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Black carbon emissions from marine diesel engines


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Combustion Engines Finland

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Black carbon emissions from marine diesel engines

  1. 1. 14/3/2019 Combustion Engines Finland, Branch Groupe of Technology Industries of Finland 5. Regulations Fuels Fuel supply Combustion Emissions
  2. 2. Black Carbon emissions from marine diesel engines Päivi Aakko-Saksa, VTT Engine Technology Seminar 21 March 2019, Vaasa 2
  3. 3. Contents 3.4.2019 VTT – beyond the obvious 3  Why ship emissions?  Black carbon emission factors  How to control black carbon and other emissions?  Conclusions
  4. 4. Shipping emissions are substantial Ref. Eyring et al. 2005 in Fagerlund and Ramne 2013. NOx (Mt N) SOx PM10 CO2 Milliontons Milliontons Road Aviation Shipping Health effects Environmental effects Global warming Energy security Acidification Eutrophication Shipping represents globally approximately 9% of SOx, 18-30% of NOx and 8-13% of diesel black carbon (Winther 2014, Azzara 2015).
  5. 5. Existing and possible ECAs Ships travel close to coast where dense population lives
  6. 6. Black carbon emission warms the climate Black carbon (BC) is the second strongest human climate forcing emission in the atmosphere, surpassed only by CO2 (Bond et al. 2013). BC emission is a major contributor to warming of Arctic climate. Even small deposits of BC on snow and ice accelerate melting by reducing the reflectivity. Opening of Northern sea routes increasingly extend ship BC emissions to the Arctic. 8.6.2016 / Päivi Aakko-Saksa VTT
  7. 7. Sulphur regulation speeds up need for control of BC emission IMO’s global 0.5% fuel sulphur content regulation in 2020 will reduce cooling feature (SOx emission) of ship exhaust, while warming feature (BC emission) remains. Control of BC emission is on a high priority in the IMO, and limit for BC emission from ships is anticipated. 3.4.2019 VTT – beyond the obvious 7
  8. 8. BC emission factors VTT 2018 8 250 100 50 1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 BC(mg/kgfuel) 2015 inventory, Comer et al. 2017 Marine diesel engines, state-of-the-art (80% reduction compared with 2015 BC EF) Distillate+PF, LNG, methanol ~ ambient air BC emission factors are lower for modern marine diesel engines than for old engines. However, there is still substantial potential to reduce BC emission burden from shipping.
  9. 9. EMISSION CONTROL Fuel technologies VTT 2018 9  Fossil distillate fuels, LNG, methanol  Renewable fuels • Distillate-type fuels (e.g. HVO) • Vegetable oils and animal fats • Renewable methane (LNG-type) • Renewable methanol • Pyrolysis oil • Electro-fuels based on green hydrogen (Fuel additives: WiFE, metals) Exhaust gas treatment  SOx scrubbers  Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)  Diesel oxidation catalysts  Developing: PM reducing technologies e.g. particulate filters Engine technology  Size, speed, load  Injection  Low BC tuning & SCR  EGR  Hybrids/alternative powertrains
  10. 10. Recent ship emission measurement projects  SEA-EFFECTS BC: laboratory and on- board measurements  EnviSuM: on-board measurements content/uploads/sites/66/2018/06/EnviSumWP2Rep ortFMI.pdf  Measurements by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Tampere University (TAU)
  11. 11. Ship emissions review in INTENS project INTENS project website: 11 Black carbon (BC) emissions from marine engines (MSD and SSD). Engine loads >50% MCR. Example from a report of INTENS project.
  12. 12. BC control options 12 Timeline Dashed lines = BC reduction potential limited or not evidenced
  13. 13. How to meet emission regulations and GHG reduction targets? 3.4.2019 VTT – beyond the obvious 13 Renewable, clean fuels? Exhaust treatment technologies? Availability? Affordability? RENEWABLES FOSSIL FUELS Low SOx, NOx, PM… EMISSION CONTROL ENGINE Fuel cells, batteries in the future Renewable diesel, biofuels, LBG, electrofuels (H2) GHG reduced Biogas Green H2 Climate & health benefits Health benefits EMISSION CONTROL ENGINE Low SOx, NOx, PM… High GHG HFO, distillates, LNG, methanol Bio Renew. Renew. LNG Note: Some emission control devices may set requirements for cleanliness of fuel Scrubber, SCR, DPF SCR, DPF
  14. 14. Conclusions Efficient emission reduction technologies for marine engines, for example • LNG has very low BC emissions, and also methanol is efficient. • Clean distillates combined with particulate filters reduce BC emissions. • Reduction of other emissions may require additional exhaust treatment. For low GHG emissions, renewable origin of fuel is essential. Overall zero emissions could be achieved by  Renewable/electro fuels combined with appropriate exhaust treatment.  Full electric and hydrogen/fuel cell solutions based on renewable electricity. VTT 2018 14
  15. 15. 3.4.2019 VTT – beyond the obvious 15 Thank you The presentation is based on work in projects funded by Business Finland, Traficom and industrial partners.