Treatment of Hypertension Treatment of Hypertension
1. Treatment of Hypertension Jai Radhakrishnan, M.D. Division of Nephrology Based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection ,Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-7)
4. Blood Pressure Classification > 100 > 160 Stage 2 HTN 90-99 140-159 or Stage 1 HTN 80-89 120-139 or Prehypertension <80 <120 and Normal DBP SBP BP CLASSIFICATION
14. Lifestyle Modification Approximate SBP reduction (range) Modification 5–20 mmHg/10 kg weight loss Weight reduction 8–14 mmHg Adopt DASH eating plan 2–8 mmHg Dietary sodium reduction 4–9 mmHg Physical activity 2–4 mmHg Moderation of alcohol consumption
17. Algorithm for Treatment of Hypertension Not at Goal Blood Pressure (<140/90 mmHg) (<130/80 mmHg for those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease) Initial Drug Choices Lifestyle Modifications Drug(s) for the compelling indications Other antihypertensive drugs (diuretics, ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB) as needed. With Compelling Indications Stage 2 Hypertension (SBP > 160 or DBP > 100 m mHg) 2-drug combination for most (usually thiazide-type diuretic and ACEI, or ARB, or BB, or CCB) Stage 1 Hypertension (SBP 140 –159 or DBP 90–99 mmHg) Thiazide-type diuretics for most. May consider ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB, or combination. Without Compelling Indications Not at Goal Blood Pressure Optimize dosages or add additional drugs until goal blood pressure is achieved. Consider consultation with hypertension specialist.
18. Classification and Management of BP for adults *Treatment determined by highest BP category. † Initial combined therapy should be used cautiously in those at risk for orthostatic hypotension. ‡ Treat patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes to BP goal of <130/80 mmHg. Two-drug combination (usually thiazide and ACEI or ARB or BB or CCB). Yes or > 100 > 160 Stage 2 Hypertension Other antihypertensive drugs (diuretics, ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB) as needed. Thiazide-type diuretics for most. May consider ACEI, ARB, BB, CCB, or combination. Yes or 90–99 140–159 Stage 1 Hypertension Drug(s) No antihypertensive drug indicated. Yes or 80–89 120–139 Pre-hypertension None None Encourage <80 <120 Normal Compelling indications Without compelling indication Initial drug therapy Lifestyle DBP SBP BP Class
26. A 40 year old previously healthy male is brought to the E.R. with 3 days of progressive shortness of breath and has experienced blurred vision in both eyes. Physical exam: Blood pressure 230/140. Lethargic. Eye exam: Papilledema Chest: Bibasilar crackles Cardiac: S1S2S4 Neuro: Bilateral upgoing plantars: Extr: 2+ edema Labs: K=3.4, BUN=35, Creatinine: 2.2 CXR: Pulmonary edema Urine: 10-15 red cells, 2+ albumin.