Knowledge of Hadith


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Significance of Sunnah and Hadith in Islam, What is Hadith, Classification of Hadith, What is Bida'ah?

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Knowledge of Hadith

  1. 1. • It provides real explanation of Quranic ayahs • It clarifies difficult to understand parts of Quran • It provides detailed information about the brief references in Quran • It guides towards the practical application of the ayahs of Quran
  2. 2. We have sent down unto thee (also) the Message; that you may explain clearly to men what is sent for them and that they may give thought. Nahl,16:44 And We sent down the Book to thee for the express purpose that thou shouldst make clear to them those things in which they differ and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe
  3. 3. • And it is not possible for a human being that Allah should speak to him, except by revelation, or from behind a curtain or that He should send a messenger and reveal by His leave what He wills. (42:51) • And he (the Prophet) does not speak out of his own desire. It is not but a revelation revealed (to him). (53:3-4)
  4. 4. It is the revelation which can be recited in the prayers. – It is the revelation received by the Holy Prophet from time to time guiding him in day-to-day affairs and the details of the principles laid down in the Holy Qur’ân with their correct interpretation. • It was demonstrated through the sayings and acts of the Holy Prophet which is his Sunnah (Hadith when reported). • This second kind of revelation is not part of the Holy Qur’ân, but the Holy Qur’ân not only refers to it frequently but attributes its contents to Allâh Almighty.
  5. 5. And recall the favor of Allah upon you and the book (Quran) and Hikmah (Hadith) that He has revealed to you to instruct you with. (2: ) • And Allah has revealed upon you the Book and the wisdom, and has taught you what you did not know and the grace of Allah upon you has been great. (4:113)
  6. 6. • Wisdom referred to here is something additional to the Holy Qur'an, and it has also been revealed to the Holy Prophet (SAW) by Allah Almighty. • “And (Allah) has taught you what you did not know.” means that Allah has not only revealed: The Book Wisdom, Taught the Holy Prophet(SAW) what he did not know before. • This teaching includes all kinds of directions given by Allah to His prophet (SAW): through the Holy Book through “un-recited revelation” in the light of which the Holy Prophet (SAW) performed his functions as a messenger of Allah.
  7. 7. Statement Action Approval
  8. 8. Hadith refers to reports of statements or actions of Prophet Muhammad, or of his tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his presence. Khabar (news, information) often refers to reports about Muhammad, but sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their successors. Athar (trace, vestige) usually refers to traditions about the companions and successors
  9. 9. -Matn or the text- which contains the actual narrative -Isnad (pleural of Sanad) or the chain of narrators-which documents the route by which the report has been transmitted. - Taraf- the initial part of the text which refers to the saying, action, characteristic of the Prophet.
  10. 10. 1-Sahih Transmitted through an unbroken chain of narrators all of whom are of sound character and memory. Such a hadith should not clash with a more reliable report and must not suffer from any other hidden defect 2-Hasan Transmitted through an unbroken chain of narrators all of whom are of sound character but weak memory. This hadith should not clash with a more reliable report and must not suffer from any other hidden defect
  11. 11. 3-Dai’f Which cannot gain the status of hasan because it lacks one or more elements of a hasan hadith. • if the narrator is not of sound memory and sound character, • or if there is a hidden fault in the narrative • or if the chain of narrators is broken 4-Mawdu • Fabricated and wrongly ascribed to Prophet Muhammad 5-Maqlub • It is that hadith, in two different narrations of which the names of narrators have been changed
  12. 12. Khabar-i mutawatir/ mashhur • A mutawatir hadith is reported by such a large number of narrators that cannot be perceived to have jointly forged and narrated a tradition about an issue without a compelling force Khabar-i wāhid • Signifies a historical narrative that falls short of yielding certain knowledge. Even if more than one person reports the narrative, that does not make it certain and conclusive truth except when the number of narrators reporting it grows to the level that the possibility of their consensus on forging a lie is perfectly removed.
