Activities focus on learning styles
Students acquire knowledge differently from one another. This process of learning
is dependent on the formed pattern of reception, sensation, perception and
retention which is unique to every individual. Students learn by seeing, some by
listening and others by reading. Some even learn more by doing it themselves.
The teacher must identify the sensory systems that work with a particular student.
He or she must further determine the stimulus to which the sensory system
Ellis (1985) described a learning style as the more or less consistent way in which
a person perceives, conceptualizes, organizes and recalls information. Students´
learning styles are influenced by their genetic make-up, their previous learning
experiences, their culture and the society they live in.
The four modalities (originates from the work of Dr's Bandler, R. and Grinder, J.
in the Field of Neuro-Linguistic Programming) Students may prefer a visual
(seeing), auditory (hearing), kinaesthetic (moving) or tactile (touching) way of
Those who prefer a visual learning style
Look at the teacher's face intently
Like looking at wall displays, books etc.
Often recognize words by sight
Use lists to organize their thoughts
Recall information by remembering how it was set out on a page
Those who prefer an auditory learning style
Like the teacher to provide verbal instructions
Like dialogues, discussions and plays
Solve problems by talking about them
Use rhythm and sound as memory aids
Those who prefer a kinesthetic learning style
Learn best when they are involved or active
Find it difficult to sit still for long periods
Use movement as a memory aid
Those who prefer a tactile way of learning
Use writing and drawing as memory aids
Learn well in hands-on activities like projects and demonstrations
Activities about the Four Modalities
Use many visuals in the classroom. For example, wall displays posters,
realia, flash cards, graphic organizers etc.
Use audio tapes and videos, storytelling, songs, jazz chants, memorization
Allow learners to work in pairs and small groups regularly.
Use physical activities, competitions, board games, role plays etc.
Intersperse activities which require students to sit quietly with activities that
allow them to move around and be active.
Use board and card games, demonstrations, projects, role plays etc.
Use while-listening and reading activities. For example, ask students to fill in
a table while listening to a talk, or to label a diagram while reading.
In the language teaching field, some of the differences among students have been
attributed to students having different learning styles. For instance, some students
are better visual learners than aural learners.
Gardner has theorized that individuals have at least seven distinct intelligences
that can be developed over a lifetime. The seven are;
Logical/Mathematical – The ability to use numbers effectively, to see abstract
pattern, and to reason well.
Visual/Spatial – The ability to orient oneself in the environment, to create mental
images, and sensitivity to shape, size, color.
Body/Kinesthetic – The ability to use one´s body to express oneself and to solve
Musical/ Rhythmic – An ability to recognize tonal patterns and a sensitivity to
rhythm, pitch, melody.
Interpersonal – The ability to understand another person´s, moods, feeling,
motivations, and intentions.
Intrapersonal – The ability to understand oneself and to practice self-discipline.
Verbal/Linguistic – The ability to use language affectively and creatively.
Activities for Multiple Intelligences
Logical Sequential Presentations
Classifications and Categorizations
Group problem solving
Options for homework
Gardner (1999) added an eighth intelligence, one he calls “The naturalist”
Naturalist – Someone knowledge about and comfortable in the natural world.
Larsen-Freeman Diane (2000) .Techniques and Principles in Language
Teaching. 2nd edition. University of Oxford.