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Notes on-the-science-of-hadeeth

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Notes on-the-science-of-hadeeth

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
  2. 2. $ : 9 % G 9% 7 5 C # F.1 $ <$ 6 4 % 9% 7 3 ( # 0.< $ ;$ 3 6 3 % % : - 5% C # F>< $ /$ : A C 9= A C # .F. $ >$ ( 5 B # ;;< $ & /: 3 ( 4 " " ( # $ # $ 3 ( 4 " - 5 3 4 " ( ( 3 </ H 4 4 ( ( ! " # $ 4 ( + "" ) + " H 4 ( 4 & $ <$ ( ! " # $+ ;$ ! " # $ >+? H 4 % ( 4 & $ + <$ 4 I " 5 @( 'A ( 4 & $ % 4 3 ( 4 + <$ ( 3 ( H 4 % "" (
  3. 3. H 4 % " 4 " ( # $ H 4 ( 4 & $ J) 3 4 4 5 I " " <$ ( 3 ! " # $+ # 5$ ( # $+ ;$ / ( ( ( " ( ( 3 ( 4 D"(</ ( 4 & $ + <$ 4 ( 3 ( ) 4 ( 3 ( *(</ ( 3 ( 4 " 4 ) ( " & ( " ! % " ! / H 4 + ) ( 4 " " " ) ) I & $ 4 " " C <$ ) ) ;$ " ) 4 4 " I ( & $ FG/H4 ! / # ( ( 4$ ( ( 4 4 ( 4 ## ( " 3 " 6 $$
  4. 4. <$ I; ! / # ( 4$ 4 5 ( " + 4 # $ 5 4 ( + # $ + 3 ( & $ %: %3 ( <$ %: ;$ : ( B 5 @ H 4 ! ( ( ) 4 & $ <$ N N: ;$ O P H 4 8 3 ( ( " " ) ) + ( Q H! / H 4 ( " " 4 & $ + <$ " C + ;$ 4 4 & ( ( 3 ( 4 " " + ( ) 4 & $ ( 4 + <$ ( + ;$ ( " & $ " " " + 4 % & % 5 4 # $ C 3 5 ) 3 4 4 7 5 3( , A 3 2 <$ " " + " " + 4 ( 4 , A 3 2 ;$ C # $+ 4 " % ) , 5 % ( + - 3 2 /$ #" " C $+ 4 3 4 )
  5. 5. ( # 4 ) $ = ( , ( 2 >$ " " 4 1$ ? " " 3 " 4 " " & $ C 9 % 3 ( <$ @ @ ( : 9 % 5%- ;$ : @ 9 % K 5 N NI/ H 4 J 4 ( ( ) ) + 4 ## ) ) + " " $$ , A 3 2 ! " # $ % 9% 5%: : + 5 5 J !7'! J # $ < % % < 9% 9%: : < 5 5 O R/ H 4 4 ( 4 4 ) 4 + 4 " % & ) ( : - 4 + " C # ( " 4 I " $+ 4 #( $ " 4 ( & $ # $ & / ); O R/ + # C $ ( K 4 4 I " + 4 ##L $$ ,7 " 9= @ # $2 <$ # ) $ F C O R/ + # $ ( 4 ( + ( " 4
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
  7. 7. K L )[ T #" $ " 4 4 3 ](!^ )[ #" ( 4$ ( ( + " ) 3 " /$ 9 _V)3T6M ` T: % ( 4 ( >$ 9 9 K ZT4I ` T: K #9 $ ( 3 9 "" ( + ( "" + 4 4 " ) ( 4 4 4 & 4 " 4 ( ( C " 5 " ) 4 " & ) ( A 3 & 3 5 9= , 3 ( # 4 $2 ) ( C 7 ( % & : G 9= ) ( 6 & 9% 9% ) ( 5 & % %5 % 3 5 9% C 9% 5 ) ( % & : G 9% 9% 3 ( & A 3 ( ( ( ( 4 A 3 A 3 4 3 & A 3 E+<E> 4 " /+... ( " <+... ( " /+... ( 8 A 3 ) 4 4 P& ' ( " ( % ( " ( 4 + &T4I / A 3 " 4 + ( 3 % ( " & $ ( " ( + 4 + + - 4 " <$ " ( + 4 + " # 4 " ) $+ 4 4