  13. 13. Mash’hur Aziz Gharib Famous- hadith reported by more than two reporters Rare, Strong –at any stage in isnad, only two reporters are found Strange- at any stage in isnad, only one reporter is found relating it
  14. 14. Qudsi- Sacred • Divine- a revelation from Allah (SWT) relayed with the Prophet’s words Marfu- Elevated • A narration from the Prophet (SAW) like I heard from the Prophet Mauquf- StoppedA • A narration from the companion only like we were commanded by the Prophet (SAW) Maqtu- Severed • A narration from a successor
  15. 15. 1-Musnad- supported • Reported by a traditionalist from his teacher and sanad reaches a well known companion (sahabee) reporting from Prophet (SAW) 2-Mursal- hurried • When the link between a successor (tabe’ee) and the Prophet (SAW) is missing. 3-Muttasil- continuous • Uninterrupted isnad which goes back to only to a companion (sahabee) or a successor (tabi’ee)
  16. 16. 4-Munqati broken • Hadith whose link anywhere before the successor (tabe’ee),i.e., between the traditionalist and the tabe’ee is missing 5-Mu’dal Perplexing • A Hadith whose reporter ignores 2 or more links in isnad 6-Mu’allaq Hanging • A Hadith whose reported ignores the whole isnad and quotes from the Prophet (SAW) directly
  17. 17. Ziadatu Thiqa- addition by reliable reporter Munkar- denounced Mudraj- interpolated Reported by a strong, reliable reporter Reported by a weak reporter and whose report goes against another reliable report An addition by a reporter to the text of the hadith being reported
  18. 18. Jarah wa ta’deel Rijalul Hadith Mukhtalif ul Hadith Ilalul Hadith Gharibul Hadith Nasikh Wa Mansookh
  19. 19. o It deals with the level of Adal (justice) and Thiqa or reliability of the reporters. It also consists of defects and weaknesses in them. o Books on this subject 1. Tabqaat Ibn Saad, (15 volumes) by Ibn Saad Zuhri 2. Ijazul Wa’d Al Muntaqa Min Tabqat Ibn Saad- by Imam Suyuti is a summary version of Tabaqaat 3. At- Tareekhul Sagheer and Kabeer by Bukhari 4. Fi Auham As’habut Tawareekh by Ibn Hibban
  20. 20. o In this branch, detail knowledge about reporters of Hadith (Rawi’s) are discussed. o Books 1. Tabaqaat Ibn Saad 2. Usdul Ghabah Fi Asma As Sahaba by Ibn Aseer 3- Al Asabah Fi Tamyeez As Sahabah by Ibn Hajar Asqalani 4- Ainul Asabah by Imam Suyuti
  21. 21. 3- o Those ahadith are discussed in which there is apparent contradiction • Tatbeeq or harmony in meaning is researched between such ahadith. o Books 1. At Tadreeb by Imam Shafi 2. Sharah Nakhba by Ibn Hijr
  22. 22. o In this branch those hidden reasons and causes are discussed due to which correctness of hadith is questioned. • Examples- Hadith Munqati being Mausul • Hadith Mauquf being Marfu • Ilal or reasons which make a hadith da’eef o Books- 1. Ibnul Madini 2- Imam Muslim 3- Ibn Abi Hatem 4- Ali Ibn Umar Daraqutni 5- Mohammad bin Abdullah Hakim 6- Ibnul Jawzi
  23. 23. o In this science those ahadith are discussed whose meaning is not clear to many people due to change in Arabic language. o Books- 1. Al Risala Al Mustatrifah 2. Tauzihul Afkaar 3. Al Fa’iq Fi Gharibul Hadith by Zamakhshari 4. An Nihaya Fi Gharibul Hadith by Ibnul Aseer 5. Ad Durrun Naseer by Imam Suyuti
  24. 24. • In this science those ahadith are discussed which could not be coincided. One hadith is considered abrogated. • Knowledge of abrogation is obtained from Prophet and at times from sirah and history. o Books- by following scholars- 1. Ahmad bin Ishaq Dinari 2- Mohammad bin Bahar Isbahani 3- Mohammad bin Musa Hazmi 4- Ibnul Jawzi
