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The Port Environment – Emissions, Issues and Action


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Emissions from Ports affect air quality and climate change. What practical action can ports take? Presented at PIANC Young Professionals Seminar July 2010

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The Port Environment – Emissions, Issues and Action

  1. 1. The Port Environment – Emissions, Issues and Actions The Port Environment
  2. 2. Why be green? <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Gas Emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxides, particulates, sulphur dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcement (national and international) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public image </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce fuel use </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Climate Change <ul><li>Shipping emissions estimated at over 1 billion tonnes of CO 2 in 2007, or 3.3% of global emissions (IMO, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Global CO 2 concentration now 392 ppm (NOAA, June 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Warming trend has been 0.13 °C per decade for last 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Sea level rise +1.8 mm per year in 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>IPCC predicts +0.5 m by 2100 </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in extreme weather events </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 output from shipping twice as much as airlines… Aviation is in the firing line now but shipping needs to take responsibility (Guardian, March 2007) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Air Pollution <ul><li>Key pollutants are nitrogen dioxide, particulate and sulphur dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping traffic generates 7% of the total worldwide output of sulphur dioxide (Lloyds) </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and is estimated to cause approximately 2 million premature deaths worldwide per year (WHO) </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic and acute health effects </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on ecosystems - Acidification and eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Health risks of shipping pollution have been underestimated. One giant container ship can emit almost the same amount of cancer and asthma-causing chemicals as 50m cars (Guardian, April 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping pollution 'may cause 60,000 deaths a year' (Telegraph, August 2008) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Political Pressure <ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control of shipping emissions e.g. MARPOL Annex VI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions Control Areas (North Sea, English Channel, North America) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) in the UK </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public perception & effect on development projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public does not distinguish between port and port-related activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-site effects – traffic, emissions, noise </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Finance <ul><li>Direct cost savings from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing diesel fuel use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing electricity demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient cargo handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient transfer to road/rail network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable energy on-site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased competitiveness </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sources of Emissions <ul><li>Local emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean going vessels – propulsion, auxiliary power, boilers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harbour craft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cargo handling equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Associated emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Road freight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rail freight </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Emission Contributions by Source <ul><li>US EPA (2009) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tackling Emissions <ul><li>Understand current situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritise needs – regulation, financial, social responsibility, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantify – emission inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is Port’s responsibility? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can be controlled or influenced? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of detail? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set targets </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example One – Cold Ironing <ul><li>Case Study - Amsterdam inland waterways </li></ul><ul><li>129 cold ironing equipped moorings available for inland vessels and a further 24 for river cruisers (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Onshore Power Supply (OPS) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in emissions and improvements in local air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Used for container, RoRo, cruise and smaller craft </li></ul><ul><li>Issues with capital cost, expense of retrofitting and compatibility </li></ul>
  11. 11. Example One – Cold Ironing <ul><li>Case Study – Port of Gothenburg </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration between the port of Gothenburg, paper and forest products suppliers Stora Enso and shipping companies Wagenborg and Cobelfret </li></ul><ul><li>Used by six RoRo ships operated by two different companies </li></ul><ul><li>Cobelfret ships also make use of OPS in the port of Zeebrugge </li></ul><ul><li>Two wind turbines to supply electric power. </li></ul>Canada Vancouver U.S.A Pittsburg U.S.A Juneau U.S.A Seatlle U.S.A San Diego U.S.A San Francisco U.S.A Long Beach U.S.A Los Angeles Belgium Zeebrugge Germany Lübeck Finland Kotka Finland Oulu Finland Kemi Sweden Piteå Sweden Stockholm Sweden Helsingborg Sweden Goteborg Belgium Antwerp Country Port
  12. 12. Example Two – Emissions Reduction <ul><li>Emissions control is well developed for terrestrial sources </li></ul><ul><li>Port of Long Beach has trialled “ Advanced Maritime Emissions Control System (AMECS) ” or “sock on a stack” </li></ul><ul><li>Barge mounted treatment of ship stack emissions, reducing NO x , SO 2 and particulates by >90% </li></ul><ul><li>More cost effective than cold ironing? </li></ul><ul><li>However… current trials on hold </li></ul>
  13. 13. Example Three – Road Freight <ul><li>Efficient port operation - Intelligent Transport Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Gatehouse automation </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo Identification – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical Character Recognition (OCR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient container handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce HGV queuing and engine idling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce truck turnaround time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced operation costs and increased competitiveness </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Example Three – Road Freight <ul><li>Miami “Green Lane” </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent Transport System </li></ul><ul><li>Identify trusted trucks, truckers and trips using technology installed on the vehicle, in the cab and on the approach road. </li></ul><ul><li>Trucks meeting all requirements will be able to go through green lanes without stopping at the gate. (Port Strategy, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>PierPASS - Los Angeles and Long Beach ports </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce peak hour truck movements, congestion and idling by incentivising use of off-peak gates </li></ul><ul><li>Diverted more than nine million truck trips from daytime traffic over first three years ( </li></ul><ul><li>Air quality benefit, but potential noise problems? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example Four - Port of Long Beach <ul><li>Range of measures adopted, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean trucks program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean vessels program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vessel speed reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shore-side power for ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean locomotives programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean cargo handling equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean harbor craft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives/voluntary measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative technology program </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Summary <ul><li>Variety of drivers for environmental improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Critical to understand emissions before acting </li></ul><ul><li>Many possible solutions, depending on nature of port and reasons for action </li></ul><ul><li>Need to consider lifetime cost-benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Unique package of measures required for unique situation at each port </li></ul>