  8. 8. H ) & $ " A 3 + <$ " A 3 + ;$ " + /$ 4 A 3 + " + >$ 4 A 3 + " + 1$ 4 + " + E$ + 4 A 3 H 4 M N - " ( " " + # $ #>$ " #;$ 4 + 4 Y 3 5 4& ) 4 ( 4 7 4 4& $ % ( <$ 4 + # $ 4 ) ( ) + ? #<$ ) ) ( ) # $ " : + " 4 4 & <W " - 4 ( & $ ( + <$ ) ( + ) ( ! X R < # "" $& ( ( 3 4 + ( "" ) 4 ) + ( ! X R </ # "" $& ( 4 5 + + 4 ( 3 4 ) ( & $ 4 4 + 4 + <$ 4 ( 3 ( 5 ) 4 " + 4 3 + 4 3 (
  9. 9. ) + 4 ) " 4 & " " ( 4 ) " & " + 4& $ " A 3 + <$ ( " ) + ( 3 + ;$ ( " " + 4 " % + 5 + 3 + 4 ) " 3 ( 3 & H 4 ( " # C $ ( 4 " 3 a != & " ( 4 3 ( + 4 8 ( " P& ( 4 " ( & $ " + + " <$ ( " ( + & $ 3 ( 4 + ( 3 4 4 ) 4 O <$ 8 4 ) " ) ( 4 + O ;$ % ( ( " ) + ( 4 ( " 3 - & $ 3 5 <$ ( 3 ;$ ? 3 % ( " # YK V b'(c H 4 7 ) ) % 5 " 4 4 ( @ ( 4 " 3 ( 4 " ( ) ( 5 % & 8 3 ( 4 "" " + 4 4 4 ( ( 5 ( 4 4 4 3 ( P&
  10. 10. 3 ( ( 4 ( & $ % 5 4 # $ + 4 A & ## ) 4 4 ) + # ($ ) ( $$ <$ A 4 I " + 4 4 B # $& ( % 5 4 # $ ( ) ( , / 2 ;$ A 3 ( 4 + 4 %( & ## "" "" ) 3 $$ ,% ( 2+ ( 4 5% ! " # $ "" ( 4 , 2+ ( C 33 + 9% ( 4 ( 6 ( -- /$ A ) - 5 - 5 4 4+ ) 4 3 " 6 ( 3 - & $ 5 3 ( 3 % : <$ 3 ( 3 % ;$ - % 3 B (: " # " + ( & $ 4 4 + <$ 4 " a Id H 4 '"" 4 ( + % - ) + ) ( 3 ( 3 ( 3 + 4 4 4 & " # a I "$ ! # e . a I " # Ff V " # " # + ( - " ( 3 & ( 3 ( 4 % A 3 # $ & C C C 6 C 3 ( 3 " " & 9= G Q% D : % = # $ ( 3 ( 4 9% # $ 4 ( @ % , - & I M # $+ I H # 3 $ 4 4 4 4 5 &
  11. 11. 4 + 4 A 3 + + 5 : ( 3 - 4 " 3 ( 4 ' " + ( 4 4 4 4 ) 4 ) " - 4& $ ( 3 ) + <$ 4 4 5 + ;$ 4 ) 4 ! " # $ ( 5 4 " & ( " & $ % $ & %f(h i[/U' # C : $ ( ) " 4 + 3 ( ) " & j ' j j l U / <$ % & j mFHK i[/U' # C 3 $ ' ' oFHp )k' / H 4 " + 4 4 ( + ) + + & $ + + " & ! " # $ <$ " I " + " 5 5 4& 5 C - 4 " + 4 5 C & & & + " ( ) + C & & + ( - 4 - " ( 3 4 C 5 C ( " ) 5 C A 3 H 4 ( + 5 + 4O 5 ! " # $ 5 4& " " 5 # - $+ " + + ( 3 ( 4 3+ I " ( 3 ( ) + ) ) 4 " 3 3 + ( I " +
