Culture and counseling

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Culture and counseling

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE<br />Organizations ,like individuals come in all shape and sizes with different cultures. <br />‘culture’ is a term often used to describe differences in organizations.<br />Just as individuals have their own personalities which include temperament ,interpersonal style and their particular way of engaging with the world, so organizations have their personality( their culture) which determines, the behavior of the employees.<br />Organizational culture is about the ecology, the ethos, the personality, the atmosphere of a company or institution.<br />
  2. 2. It comprises of values, beliefs and attitudes that are shared by members of the organization.<br />Sometimes these shared values comes directly from the organization and are enshrined in mission statements and policies, but much of the culture is passed on to newcomers invisibly.<br />Organizational culture emerges in dress code, language, authority and power, permission to do things, sexual expression, management style.<br />It is also referred to as the ‘shadow side‘ of the organization. <br />An effective manager knows and manages the shadow side as well as the formal side of the organizations. <br />
  3. 3. Organizational culture is a powerful influence on its members, and newcomers are socialized into the prevailing culture very effectively and often unconsciously.<br />By agreeing to do so, they are accepted within the culture and individuals who do not conform stand out and are laughed at, some are seen as rebels, and some represent the anti-culture lobby for the organization.<br />
  4. 4. Why understanding culture?<br />Understanding the culture of the organization or group or institution, gives valuable insight into why individuals within these groups act the way they do, and also helps us devise interventions to help people who become ill, mentally or physically.<br />It may even be that organizational culture which demands behavior from people that makes them ill.<br />
  5. 5. Strengths and Weakness of culture<br />Like trying to classify individuals into types( eg. Introvert, extrovert), several authors have attempted to classify organizations by culture.<br />This has both strength and weakness.<br /> STRENGTHS:<br /> It helps us understand, in broad way, how to compare and contrast different organizations.<br /> WEAKNESS:<br /> we can take the culture, like diagnostic categories for individuals.<br />
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION<br />Culture do not exist in pure forms in any organizations.<br />The only way to know the culture of an org. is to live within it and to experience its ecology.<br />Harrison has offered a more recent version of these cultures which he calls the transactional, the self-expression, the alignment and the mutuality cultures.<br />It seems to better fit with the counseling provision.<br />
  7. 7. Types of cultures<br />Harrison isolated four types of organizations.<br />Role culture<br />Achievement culture<br />Power culture<br />Support culture<br />
  8. 8. 1. ROLE CULTURE<br />It is characterized by the fact that “things get done around here” by people who take on roles and see other in role terms.<br />People are defined in terms of their roles and responsibilities.<br />The organizations tend to be hierarchical with rules and regulations to maintain roles.<br />Authorities make sure that people maintain their roles, stay within them and ensure that the roles are geared towards the goals of the organization.<br />
  9. 9. CASE STUDY:<br /> Saw lands sec school is a good example of a “role culture”. The headmaster, who is called headmaster, not Mr Neilson, sees his role as maintaining good order and authority within the school. The deputy head(Mrs Harlow) is never called by her name but is called Mrs Deputy head. Throughout the school, individuals are called by the task they play. Relationships are sorted out by role. There is an extensive reward system for pupils from the sports to academic achievements throughout each year. The HM maintains quite formal relationships with the staff and he is a fair person who will evaluate each situation on its merits.<br />
  10. 10. STRENGTHS:<br />strong and effective role org. is one where individuals know their role and how that role connect to other roles within the organization.<br />WEAKNESS:<br />The weakness of role culture exists where individuals are sacrificed to the organization.<br />There is no value of innovation and change.<br />
  11. 11. Counseling for role culture<br />Counseling will be viewed as the way of moving employees back into role, of managing role conflicts, solving role confusion, and creating harmony by defining clear role boundaries.<br />It can be seen as a problem solving, is likely to be short term and may be cognitive -behavioral.<br />Unfortunately, counseling can be viewed as a punitive within role organizations and may be used by managers to sort out their troubled or troubling employees.<br />
  12. 12. 2. ACHIEVEMENT CULTURE<br />This culture concentrates on work to be done than roles.<br />People will cross roles and swop responsibilities when needed.<br />Decisions are made laterally than hierarchically as in role culture.<br />Collaboration is the order of the day , and employees are encouraged to think of new ways of doing work.<br />