  25. 25. Guidance and knowledge Barren Land Does not bring vegetation Does not hold water Fertile Land Absorbs water Vegetables and grass Holds water for benefit to others
  26. 26. Sahih, Hasan and Mutawatar ahadith 1. Bukhari 2-Muslim 3- Muatta Malik These books are not at the earlier level. Their compilers used utmost caution and maintained high standards. 1- Jami Tirmidhi 2- Sunan Abu Dawood 3- Musnad Ahmad Bin Hanbal 4- Nisai
  27. 27. These books contain weak ahadith. Their reporters are not well known. 1- Musnad Ibn Abi Shaibah 2- Musnad Tialsi 3- Musnad Abd Bin Humaid 4- Author Abdul Razzaq 5- Baihaqi 6- Tabrani 7- Tahawi It includes books which have unreliable reporters 1- Ibn Mardawiyah 2- Ibn Shaheen 3- Abu Ash Shaikh
  28. 28. • These are the books which contain most accurate ahadith. These are: • 1-Bukhari 2- Muslim 3- Abu Dawood 4- Tirmidhi 5- Nisai 6- Ibn Majah • Some scholar (Muhaddath Razeen and Ibnal Aseer) include Muatta Imam Malik here instead of Ibn Majah. • Ibn Hajar Asqalani include Sunan Darami in Sihah • Kutubul Khamsah are Sihah minus Ibn Majah
  29. 29. • Jami is a book of hadith which includes these 8 chapters: 1- Aqaid 2- Ahkam 3- Riqaq 4- Ettiquettes of eating and drinking 5- Tafseer/history/travels 6-Travel/residence 7- Fitn 8- Manaqib Examples- Jami Bukhari, Jami Tirmidhi
  30. 30. Musnad is a book of hadith in which ahadith are collected according to the categories of Sahaba and their names. Status of Sahaba and their family lines are considered. Examples- Musnad Abu Dawood Tialsi, Musnad Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (Pl of Mu’jam) • Ahadith are collected in alphabetic order.Examples- Mu’jam Tabarani, Mu’jam Kabeer, Mu’jam Mutawassat.
  31. 31. • Those ahadith are collected here which are in accordance to the conditions set by the author. Example- Mustadrak Ala Sahihain by Imam Hakim Nashapuri. Imam Zahabi has written its summary. • Mustakhrij means that an author reports the ahadith of a book with his own sanad besides the original compiler. • Examples- 1-Mustakhraj Abi Bakr upon Bukhari • 2-Mustakhraj Abi Awanah upon Muslim
  32. 32. • 3- Mustakhraj Ali Toosi upon Tirmidhi • 4- Mustakhraj Mohammad ibn Abdul Malik ibn Aimin upon Sunan Abi Dawood When a single companion’s reports are gathered in a book or ahadith on one issue are collected in it,then it is called Juz. Examples- 1- Juz Abi Bakr 2- Juz Fi Qiyamul Lail- Lil Maroozi 3- Juz Fi Salatud Duha- Lil Suyuti
  33. 33. • Ikhtisar or short version of Hadith Books- 1. At-Tajreedus Saheeh by Zubaidi ( Bukhari) 2. Ikhtisar Sahih Muslim by Hafiz Munzari • Jami or collection of all books or some ahadith 1. Jami’ul Usool by Ibn Aseer- It is collection of Bukhari+Muslim+Abu Dawood+Tirmidhi+Nisai 2. Majma Uz Zawaid by Haithami- Zawaid means those ahadith which are besides “Sihah Sittah”. He gathered zawaid of Masaneed Ahmad+Bazzar+Abu Ya’la+Mujam kabeer+ Mujam aust+Mujam sagheer
  34. 34. 3- Jama Ul Fawaid Min Jami Ul Usool Wa Majma Uz Zawaid-by Allama Mohammad Ibn Mohammad Ibn Sulaiman (D- 1094 H)- It is collection of zawaid from Ibn Aseer+Haithami+Darami+Ibn Maja. It is like encyclopedia of Hadith containing 10,000 ahadith spread over 14 books. • Collection of Ahadith in alphabetic order 1. Al Jami Us Sagheer by Hafiz Suyuti- 2. Al Fathul Kabeer bi Ziayadutul Jami Us Sagheer by Sheikh Nabhani. It has additions to Jami Us Sagheer 3. Al Jami Ul Kabeer by Hafiz Suyuti 4. Kanzul Ummal by Sheikh Ala Uddin Ali Al Muttaqi