  12. 12. " " ( 3 ( ( 4 4 4 & $ 5 " C " ( 3 ( 4 + I " <$ + " % 4 % + 3 ( ( 3 ( % & 8 3 # C $ " A 4 " ( " 5 " 4 ! " # $ ( ;$ % " ( " 5 & $ ( 5 + <$ " + + ;$ ( : 4 ( + + /$ ( 4 & $ + <$ " 4 ( 4 + 3 3 + ( 4 " + ;$ 4 ( 4 I " + /$ 4 ) ( ( 3 ( 4 + " F (< )k' ( I " " ) 4 ! " # $+ 4 4 + " % 3 " ) 4 I " 9% : G 4 & 8 " + I " 5 % 4 ( 4 I " + " 6 ( 3 & $ % ( <$ % ;$ B 5 3 5% H 4 8 3 + ( ( ) 4 4& 5 ( C 5 4 8 5 C ( & $ ( ) 4 & 5 C 5 <$ ( ) 4 & 5 5 C ;$ 4 4 & 5 C 5 l U /
  13. 13. H 4 I + 4 ( + ( ) 4 3 " ( ) + "" + Q C Q ( & ( + + 5 C 5 % C 5 4 " + " 4& 5 4 + ( 3 ( 4 ( n ! H 4 4 4 4 3 4 "" " & ( - " & $ <$ 3 $ @( 'A n " ( + ( + 4 ( 4 ( ) " + 4 4 8 3 " " 3 + ( + ( ) " + ( 3 + " C 3 4 ( 4 ( ) + & 3 & 3 & + ( ) ( 4 & & ( 3 " # FHp S('L1 V @( 'A n q "& " 4 + 4 ( 8 " 4 4 # ( 3 $ ! ! n " & % 4 3 ( "" 4 ( 3 4 ( ( ( 3 ( ) + 3 ( #%$& ( ( 3 #A$& ( #I$ #%$, 2 #A$,( 32 #I$, 2 A 4 4 #%$, 2 #I$, 2 + "" 4 ( 3 + 4 " #%$ #I$ " ( % ( ( 3 ( " 4 ( & A C 8 8 <$ ! r 6M n ( 3 + 4 ) 3 + 3 ( 3 ( + 4 4 4 4 & $ & ) 4 5 &
  14. 14. <$ ( & ) + C 4 " ( ;$ 3 & "" 7 ( " " " & & $ 3 ( #9 (( $ <$ 4 3 ( + " ( ;$ 3 ( 3 /$ ) 4 + ( 4 " 4 >$ 3 4 4 3 & $ 3 ( 3 <$ ) 4 + ( 4 " 4 ;$ 3 4 4 /$ 4 + 3 "" 5 4 4 4 & ) " 5 + ( " 4& $ 5 - 4 + ) 3 , " " 2 <$ " + ( 3 " % ( # 4 4 $ " , " " 2 ( ) P J & $ 4 ( 3 + <$ A " 6 ( 3 & $ @ A 4 <$ ( ( 3 @ " " ;$ A /$ 5 % C ( : - " # oFHp )k' / 3 ( ) + ) + ) 4 + 4 ( 4 & & ( ) P A ( & $ # $ ) 3 4
  15. 15. <$ 4 ) 3 ;$ ( " ( ( 3 # ( ) ( : $ 4& 5 6 ( 3 & $ @ A 4 4& #9 $ 4 # $ 3 # C 5$P + ) 4 ( 4 & $ 3 ( <$ ,8 ( 4 - 2& " " + ( + ( ( 4 " ( ( 4 " & $ 4 <$ ( " ( C ) % 4 ( & $ + A 3 + <$ ( " 4 " + 9% : 5 ;$ 3 ( + % 9% ) 4& # $ , 2& 4& $ % 3 ( <$ - #9 $ " ( ( - & + ) ( ( #9 $ ) ( " # $ % 4 9 + & $ H 4 # 3 $ K ]3^/ <$ A 4 4 # 3 $ ]3^/( Z 56! ;$ '" # C$ & " /$ ) # 5 $ Z: / >$ 4 3 ( # - $ K % 4 + & $ ! # :$ D/H u, ' <$ I 4 # 3 C $ ;$ 3 4 O 4 4 3 #3 ( $ fV+? )y /x*
  16. 16. /$ 4 ( ( 3 # 4 $ >$ 3 # 4 $ ( 4 " ( 3 + 4 4 ( ( 3 & " # H 4 4 " ( + ) ! " # $ ) & ( ) ( 3 " ( + 4 " ( 3 4 4 4 & ) 4 " " " ( P 3 ( ) + & $ 4 <$ ( 4 + 4 4 3 5 ;$ ( + 4 7 "" " /$ + 4 4 4 4 7 ( " " & $ 4 4 ( ( + 4 4 ( " " 4 ) 4 4 4 <$ "" ( ;$ 3 + ( 3 /$ 3 4 + 4 ) " >$ 3 4 4 1$ 3 4 + 4 " 6 ( 3 & $ @ ( 5 B (: <$ H 5 ( 5 ;$ : 5 5 9 5 ( 5 9 C @ H 4 % + ( 4 7 4 4& $ " 4 + " " <$ 3 ( ) " H ) ( 3 # ( 3 4 4 : - $& $ ( 5 <$ 3