  13. 13. CASE STUDY:<br /> Coombs and Coombs, an advertising firm, is just an organization. It tends to employ creative and energetic individuals(men and women), and you can find employees in the office as late as 10 at night. Last year, with one large order, a small team worked through the night, almost forgetting the time in their excitement at a new package they were designing. George Coombs is found making coffee for some of the team as he is designing a logo. Close friendship are rife throughout the firm and lots of laughter emanates from the offices.<br />
  14. 14. STRENGTHS:<br />The strong achievement organization is an exciting and creative place to be.<br />Change is a part of life.<br />Rules, regulations, policies are under constant review.<br />WEAKNESS:<br />It sacrifices the team to the individual.<br />Innovation and creativity can be cherished for themselves and not harnesses to the welfare of the organizational objectives.<br />The org. becomes chaotic rather than organized. <br />
  15. 15. Counseling for achievement culture<br />Despite their supportive and friendly atmosphere , achievement org. find it difficult to cope with counseling.<br />For them weakness is unacceptable, and whereas they stress the importance of individual over the org. <br />As soon as the individual fall behind the rapid hectic world of the marketplace, there is a tendency to send them off.<br />This type of org. tends to move towards external counseling provision which keeps counseling at a distance.<br />
  16. 16. 3.POWER CULTURE<br />Power culture is one where dominance rules, where strengths and control are cherished, individuals know their place.<br />It is hierarchical<br />Leaders are seen as decision makers, handling individuals without feelings and keeping clear and tight control of what happens.<br />Motivation is seen extrinsic and rewards are monetary and benefits.<br />The org. values uncritical obedience, loyalty, hard work and in turn, offers clear rewards.<br />
  17. 17. CASE STUDY:<br /> Greenfields police service is a power culture organization. Policemen and women are fairly well guaranteed a job for life provided that they do not blot their copy-book. obedience is expected and there are rules and regulations to guide behavior at all levels. Employees are not expected to question authority or any changes brought in by management. Such changes will certainly not be discussed with the rank and file.<br />
  18. 18. STRENGTHS:<br />The strength of power culture is their ability to “get things done” and in emergencies are very useful to have around because of their decision-making ability.<br />They protect their employees and reward them well.<br />WEAKNESS:<br />The weakness of power culture is their view of human nature.<br />They can be very punitive when someone does not live up to expectations or is not as loyal as expected. <br />Like role culture, will sacrifice the individual to the organization.<br />
  19. 19. Counseling for power culture<br />Counseling may be introduced to power organizations as a way of helping weaker employees manage their jobs. <br />It can be allied to welfare with a number of roles- information, advocacy, medical services.<br />The counseling provision can also be external to the organization.<br />
  20. 20. 4. SUPPORT CULTURE<br />In support culture organizations stresses the value of relationships, mutuality, communication, and looking after its people.<br />The emphasis is on collaborative work and rewards tends to be intrinsic.<br />Individuals are trusted to do their work, and support systems are in-built to help employees do their job as well as reduce stress.<br />Training is a part of the job and employees are expected to be continually developing.<br />
  21. 21. CASE STUDY:<br /> Outreach youth counseling service is a good example of support culture. Set up as a comprehensive information, advice and counseling service for young people, it employs about 20 staffs, fulltime and part time. The team meets as a full team once a week, supervision for counselors takes place twice a week with an outside supervisor, and support groups within task areas have been organized. Decisions are made collaboratively.<br />
  22. 22. STRENGTHS:<br />The strong support culture cares for its employees deeply and recognizes them as the best assets of the company.<br />It supports at all levels of the organization so that individuals and teams can work effectively. <br />WEAKNESS:<br />The degenerative support culture will forget its task and concentrate on team and individual growth. <br />The task of the organization suffers.<br />
  23. 23. Counseling for support culture<br />Counseling services are seen as a part of support cultures.<br />People are expected to have personal and work related problems and need a forum where they can work with these. <br />The organization will be eager to know what the problems are and how the org. structures can be changed to help people with their problems. <br />Unlikely to see counseling as a formal service but rather part of the skills within the organization.<br />

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