  35. 35. • Books with particular subjects- 1- Al Azkar by Imam Nawawi- Azkar and duas 2-Al Kalamut Tayyab by Ibn Taymiya- Azkar 3- Al Adbul Mufrad by Imam Bukhari- Etiquettes and virtues 4- Shi’bul Iman by Imam Baihaqi- Etiquettes of life 5- Riyadus Saleheen by Nawawi- Virtuous deeds 6- Targheeb Wa Tarheeb by Hafiz Munzari- Leading to virtues and create fear for sins. 7-Umdatul Ahkam by Hafiz Muqaddasi- Ahkam 8-Al Almam by Ibn Daqeeq Al Eid. Ahkam 9-Muntaqi Ul Akhbar by Majad ibn Taymiyah-Ahkam 10-Bulooghul Maram by Ibn Hajar- Ahkam
  36. 36. • Bukhari 1. Umdatul Qari by Allama Aini 2. Irshadus Saari by Qustalani 3. Fathul Bari by Ibn Hajar Asqalani • Muslim 1. Sharah Muslim by Imam Nawawi 2. Sharah Muslim by Abbi and Sunusi 3. Fathul Mulhim by Allama Shabbir A Usmani
  37. 37. • Abu Dawood 1. Ma’alimus Sunan by Kahtabi 2. Tahzeebus Sunan by Ibn Qayyam 3. Aunul Mabood by Diyanwi 4. Bazalul Majhood by Allama Khalil A Saharnpuri 5. Al Manhul Azabul Maurood by Mahmood K Subki • Tirmidhi 1. Arizatul Ahwazi by Ibn Arabi 2. Tuhfatul Ahwazi by Abdul Rahman Mubarakpuri • Nisai 1. Taliqat by Allama Suyuti and Sanadi
  38. 38. • Mu’atta Imam Malik 1. Al Muntaqa by Abu Al Waleed Baji 2. Tanweerul Hawalik by Allama Suyuti 3. Musawwa by Shah Wali Ullah Dehlwi 4. Aujazul Masalik by Sheikh Zakariya Kandhalwi 5. Musaffa ( in Persian) by Imam Dehlwi 6. Al Tamheed Li Maani Al Mu’atta Minal Maani Wal Asaneed by Allama Ibn Abdul Barr in 8 volumes • Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal 1. Al Fathul Rabbani by Ahmad Ibn Abdul Rahman Al Banna 2. Ta’liqaat Musnad Ahmad by Ahmad M Shakir
  39. 39. • Mishkatul Masabih 1. Mirqatul Mafatih by Mullah Ali Qari in 5 volumes 2. Mar’atu Mafatih by Ubaidullah Mubarkpuri • Al Jami’us Sagheer 1. Faizul Qadeer by Allama Mannawi in 6 volumes 2. Al Yaseer by Allama Mannawi in 2 volumes 3. Al Sirajul Muneer by Azeezi in 2 volumes • Riyadus Saleheen- 1. Daleelul Faliheen in 4 volumes • Al Arba’een by Nawawi 1. Al Mubeen Ul Mo’een Li Faham Ul Arba’een by Mullah Ali Qari 2. Fathul Mubeen by Ibn Hajar Haithami
  40. 40. • Al Khamseen Al Rajabiyah 1. Jami Ul Uloom Wal Hukum Fi Sharh Khamseen Hadithan Min Jawami Ul Kalam by Ibn Rajab • Al Ahkam by Ibn Daqeeq 1. Sharah Umdatul Ahkam 2. Al Iddah by Imam San’ani. • Muntaqi Ul Akhbar 1. Neelul Autar by Allama Shaukani • Bulughul Maraam • Subulul Salaam by Allama Suna’ani
  41. 41. • Books which explain the difficult words and parts of hadith 1. Gharibul Hadith by Abu Ubaid Ibn Salaam- This book is like encyclopedia on this subject 2. Mashariqul Anwaar by Qazi Ayyaz 3. Majma Baharul Anwaar by Allama Mohammad Tahir Patani
  42. 42. And they have been commanded no more than this: to worship Allah offering Him sincere devotion being True (in faith); to establish regular Prayer; and to practice regular Charity; and that is the Religion Right and Straight.(98:5) It is not their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah: it is your piety that reaches Him. (Haj,22:37)
  43. 43. It is narrated by Ibne- Abbas (R) that Rasulullah(S) said, “The person whom Allah graced with the knowledge of His Deen but he showed miserliness in teaching it to others and even if he teaches to others, he collects remuneration for it and builds his own world. Such persons will have bridle of fire on the Day of Judgment and an angel will declare pinpointed to him that he is the person whom Allah favored with the knowledge of Deen but he showed miserliness in teaching it to others and collected money even to whom he taught and thereby built his own world. This angel will constantly go on making this declaration till the end of accountability on the Day of Judgment”.