  17. 17. ;$ 3 /$ 5 >$ - 1$ C E$ I 3 + 4 ( " H 4 + " $ ( ( + 4 " # C : - $ <$ ( ( 3 " ( 3 & ( " ( 3 ( ( 3 " ( ) & ) ( 3 # 5 - $ 5 3 4 4 % ( "" + 4 " # Z I 8 ( & $ + "" + <$ 9 & % 4 + % + A 3 + % C ( " 4 9 & $ % 4 " <$ ;$ ' # $ #<$ ( 9 ) P A 4 4 4 ( 8 5 P& $ + 4 (C + 5 <$ #( $ 6 ( 3 5 & $ @ 9 <$ % ;$ 5 ( 5 7 - % /$ 5 @ 5 4 >$ ? 5 C #( 4 ) $
  18. 18. 3 C # 4 $ ) " & $ j <$ ' ;$ j c('+? k ! F" N / /$ j ] d / >$ ' H 4 4 4 ( + ( 4 ( ( " & $ - @( 'A |L T & ( + 4 + 4 "" ( 4 + ( 3 " <$ - !; |L T & ( 4 ( + ( " % " & $ - 4 4 #( $+ 4 3 C "" + 3 " <$ - # ) $+ 4 " ( C 4 ;$ - I - 6 & $ I 4 <$ J 4 " 4 ;$ J " 4 ( ( ) P A ) ( + & $ " ( " <$ ;$ /$ " 4 ! " 5 # $ 4 4 -& 4 " 4 ( + : G 6 ( 3 -& $ 6 ( - C @ A 4 <$ C - - - H 4 4
  19. 19. I 4 4 ( 4 " & $ C + ( ( & $ 5 ) + 4 @ 5 + @ 5 <$ " " + " 4 ( ' ( 4 <$ C + ( ( & $ ( ( ) + 4 ( " % ) ( % ( + ( & ( 4 ) 4 3 ( ( 4 ) ( 4 4 5 3 + ) 4& 3 ( ( 4 4 ) , A 3 2 <$ M ) 4 4 ) 4 + " + 3 " " A 4 A 3 7 " 4 C + & $ " ( + " " " 4 $ 5 " $ 4 4 4 C ]}/~A N# C $ K $ # $+ ( + ) ) 4 4 <$ + " ( ( " 4 ;$ 3 + ( + " " ( 3 % ( C & ( 3 6 ( 3 & $ 7 5 C % ( % C @ A 4 : # $ c('+? k ! F" N / % 4 I - & $ ( " ( ( " ( <$ " ( ( 4 3 + 4 + " + & ( + ( " " + ( ( # C 5$+ ( 3 ! 4 & $ ( " + ( " 4 9 # $+
  20. 20. 4 C 5 7 " & <$ " 4 3 + " " + 7 " & 4 " + 3 ) ) 6 ( 3 & $ : : % @ ] H 4 4 ( " + C 4 ( " & $ 4 + <$ % 4 C 4 + " ) " " + " ( + " & $ ' TdT ] #( $+ 4 % A 3 & ) ( C & + " " ( % C+ " " ( + " 4 4 + 4 ( O 4 % A 3 + 5 9% ( % " " ) <$ !; ] + 4 6 & L 4 " ( G 3 ( ) - 5 & 4 " ( G 3 5 C & ( " ( 6 ( P& $ 4 ( " ( + <$ 4 " " " 4 4 ( 3 & ( ) " ( 4 6 ( 3 & $ ? C - H 4 % 3 I 4 4 ( ( " ( 4 4 " & $ 8 & $
  21. 21. <$ <$ & $ # $+ 4 <$ 5 # 4$+ 4 ;$ 8 4 ( 4& $ ( 4 # : $ <$ 4 # 5 ( $+ 4 " ( 4 + " + 4 % 5% : & 8 " " + " " 9% : + % 5 4 # $ " ! " # $ " ( 5% : ( 4 5% : ( ) " ( # $ 3 4 " ( : - ) & $ # ) $+ 3 4 A + <$ # ) ( 4$ P& $ + ( " <$ ( ) + ( " ( " " 4 ) & ( 4 3 3 6 ( 3 & $ C <$ @ @ ;$ % % 3 " && #* H 4 ( " 8 & : # N $& "" + ( 4& 5 - : " JV ( Z (5t/ 4 3 ( " 3 ( &
