Air Pollution In and outside Bulgaria Emilia Atanasova Joanna Shuleva Zahary Ninov
The Issue <ul><li>“ If the system shows pollution levels high above the health norms, downtown traffic may be temporary st...
Air Pollution - Basics <ul><li>Air = Oxygen (18) – air supplies us with O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>99.9% air = nitrogen, oxygen...
The Issue <ul><li>Bulgaria – most polluted in EU (7) </li></ul><ul><li>In EU – 30 µg/m²  dust are normal, 40 µg/m²  - max ...
Pollutants in Bulgaria (12) <ul><li>Sulphur Oxides (SOx) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) </li></ul><ul><li>Particu...
Sulfur Oxides (SOx) <ul><li>Fuels containing sulfur – burned => SOx (12) – mostly coal and oil (17) </li></ul><ul><li>Most...
<ul><li>Other effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory illness, alterations in the lungs' defenses  (17) </li></ul></ul>...
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) <ul><li>A mixture of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic ga...
<ul><li>Acid Rain (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by(2): </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia </li></ul><...
Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5) <ul><li>Particles that are part of liquid or solid matter (14) </li></ul><ul><li>What do ...
<ul><li>Average annual ground level concentration of   PM10,  μ g/m3; </li></ul><ul><li>in the region of Kremikovtsi, meta...
Ground level Ozone (O3) <ul><li>Ozone in the stratosphere – good; in the atmosphere – bad (10) </li></ul><ul><li>Ground le...
What has been done, is being done, or should be done to improve the air quality in Bulgaria? <ul><li>Done: </li></ul><ul><...
Pollution Around the World <ul><li>The 10 worst-polluted places in the world </li></ul><ul><li>are (20) : </li></ul><ul><l...
Los Angeles <ul><li>Worst air polluted metropolitan city – 2003-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: (19) </li></ul><ul><li>Foss...
Los Angeles <ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer, asthma, </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in mortality  </li></ul><ul...
Los Angeles <ul><li>Reduction measurements: </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-fuels </li></ul><ul><li>More fuel efficient engines </li...
Benelux area; Italy <ul><li>Causes: (4) </li></ul><ul><li>High traffic  </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuel burning </li></ul><u...
Benelux area; Italy <ul><li>Measurements (4) : </li></ul><ul><li>Less coal being burned </li></ul><ul><li>More renewable e...
Works Cited <ul><li>Acid Rain . N.d.  How Stuff Works . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://static.howstuffworks.com/‌gi...
<ul><li>“ High Air Pollution to Close Downtown Sofia.”  Novinite.com . N.p., 14 Jan. 2008. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www....
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  • Date of Article: January 14, 2008 Petar Traikov is the director of the municipal = ( градски, общински, комунален ) ecological department Reason for quote : the municipality installed a monitoring system at the juncture between the central Rakovski and Moskovska streets, which measures and shows information about air pollution.
  • We need oxygen for breathing
  • Common impurity in fossil fuels + the most critical to air pollution (12) Power plants that use fossil fuels (12) Vehicles that use diesel with high sulfur content (12) Example: Children with asthmatic problems or adults who are very active outdoors (17) Wheezing = хриптене
  • Aggravation - влошаване Cardiovascular – сърдечносъдов Precursor = предшественик
  • * NO produced in larger quantities in the air but oxidizes to NO2 in the atmosphere (9) NO and NO2 are inorganic gases formed in the air by the combination of oxygen and nitrogen Affect both healthy people and increase respiratory symptoms in people with asthma
  • Numbers represent the diameter of the particle Usually when they are = or below 10μm they stay for weeks and months (14)
  • Gases emitted in the atmosphere are usually Nox and other volatile gases, that release oxygen monoxide that reacts with oxygen (O2) and thus produces O3 (ozone) in the atmosphere that is bad for our health
  • There is enormous traffic inside Los Angeles just as near it. While cars produce smog and CO2, ships passing near the mega polis burn sulfur based diesel. As explained in the acid rain example, sulfur is one of the basic elements that causes acid rain. Even though it is not in such quantities, it is still one of the main “polluters” of the polis.
