A qualitative research method --- resources and experience of Salishan residents
*I propose to examine access to these new resources as well as social relationships and program experience in Salishan through qualitative research methods*
Hope 6 grant from HUD to revitalize in late 1990s early 2000s Hope 6 grants are to revitalize the worst housing projects
people's relationships to each other, to the housing authority and public government programs, and their relationship to the rest of the city
1) empirical. Theorize. because policy-makers are not getting the kinds of data I’ve captured through qualitative methods. THUS (second arg)
2) method –tool
Not understood by policy-makers Not obtained elsewhere Future. Holistic. Eval & Follow-up
Public Housing is typically associated with images of high-rise, high-density buildings that are concentrated with poverty, crime, unemployment and more. What’s happened with traditional housing projects is they concentrate a population of low-income individuals, and this concentration intensifies over time. Business flee, services, and residents flee when they get the chance because this area is undesirable. Eventually low-income residents become “stuck in place”, as Patrick Sharkey argues. **In response there’s been a shift toward Income-Integration. This is where Mixed-Income Housing stems from, and the idea is that individuals can move up in social & financial class because they have more interaction with people in a higher class than them. This diversity results in a wider social network, connections to people, and connections to jobs that are outside of a low-income society. But there have been few studies evaluating the results of MI. **A final point is measuring home satisfaction—what makes an individual happy with their home? Research has founds these factors to be important: -access to essentials (employment, services, entertainment, transportation) -sense of community—people must identify a common identity of their surrounding neighborhood, and feel that they have a place in it. -for this to happen, one must be accepting of their neighbors. This is a crucial factor in mixed-income housing. For the benefits of diversity among classes, one must accept that their neighbors and neighborhood come from a different class than them. One must feel that “people here are like me” to be happy with their home.
Ethnography and part observation– reflexivity
These maps are drawn with intent and instructions to relate specifically to physical geography BUT, within these maps are deep-rooted experiences of a person in a particular space that relate to their place in the socio-economic context of Salesman and Tacoma as a city, AND their interviews elaborate on these experiences and help a researcher uncover social and economic hierarchies in a spatial frame. Kevin Lynch established the mental map method in his work “The Image of the City” published in 1960. In his study, Lynch had residents of major cities in the US draw maps of their urban environment. He categorized objects in the maps drawn into paths, edges, nodes, landmarks, and boundaries. The purpose of this work was to find how one navigates a city and comprehends geographical information. Throughout our lives each of us is constantly learning new geographic information and adding it to our personal, mental database. MM are a way to capture that information.
Since Lynch’s work, MM have been applied to research studying many concepts. Gieseking uses MM to uncover how one interacts with social norms. Coulton uses the method to evaluate targeted safety policy in a neighborhood. Fahy and O’Kennedy use mental maps in the UK to identify a neighborhood’s collective threats, values, assets, and identity. MM can be used to study individual and/or communal information. Results yield detailed information that is often not available elsewhere. MM also reveal how one quantifies the space around them and objects within it, thus strengthening my argument that MM help identify resources that people actually use in Salishan. **In all of these studies, interviewing is common component to the research done. Interviewing is a virtually necessary component because maps cannot be fully understood without them. EXAMPLES **Interviewing allows a researching to correctly interpret drawn maps, and understand what it is the drawer is trying to convey. *Add’l ETHN allows one to reflexively interpret maps because the researcher is exposed to the socio-cultural lives of the drawers.
In the field: The woes of recruitment & consent forms,,,, 6 adults only, recipients of housing -sample map exercise directions: draw me a picture of Salishan. Show the important place and people someone should know if they were to move here. Draw where you go to meetings or get important resources you need -sample interview questions asked: tell me what you drew here. Where are your boundaries of Salishan? What are the important locations you marked? Do you feel like you have better access to good resources now that you live in Salishan? Do you think the services and resources you can get here will help you move up and out of the housing program?
Interpreting, coding, analyzing
Interpreting, coding, analyzing
Technically same SES – vastly different experiences. “homes” vs. “Housing”/“Homeowners” vs. “renters”. Family/financial bkgd
Nonetheless, the content obtained from mapping and interviews is much more substantial data than otherwise available (i.e. through census or THA surveys).
Generally speaking, the results of this project find that the housing project is mostly not working for residents. However the data obtained ALSO show that explanations for why it isn’t working are very complex and differ case-by-case. These preliminary findings strengthen the methodological argument of this thesis: that qualitative methods capture experiential data that are unique/valuable, and useful to evaluate housing policy design.
Feminist Theory in Participatory Mapping
Methods of Resident Resources and
Mobility in a Housing Project
California State University, Long Beach - Geography
March 17, 2015
-Market rate + low income + apartments
-75% of population under 18 years old
-Median Household income
-WorkSource office, health clinic,
Housing Authority office
STUDY SITE: SALISHAN
1) Do Salishan residents feel they have access to
the resources they need to move up and out of
a) Is development of social network(s) an important
resource to enhancing mobility?
2) Can ethnographic and mental map methods
reveal one’s personal geography and map of
1) Despite theorized benefits of Mixed-Income
the experience of residents say otherwise.
2) Qualitative methods capture that experience, and
help to evaluate housing policy design.
Goal: to demonstrate that participatory mapping
methods can get at new kinds of data on
identity, socio-spatial, and socio-political
contexts within a city.
ARGUMENT AND PURPOSE
-Negative effects of typical income-based
“stuck in place”
-Shift toward Income Integration design
Little evaluation of results
-Measuring housing satisfaction:
-access to essentials
-sense of community
-acceptance of neighbors; ”people here are like me”
Cabrini Green, Chicago, Il
1 hour Mental Map Interview
Recruit homeowners and renters
Transcribe and code interviews
METHOD: THE MENTAL MAP
Den Besten (2010)
Less visual, more analytic
-places of importance
-sense of neighborhood and belonging
-aspects of livelihood
-experience within housing system
-impressions and interpretation of the housing
Empowered or downtrodden ~ bootstrap”
Little social interaction between housing and
Vast differences among just 6 participants
-knowledge of resources
Ideas about self-motivation
Mapping + interview = substantial data that inform
Project is not working, but explanations are not
Axhausen, K.W. “Social Networks, Mobility Biographies, and Travel: Survey Challenges.”
Environment and Planning B, Planning and Design, Vol. 35 (2008): 981-996.
Briggs, Daniel. “Emotions, Ethnography and Crack Cocaine Users.” Emotions, Space and
Brophy, Paul C. and Rhonda N. Smith. “Mixed-Income Housing: Factors for Success.”
Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, Vol. 3 No. 2 (1997): 3-31.
Den Besten, Olga. “Local Belonging and 'Geographies of Emotion’: Immigrant Children's
Experience ofTheir Neighborhoods in Pars and Berlin.”. Childhood, 17: 181 (2010).
Gieseking, Jack Jen. “Where We Go From Here: The Mental Sketch Mapping Method and Its
Analytic Components.” Qualitative Inquiry, 19(9) (2013): 712-724.
Gillespie, Carol Ann. “How Culture Constructs Our Sense of Neighborhood: Mental Maps
and Children’s Perceptions of Place.” Journal of Geography, 109 (2010): 18-29.
Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1960.
Schwartz, Alex F. Housing Policy in the United States. New York: Routledge, 2010.
Further References Available on Request