Enhancing Learning Mathematics Teh Kim Hong , Suriah Abd Manap Mathematics Department
Every classroom includes a mix of learners, therefore diversity is expected. Examples of diversity: - learning styles - gender - hemispheric mode - poverty - learning modality - culture - special needs - antiracism - human rights
Due to diverse background, not all learners benefit from conventional way of instruction. Some content taught in school are not appropriate for all learners. Therefore learners respond differently to various instructional approaches No single way of teaching works for everyone.
All persons deserve to be treated with dignity; All are treated equal in rights and responsibilities regardless of race, disability; gender, age. Religious belief,place of origin. Teacher must know how to accommodate the differences in learning preference of students.
Learning Styles Is the unique way how people (students) learn. Teachers should have a repertoire of teaching methods from which to choose at times, and can fit individual differences.
McCarthy’s learning styles Imaginative learners – perceive cognitively and then process the information reflectively - They listen, share and try to integrate school experiences with self-experiences.
Imaginative learners do not simply accept things as they are presented. They are curious people. They want to see how things work together to produce an overall result. Imaginative learners understand that there are many facets of any concept and are not satisfied until they have examined them all. In addition to discussions, an effective way to teach an imaginative learner is through the use of role-play and case study. These learners do not respond well to long lectures, memorizing, or working alone.
Analytic learners Perceive abstractly and process information reflectively Like details and ideas, prefer sequential thought, and value ideas more than people
Analytic learners are opposite from imaginative learners. They like the lecture format, viewing the teacher as the primary information provider. It is the student’s job to analyze the information and pass judgment on it. These learners value facts, figures, and the way it "should be." In addition to lectures, they enjoy debates, information sheets, and guest experts. They don’t enjoy group activities unless there is opportunity for an exchange of ideas.
Common Sense Learners Perceive abstractly and process information actively. They prefer concrete problem solving and are pragmatic learners They like doing experiment.
Common sense learners are not satisfied with the theoretical. They want to test ideas to see if they are workable. They are the problem solvers in our groups. They like to move while they learn. Being hands- on learners, they want to see results. The best way to teach these individuals is through practical demonstrations, testimonies, and projects.
Dynamic Learners Perceive concretely and process information actively. Integrate experience and apply and value new learning Like trial-and-error learning Good at taking risks
Dynamic learners look at things with an eye to the future. They are creative and have a "what if" mentality. They are risk takers. The past is important only insofar as it leads to the future. Dynamic learners tend to be leaders. They also see the humor in situations. Flexibility is an important aspect of their learning style. They are typified by having many projects started but few finished. These learners want a teacher who will facilitate rather than dictate. They enjoy drama, creative writing, or art projects that allow them to express themselves.
Left Mode Learners Analytic/ deductive – prefer logic Rational and respond to verbal instruction. Solve problems logically and sequentially by looking at parts. Prefer established and certain information and conventional classroom.
Right Mode LearnersRight mode learners - intuitive / deductive - like open-ended, random experiences - want instruction to be demonstrated - like synthesizing, experimenting and prefer experiential approachWhat do schools emphasize ???
Learning modality preferences Sensory preferences influence the ways in which students learn. Result of experience, culture, race, gender and handedness. 3 preferences - visual /spatial - auditory/ Pattern - tactile/ moving/touching
Visual/Spatial learners Learn by watching, seeing or imagining , often think in pictures and images, write things down to remember. They may say ”I see, I get the picture”.
These learners need to see the teachers body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. peoples heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand- outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.
Auditory Learners Learn through listening and verbalizing. When learning, vocalize silently and even move their lips, memorize through auditory repetition. Solutions may be tried verbally and by talking through. They may “I hear “, “that sound right”,”that rings a bell.
They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.
Tactual Learners Learn by manipulating and doing. Action oriented and like to be physically involved. Approach problems in a physical way or by manipulating models or objects. Respond to music by moving and want to touch picture . They may say ”I feel, I like to get better handle on the info
Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.
Hemispheric Mode Left mode learners • Analytic/deductive • Rational and response to verbal instructions • Systematic, able to solve problems logically
Spatial- ability to perceive the visual spatial world accurately and perform transformations upon one’s perceptions. Bodily-kinetic – expertise in using one’s whole body to express ideas and facility in using one’s hands to produce or transform things. Musical – capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform and express musical forms
Linguistic – capacity to use words effectively, orally and in writing. Logical mathematical - capacity to use numbers effectively and to reason well. Interpersonal – ability to perceivee and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations and feelings of others.
Intrapersonal – self knowledge and the ability to act adaptively based on the knowledge. Naturalist – ability to observe and operate hands-on in nature and the environment.
“Do Not Teach Like You Have Been Taught”“if students do not learn the way we teach them, then we must teach them the way they learn!”. Use new pedagogy and instructional delivery systems that can keep students actively engaged in their learning style preferences. Whenever possible give students optional approaches to tasks. Be flexible, be cross culturally and help students to acquire the ability to use different learning styles.