  • Air pollution emilia joanna zahary

    1. 1. Air Pollution In and outside Bulgaria Emilia Atanasova Joanna Shuleva Zahary Ninov
    2. 2. The Issue <ul><li>“ If the system shows pollution levels high above the health norms, downtown traffic may be temporary stopped, in order to improve the conditions, &quot; Traikov told reporters. (2008) – (11) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Air Pollution - Basics <ul><li>Air = Oxygen (18) – air supplies us with O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>99.9% air = nitrogen, oxygen, H 2 O vapor, inert gases (18) </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution = gases, dust, odor, fumes in harmful amounts (15) </li></ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harm for the health or comfort of humans and animals (15) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to plants and materials (15) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pollutants = substances that cause air pollution(15) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. The Issue <ul><li>Bulgaria – most polluted in EU (7) </li></ul><ul><li>In EU – 30 µg/m² dust are normal, 40 µg/m² - max norm; BG – 55 µg/m² (7) </li></ul><ul><li>Stara Zagora - 30 µg/m² Sulphur dioxide are normal; about 300 µg/m² are critical; 830 µg/m² recorded; 1000 µg/m² lethal (16) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Pollutants in Bulgaria (12) <ul><li>Sulphur Oxides (SOx) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Ground level ozone (O 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide (CO) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Sulphide (H 2 S) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Sulphide (CS 2 ) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Sulfur Oxides (SOx) <ul><li>Fuels containing sulfur – burned => SOx (12) – mostly coal and oil (17) </li></ul><ul><li>Most common: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) (12) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: power plants, vehicles; (12) </li></ul><ul><li>During metal smelting + other industrial processes (17) </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>high concentration = breathing problems (17) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term exposure – wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath; (17) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Other effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory illness, alterations in the lungs' defenses (17) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. (17) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental effects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major precursor of acid rain (17) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>=> corrosion of buildings and monuments; low visibility; acidified soils, lakes, streams (17) </li></ul></ul>(6)
    8. 8. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) <ul><li>A mixture of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic gases = combination of oxygen & nitrogen from the air (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: fuel burned => transportation; industrial processes; power generation; (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: respiratory; acid rain, formation of fine particles; global warming (12) </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Acid Rain (1) </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by(2): </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxide </li></ul><ul><li>by reacting with the water molecules during the process of precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>1970 – EU measurements to be reduced </li></ul>
    10. 10. Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5) <ul><li>Particles that are part of liquid or solid matter (14) </li></ul><ul><li>What do numbers represent? (μm) (14) </li></ul><ul><li>the smaller the diameter – the longer they stay (14) </li></ul><ul><li>Causes – asthma, lung cancer (14) </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Average annual ground level concentration of PM10, μ g/m3; </li></ul><ul><li>in the region of Kremikovtsi, metallurgical plant </li></ul><ul><li>(Annual limit value 30 μ g/m3 ) </li></ul>(21)
    12. 12. Ground level Ozone (O3) <ul><li>Ozone in the stratosphere – good; in the atmosphere – bad (10) </li></ul><ul><li>Ground level Ozone is formed by the gases emitted by vehicles (10) </li></ul>
    13. 13. What has been done, is being done, or should be done to improve the air quality in Bulgaria? <ul><li>Done: </li></ul><ul><li>Penalties/sanctions / taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Imposing limits (19) </li></ul><ul><li>Being done: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the renewable energy usage/production (19) </li></ul><ul><li>Searching for sources that does not pollute the air (cars powered by alternative fuels) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Pollution Around the World <ul><li>The 10 worst-polluted places in the world </li></ul><ul><li>are (20) : </li></ul><ul><li>Linfen, Tianying, China </li></ul><ul><li>Sukinda, Vapi, India </li></ul><ul><li>La Oroya, Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Dzerzhinsk, Norilsk, Russia; Chernobyl, </li></ul><ul><li>Sumgayit, Azerbaijan </li></ul><ul><li>Kabwe, Zambia </li></ul>
