used in place of a proper or common noun. A pronoun generally has an antecedent – a specific noun named earlier in the discourse for which the pronoun is “standing in.”
  3. 3. Personal Pronouns Personal pronouns have “person,” “number,” and “case.”  Singular (nominative): I (1st) , you (2nd) , he, she, it (3rd)  Plural (nominative): we (1st) , you (2nd) , they (3rd)  Singular (objective): me, you, him, her, it  Plural (objective): us, you, them
  4. 4. Personal Pronouns And I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. Then one of the elders said to me, "Do not weep. See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals."
  5. 5. Personal Pronouns And I began to weep bitterly because no one was found worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. Then one of the elders said to me, "Do not weep. See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has conquered, so that he can open the scroll and its seven seals."
  6. 6. Possessive Pronouns  Singular: mine, yours, his, hers, its  Plural: ours, yours, theirs “He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours [= our sins] only but also for the sins of the whole world.” (1 John 2:2) “My beloved is mine and I am his.” (Song 2:16)
  7. 7. Possessive Pronouns vs. Possessive Adjectives  Pronouns: stand in for nouns – “he atoned not only for their sins, but ours.” “Ours” stands in for the noun “sins.”  Adjectives: describe nouns – “he atoned for our sins.” “Our” describes a noun in the sentence.
  8. 8. Intensive and Reflexive Pronouns  Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself  Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves Intensive: “He himself was not the light, but he came to testify to the light.” (John 1:8) Reflexive: "Is he going to kill himself? Is that what he means by saying, 'Where I am going, you cannot come'?“ (John 8:22)
  9. 9. Definite Relative Pronouns  Introduce subordinate clauses that, as a whole, function as adjectives (supplying additional information about some noun or pronoun). As with most pronouns, the definite relative pronoun points back to some antecedent (some noun to which it is referring)  Who, whom (objective case of “who”), whose (possessive case of “who”), which/that
  10. 10. Relative Clauses  The relative pronoun introduces a relative clause with a verb and, often, objects, modifiers, and prepositional phrases. The entire clause modifies some noun or pronoun in the main sentence (the antecedent of the relative pronoun).  A relative clause generally could have been written as a separate sentence:  You love Lazarus.  Lazarus is sick.  “He [Lazarus] whom you love is sick.” (John 11:3)
  11. 11. Relative Pronouns (and relative clauses)  “He went and took the scroll from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne.”  “This is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke.” (Matt 3:3)  “I baptize you with water for repentance, but one who is more powerful than I is coming after me, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry.” (Matt 3:11)
  12. 12. Indefinitive relative pronouns  The relative pronoun can also be used where there is no antecedent, sometimes generalized (“whoever, whatever”)  “Whoever denies me before others, I also will deny before my Father in heaven.” (Matt 10:33)  “Remember then what you received and heard” (Rev 3:3)
  13. 13. Interrogative Pronouns  Used to ask questions; no antecedent  Who? What? Which?  “Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?” (Rev 5:2)
  14. 14. Demonstrative Pronouns  Used to “point out” particular objects.  This, these; that, those  Nearer demonstratives: this, these  Farther demonstratives: that, those
  15. 15. Demonstrative Pronouns  “This [= “this person”] is the one of whom the prophet Isaiah spoke.” (Matt 3:3)  Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, "Who are these [=“these people”], robed in white, and where have they come from?“ (Rev 7:13)  “Blessed are those [=“those people”] who mourn, for they will be comforted.” (Matt 5:4)
  16. 16. Indefinite Pronouns  These pronouns do not refer to specific persons or things, but rather to general types or classes.  Anyone, anybody, anything; someone, somebody, something; everyone, everybody, everything; none, nobody, nothing; all, few, many, several, etc.
  17. 17. Indefinite Pronouns  “Blessed is anyone who takes no offense at me.” (Matt 11:6)  “The kingdom of heaven may be compared to someone who sowed good seed in his field.” (Matt 13:24)  “For many are called, but few are chosen.” (Matt 22:14)
  18. 18. Reciprocal Pronouns  Pronouns indicating that the individual members of a collective subject act back on other members of the group.  One another, each other  “I give you a new commandment, that you love one another.” (John 13:34)  “What are you discussing with each other while you walk along?” (Luke 24:17)
  19. 19. Appositives  Nouns or pronouns can be used simply to rename another noun or pronoun in the sentence. The second noun or pronoun is said to stand in “apposition” to the first, and is like a parenthetical comment.  “A Savior, Christ, the Lord, is born for you today in David’s city” (Luke 2:11)  “Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ, to all the saints….” (Phil 1:1)  “Ananias came down with some elders and an attorney, a certain Tertullus, and they reported their case against Paul.” (Acts 24:1)

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