  22. 22. $ + " + <$ ) + 4 " ;$ + 4 3 + J " # $& A @ A + + % + % 5 % 4 4 " " " " - & $ ! & ( " 4 4 4 " ( P A ( 4 & $ + <$ " 4 + ( <$ S( )S T5t ' & ( 3 ( ( ( + 4 4 4 ) ( - + - ;$ ' "+ ,#& 4 ( 4 - 8 " 4 3 P ( " ) ( + ) ( 6 ( 3 - & $ %( B 5 ( C @ <$ 8 ;$ % % 3 @ /$ ( 8 5 C Z: / ( " & $ 5 3 y 4H^ )Z: & ( 3 3 " <$ 5 C ZU H )Z: & ( 3 " C 3 4 4 4 ) & $ 5 " + 5 - <$ " + 4 - 5 " ( ( & $ ) +
  23. 23. <$ ( "" ) ) u, 'D/H " !# ' ( : ( 3 " & $ ' ( ( ( 4 % 5 <$ ' ( ( 3+ 4 + 4 3 4 + 3 4 & $ % 4 + 5 - <$ % 4 + & $ 8 3 ( ) " 3 " <$ 8 " 3 - ;$ ( 3 ( ( ( + - 4 " ( "+ ,# ( " ( ( 3 " O "" 3 + - I 4 & $ F' )U ) </ ( ! " # $ H + J 4 ( ) & $ % + 4 ( 4 % C + 4 % ( 4 ! " # $ <$ ! " ( "+ C ;$ ( C ) I " C & % 9% 7 5 ( + ( <E< <$ H 4 7 " ! " # $ ;$ H 4 " I " I " + 4 (C : G 4 " " @ & $ 5& 3
  24. 24. <$ (C & ( 4 4 5 & " ) "" (C 4 ) 4 4 5 6 " & $ 4 I " ( 3 ( " 4 ! " A 3+ 4 ( " ( + 4 $ 4 " + <$ <$ I " 5 4& 8 ! " # $ ;$ I " 5 4& 8 ( + 8 ( + 6 /$ I " 4 ) % (C " " /$ H 4 I 5 + 4 A & " = 4 5 + 4 5 + C 5 C 5 H 4 % ( 3 ! " # $ k ! / ( H 4 I ( ( 5 (C % 3 5 4 + 4 : G : C v(Uwx v @( • ( " ( ) 4 ) & % A 3 9% G % 5 B - % 8 8 & $ ( <$ 4 ( (C 5+
  25. 25. 4 : ) & $ ( " + <$ ( - + ;$ - " " " ) + ( ( ( 4 & $ ( ( " + " <$ ( ( " + - ;$ ( " + ( 3 & $ 7 + <$ ! 4 4 % ( ( " 4 + ( + ( 5 (C + ) 4 4 & $ 4 4 ) ) ( 5 # " $ <$ 4 4 ) ) ( (C # - $ , 4 4 2 ;$ 4 4 ) ) - /$ 4 4 ) ) ( L( !:A M 4 " " l (! / ( l (! ( ( 4 C " ( 4 4+ 4 " I " f(M ( ( 4 C " ( 4 4 4+ I " 5 " ( 4 " " "" # ( 5 $ % 4 & 5 "" 4 ( ( 4+ ( " I " + "" 4 ( 4+ ( " I " % 4 ( " " + "" 4 4 H 4 %4 4 4
  26. 26. ( 3 & $ " & #+ 4 ( 4 4 <$ y TW(~ ZI (!T "& #+ - ( 4 ( 4 ( + J " #C - $& ( 5 " = 3+ 9% + 9= % 5 4 # $ & ## ( + ( 3 + ) " $$ " " 4 ( ( 4 " 3 " 5 + ( 4 4 + 3 " ( + ( 4 ( 4 ( ) 4 5 ( 5 + 5 + 5 C & $ % 5 + ( A 3 " 9% 5 3 ( 5 5 ( 4 <$ % 5 C + ( @ : " ( 9% G + 4 9% 5= ( 5 5 ( 4 ;$ % + ( " ( 9% ! " # $+ ( 5 5 ( 4 & % ( 7 A 3+

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