    15. 15. Los Angeles <ul><li>Worst air polluted metropolitan city – 2003-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Causes: (19) </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels( coal, gasoline) </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles – 12 mln (19) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of wind ( to spread away the smog)(19) </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight (19) </li></ul><ul><li>“ clean construction” – paint; solvents(19) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing population </li></ul><ul><li>Water traffic – sulfur based fuel; 25,000 to 45,000 (ppm) ships – 15 (ppm) cars (8) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Los Angeles <ul><li>Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer, asthma, </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in mortality </li></ul><ul><li>rates </li></ul><ul><li>Hearth diseases </li></ul><ul><li>One of the highest </li></ul><ul><li>rates of lung diseases </li></ul><ul><li>and premature deaths(20) </li></ul>http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2004/7523/fig1.jpg
    17. 17. Los Angeles <ul><li>Reduction measurements: </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-fuels </li></ul><ul><li>More fuel efficient engines </li></ul><ul><li>Taking data of the air pollution(5) </li></ul><ul><li>Ships being powered by less sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>based diesel - in July 2008- 17% reduction level; in 2011 -45%(8) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Benelux area; Italy <ul><li>Causes: (4) </li></ul><ul><li>High traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuel burning </li></ul><ul><li>Light pollution </li></ul><ul><li>High industry level </li></ul>http://www.myhealthfulworld.com/files/featured/pollution_europe_L.jpg
    19. 19. Benelux area; Italy <ul><li>Measurements (4) : </li></ul><ul><li>Less coal being burned </li></ul><ul><li>More renewable energy sources </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the traffic in the cities ( in the area) </li></ul><ul><li>Urge the society to look for less air polluting activities </li></ul>
    20. 20. Works Cited <ul><li>Acid Rain . N.d. How Stuff Works . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://static.howstuffworks.com/‌gif/‌acid-rain-1a.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Acid Rain.” Oracle ThinkQuest . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/‌CR0215471/‌acid_rain.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Air Pollution . N.d. Deviant Art . N.p., 19 Dec. 2009. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://fc03.deviantart.net/‌fs70/‌f/‌2009/‌353/‌4/‌2/‌Air_Pollution_by_mary_juana.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Air Pollution Causes Early Deaths.” BBC News . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/‌2/‌hi/‌health/‌4283295.stm>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Air Quality Monitoring.” The Port of Los Angeles . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.portoflosangeles.org/‌environment/‌air_quality.asp>. </li></ul><ul><li>Article-Pic-for-Niweidou . N.d. China Dialogue . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.chinadialogue.net/‌UserFiles/‌Image/‌article-pic-for-niweidou.jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bulgarian Air Most Polluted in Europe.” EUbusiness . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.eubusiness.com/‌news-eu/‌1236337323.03>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clearing the Air in Los Angeles.” Simple Steps . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.simplesteps.org/‌community/‌community-services/‌clearing-air-los-angeles>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Definition.” Air Quality in Europe . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.airqualitynow.eu/‌pollution_home.php>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Health Risks of Ozone Pollution.” Clean Air Trust . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.cleanairtrust.org/‌ozone.html>. </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>“ High Air Pollution to Close Downtown Sofia.” Novinite.com . N.p., 14 Jan. 2008. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.novinite.com/‌view_news.php?id=89367>. </li></ul><ul><li>INSTITUTE OF CONTROL AND SYSTEM RESEARCH . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.icsr.bas.bg/‌ICSRwebsite/‌departments/‌rdts/‌htdocs/‌pollutants_en.html> </li></ul><ul><li>“ Los Angeles Air Pollution.” Scipeeps.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://scipeeps.com/‌los-angeles-air-pollution/>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Particulate Matter.” EPA - US Environmental Protection Agency . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.epa.gov/‌pm/>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pollution.” EPA - Environment Protection Authority . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/‌air/‌aq4kids/‌pollution.asp>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Severe Air Pollution in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.” WECF - Women in Europe for a Common Future . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.wecf.eu/‌english/‌articles/‌2005/‌07/‌air_pollution.php>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sulfur Dioxide.” Clean Air Trust . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.cleanairtrust.org/‌sulfurdioxide.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ What is Air Pollution?” Berkeley Lab . N.p., n.d. Web. 13 June 2010. <http://www.lbl.gov/‌Education/‌ELSI/‌pollution-main.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ What the EU is doing.” European Commission . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://ec.europa.eu/‌environment/‌climat/‌campaign/‌actions/‌whatiseudoing_bg.htm> </li></ul><ul><li>“ The World’s Most Polluted Places.” TIME.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2010. <http://www.time.com/‌time/‌specials/‌packages/‌completelist/‌0,29569,1661031,00.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Joanna’s Father </li></ul>

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