Combustion Engines Finland,
Branch Groupe of Technology Industries of
Regulations Fuels Fuel supply Combustion Emissions
marine diesel engines
Päivi Aakko-Saksa, VTT
Engine Technology Seminar
21 March 2019, Vaasa
3.4.2019 VTT – beyond the obvious 3
Why ship emissions?
Black carbon emission factors
How to control black carbon
and other emissions?
Shipping emissions are substantial
Ref. Eyring et al. 2005 in Fagerlund and Ramne 2013.
NOx (Mt N) SOx PM10
Shipping represents globally approximately 9% of SOx, 18-30% of NOx and 8-13% of
diesel black carbon (Winther 2014, Azzara 2015).
Existing and possible ECAs
Ships travel close to coast where dense
Black carbon emission warms the climate
Black carbon (BC) is the second strongest
human climate forcing emission in the
atmosphere, surpassed only by CO2
(Bond et al. 2013).
BC emission is a major contributor to warming
of Arctic climate. Even small deposits of BC on
snow and ice accelerate melting by reducing the
reflectivity. Opening of Northern sea routes
increasingly extend ship BC emissions to the
8.6.2016 / Päivi Aakko-Saksa VTT
Sulphur regulation speeds up need for
control of BC emission
IMO’s global 0.5% fuel sulphur
content regulation in 2020 will reduce
cooling feature (SOx emission) of ship
exhaust, while warming feature (BC
Control of BC emission is on a high
priority in the IMO, and limit for BC
emission from ships is anticipated.
3.4.2019 VTT – beyond the obvious 7
BC emission factors
VTT 2018 8
2015 inventory, Comer et al. 2017
Marine diesel engines, state-of-the-art
(80% reduction compared with 2015 BC EF)
Distillate+PF, LNG, methanol ~ ambient air
BC emission factors are
lower for modern marine
diesel engines than for old
engines. However, there is
still substantial potential to
reduce BC emission burden
Recent ship emission
SEA-EFFECTS BC: laboratory and on-
EnviSuM: on-board measurements
Measurements by VTT Technical
Research Centre of Finland, Finnish
Meteorological Institute (FMI),
Tampere University (TAU)
Ship emissions review in INTENS project
INTENS project website:
Black carbon (BC) emissions from marine engines (MSD and SSD).
Engine loads >50% MCR. Example from a report of INTENS project.
BC control options
Dashed lines = BC reduction potential limited or not evidenced
How to meet emission regulations and
GHG reduction targets?
3.4.2019 VTT – beyond the obvious 13
Fuel cells, batteries in the future
Renewable diesel, biofuels,
LBG, electrofuels (H2)
HFO, distillates, LNG, methanol
Bio Renew. Renew.
Note: Some emission control devices may
set requirements for cleanliness of fuel
Efficient emission reduction technologies for marine engines, for example
• LNG has very low BC emissions, and also methanol is efficient.
• Clean distillates combined with particulate filters reduce BC emissions.
• Reduction of other emissions may require additional exhaust treatment.
For low GHG emissions, renewable origin of fuel is essential.
Overall zero emissions could be achieved by
Renewable/electro fuels combined with appropriate exhaust treatment.
Full electric and hydrogen/fuel cell solutions based on renewable electricity.
VTT 2018 14
3.4.2019 VTT – beyond the obvious 15
The presentation is based on work in
projects funded by Business Finland,
Traficom and industrial partners.