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2011 10-5 - air pollution

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2011 10-5 - air pollution

  1. 1. Air Pollution By Kosara Spasova Denitsa Manova Georgi Dobrev
  2. 2. No x (NO, NO2) <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning biomass and fossil fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning fuels when the “nitrogen in air is heated above 1370°C” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On people: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cough, chest pain, difficulty with breathing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acid precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photochemical smog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. SO x <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel combustion (mostly of vehicles that emit carbon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum refineries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transported by wind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On environment: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When reacts with water- acid rain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>On people: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces visibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When inhaled damages the trachea and lungs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ground Level Ozone <ul><li>Ozone(O3) – gas composed of 3 oxygen atoms bonded together </li></ul><ul><li>Protects from UV radiation but dangerous to breath </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor vehicles exhaust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline vapors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical solvents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxides under the influence of ultraviolet in sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritated eyes, persistent headaches, and increased hyper-reactivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggravates Asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritates respiratory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects growth of plants </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Particulate Matter <ul><li>Components of “ acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles” </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PM 10--- up to 10 micrometers in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PM 2.5--- up to 2.5 micrometers in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Particulate Matter <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning of fossil fuels and wood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On people: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce visibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes respiratory problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular heartbeat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonfatal heart attacks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On environment: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing nutrient levels in water bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces environment diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage stones and buildings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bulgaria <ul><li>Air quality - one of the worst in the European Union </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sources <ul><li>Large number of old vehicles without catalytic converters </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of restrictions on second-hand cars </li></ul><ul><li>Central heating and gas heating (cities), coal-fired heating(smaller towns and villages) </li></ul><ul><li>Metallurgic and other fabrics and plants </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bulgaria <ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>- Pernik - Bulgaria's most polluted town, 92 microgrammes per cubic metre dust compared to 30 in the rest of the EU </li></ul><ul><li>- Respiratory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Heart diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced environment diversity </li></ul>
  10. 10. Solutions <ul><li>Has been done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercials, social programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs, activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is being done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of solar and wind energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be done: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary closing of boulevards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closing factories/power plants </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Mexico City <ul><li>Location: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Above 2240 meters low atmospheric oxygen levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by mountains – air is trapped </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Sources: <ul><li>Overpopulated – 21 million people who use: </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mexico City <ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>- Extremely unhealthy/hazardous conditions especially for children </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions : </li></ul><ul><li>- Informing people about dangers </li></ul><ul><li>- Training programs, games and participatory activities </li></ul><ul><li>- Decrease of transportation </li></ul><ul><li>- Introducing the issue of sustainable consumption </li></ul><ul><li>- Promoting the use of energy saving appliances </li></ul>
  14. 14. How to reduce air pollution? <ul><li>Automobiles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives – bicycles, public transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaner fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factories/Powerplants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smokestack filters/scrubbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocation of factories, and other such facilities outside of populated areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction to solar panels </li></ul><ul><li>Buy food from local producer </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle </li></ul>
  15. 15. Works Cited: <ul><li>&quot;Air Pollution Causes.&quot; Health and Energy . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Air Pollution in Mexico City.&quot; SBG . N.p., 16 Apr. 2002. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Bulgarian air most polluted in Europe.&quot; EU Business . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec.      2010. < >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Effects of Air Pollutants - Health Effects .&quot; US EPA . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec.      2010. < >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;How can I help reduce air pollution?&quot; EEA . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;How to Reduce Air Pollution Problems.&quot; eHow . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < >. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ways to Reduce Air Pollution.&quot; US EPA . N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2010.      < >. </li></ul>

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