  44. 44. Select ahadith from authentic books of ahadith Categorize these under different topics Do not select weak ahadith One must study these ahadith in depth, analyze them and find evidences in support of its components
  45. 45. We must make ahadith knowledge and values learned to guide us in our everyday life. Adal or justice is one value for example. We must deal justly with everyone Shura or consultation is another example. We must practice it in our family and society Moral values that we learn,e.g., truthfulness, fulfilling promises, patience, generosity, mercy must reflect in our everyday conduct
  46. 46. Some people have tried to give false meanings to some ahadith for their own purpose They give priority to their false ideology or group and try to modify the meanings in their support. They take the meaning out of proper context and then present it in favor of their idea.
  47. 47. Abu Huraira relates that Prophet (SAW) said: “Islam began strange, and it will become strange again just like it was at the beginning, so blessed are the strangers.” *Muslim (1/130)] The hadith tells us that a time will come when person, on account of his uprightness in knowledge and in deed, finds few who agree with him but many who disagree with him. Some people wrongly present this hadith to excuse themselves from obligation of Dawah and establishing Islam in the society. They spread hopelessness amongst Muslims
  48. 48. 1-"Prophethood (meaning himself) will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain, then Allah will raise it up whenever he wills to raise it up. 2-Afterwards, there will be a Caliphate that follows the guidance of Prophet- hood remaining with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, he will raise it up whenever He wills to raise it up. 3-Afterwards, there will be a reign of oppressive (Muslim kings)rule and it will remain with you for as long as Allah wills it to remain. 4-Then, there will be a reign of tyrannical rule and it will remain for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then, Allah will raise it up whenever He wills to raise it up. 5-Then, there will be a Caliphate that follows the guidance of Prophet- hood." (Nauman Ibn-e-Basheer in Musnad-Ahmad )
  49. 49. One must remain alert about the attacks on Hadith by orientalists, secularists or Islamophobes Some attack the integrity of Sahaba Others attack sources of ahadith Authenticity of hadith is questioned when it goes against some groups views There are groups among Muslims who reject the whole treasury of Hadith and claim that “Quran is enough for them.”
  50. 50. • As Sunnah Wa Makanatuha Fi Tashri Al Islam by Dr.Mustafa As Saba’I • As Sunnah Qabal Al Tadween-by Ajjaj Al Khateeb • Al Anwarul Kashifa- by Abdur Rahman Bin Yahya • Al Hadith Wal Muhaddithun-by Dr. M Abu Zahu • Dirasat Fi Hadith An Nabawi-by Dr. M Azami • Difa Anis-Sunna- by Dr.M Abu Shuhba • Sunnat Ki Aini Hathiyat (in Urdu) by Imam Maudoodi
  51. 51. Some ahadith require detailed explanation which may not be digested by lay person Example is of Hadith which talks about prostration of sun under Allah’s throne every day One must mention ahadith related to every day life. Imam Nawawi said,” Ahadith which are above the intellectual capacity of audience should not be presented.” (Taqreeb) Ali (R) said,”Do you like that Allah and His Prophet are denied? Present things to the people which they can easily understand.”
  52. 52. Abdullah Ibn Masood(R) said,” Whenever you present something which is above people’s mental capacity, it will cause Fitna for some people.” Prophet (SAW) said,” It is enough for a person to be a liar if he quotes every thing he listens .” (Muslim) Imam Malik (R) said,” That person could not be a true Muslim who quotes everything his ears hear.”
  53. 53. Scholars prohibit us from reporting Maudu hadith Prophet (SAW) said,” Whoever quotes a hadith on me knowing that it is false, then he is one of the liars.” (Muslim) Ibn Jauzi said,” When those who misguide others saw that they can not alter Quran, then they started adding to the ahadith.” Allah (SWT) created such scholars who have done extensive work to differentiate between Sahih and Maudu ahadith.
  54. 54. • Bid‘ah - ) in Sharia is any innovations in religious matters for rewards for which there is no basis in Quran, Hadith or in action of companions • Linguistically the term means "innovation, novelty, heretical doctrine, heresy • Two kinds of bid’ah. • 1-The first type is innovation in matters of the world in technology, medicine, computers, etc. This is allowed because it involves matters of life. • 2-The second kind of bid’ah is innovation in matters of religion, without precedence.
  55. 55. • Every innovation is a going astray and every going astray is in the fire." (Tirmidhi)
  56. 56. • "This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion" (Maidah 5: 3) • "And let those who oppose the Messenger’s way beware, lest some conflict befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them." (Noor 24:63) • "Verily this is My Straight path, so follow it and follow not (other) paths, they will separate you away from His path. This He has ordained for you that you may become pious." (Anam 6:153)
  57. 57. • Aisha(R) reported Muhammad(S) said: "Whoever innovates into this affair of ours something that we have not commanded it is to be rejected" (Bukhari and Muslim)
  58. 58. • Jaabir (R) narrated Muhammad(S) said, "The best speech is the Book of Allah and the best guidance and example is that of Muhammad(SAW), and the worse of all things are the newly invented things (in the religion), for every innovation is a error and a misguidance." (Muslim)
  59. 59. • Muhammad (S) said, "Verily I shall proceed you to the Fountain (Al-Kawthar). Whosoever will pass by me shall drink (from it) and never get thirsty. People whom I know and who will know me will certainly come to me for drink but there will be a barrier between them and me. Then I will say, "Verily they are of me.’ It will be said, ‘You certainly do not know what bid’ah (innovation) they made after you.’ Then I shall say, "Be off those who made bid’ah after me.’ (Bukhari and Muslim)
  60. 60. • He (S) said, "Allah does not erase knowledge by erasing the knowledge from slaves. Rather He erases knowledge through the death of scholars. When He leaves (the earth) without scholars, people will take the ignorant as leaders. They will be asked and then give religious rulings without knowledge. Then they will be led, and will lead (others) astray." (Ahmad) • "Islam started as something strange, and it would go back to being strange. So give glad tidings to the strangers, those who make right what the people have corrupted of my Sunnah." (Tirmidhi)
  61. 61. • Because the disobedient knows that he disobeys Allah (S.W.T.), and he may repent for his sin, but the innovator usually does not repent for his innovation, • He believes that his innovation is part of the Deen, • Imam Sufian Ath-Thawri said: "Satan prefers innovation to sins, because it's less likely to repent from."
  62. 62. • The companions did not innovate in their collection of the Qur'an in one book after it was dispersed, • Their deed was but a mean from the means of preserving Qur'an, and the means might change with time • Building schools and adding classrooms to accomplish the obligation of acquiring knowledge. Because building schools and adding classrooms is means not part of the deen. • Using the loud speakers in the masjid for the prayers and for classes. Because using the loud speakers is means not part of the deen. • Putting lines on the prayer carpet in some masajid to make straight prayer lines easier. Because putting lines on the prayer carpet is means not part of the deen.
  63. 63. • Confronting the innovator by showing that his innovation is wrong according to the divine evidence so that he becomes knowledgeable about his innovations. The confrontation is to be done in private. • Confronting the followers of innovators by showing them the danger of their innovation using divine evidence. • Protecting all Muslims from the innovations by teaching them the right divine knowledge based on authentic evidence