Social and Moral DevelopmentQuestions via: 07537 402 400 precede with edskj
If I have chosen the problem of moraleducation as the theme of this lecture it is notbecause of the original meaning attached to it by educational specialists but because of its special urgency today Emile Durkheim - 1902
The young people of today think of nothing butthemselves. They have no reverence [respect] for theirparents or old age. They are impatient of all restraint; They talk as if they alone know everything and whatpasses for wisdom in us foolishness in them. As for the girls, they are foolish and immodest and unwomanly in speech, behaviour and dress Peter the Hermit – C11th
Our young men have grown slothful. There is not a single honourable occupation for which they will toil night and day. They sing and dance and grow effeminate and curl their hair and learn womanish tricks of speech; They are as languid aswomen and deck themselves out with unbecoming ornaments.Without strength, without energy, they add nothing during lifeto the gifts with which they were born - then they complain of their lot” Seneca – C1st
The children now love luxury; they show disrespect for elders and love chatter in places of exercise. Childrenare tyrants, not the servants of their households. Theyno longer rise when their elders enter the room. They contradict their parents, chatter beforecompany, gobble up dainties [food] at the table, cross their legs and tyrannise their teachers Socrates – C4th
Erik Erickson • Born: 1902 – Germany • Died: 1994 - USA • Theory of Social Development • Influenced by Freud (Sigmund & Anna)
Erickson’s Stages of Personal and Social Development IStage Conflict Significant Important PsychoSocial Result Virtue Relationship Events Emphasis0-18 m Trust v Maternal Feeding To get and to give Children develop a sense of trust Hope Mistrust Person in return from reliable, nurturing carers who provide both care and affection. Touch and visual contact are important. A lack of this may lead to mistrust, insecurity and a feeling of worthlessness.18m-3y Autonomy v Parental Toilet To hold on and let Children need to develop a sense Will Doubt / Shame Persons Training go of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of pride, autonomy and high self-esteem while failure may result in feelings of shame and doubt.3y-6y Initiationv Guilt Basic Family Exploration To copy and Children need to explore their Purpose pretend social and physical environments. Parents who encourage exploration promote a sense of initiative and purpose. Discouraging or punishing children’s initiative may lead to feelings of guilt.
Erickson’s Stages of Personal and Social Development IIStage Conflict Significant Important PsychoSocial Result Virtue Relationship Events Emphasis6y-12y Industry v Neighbour- School To make things Children are focused on learning Competence Inferiority hood and alone and new things and making friends. Success leads to feelings of School cooperatively accomplishment, competence and industry. Failure results in feelings of inadequacy and inferiority.12-18y Identity v Role Peer Groups Social To be yourself Teens need to develop a sense of Fidelity confusion and Role Relationships and share with self and personal identity to decide ‘who am I?’. Success leads Models others to an ability to stay true to yourself and your ideals, while failure leads to role confusion, a weak sense of self and struggle to fit in.Young Intimacy v Friends, Relationships To lose and find Young adults need to form LoveAdults Isolation Colleagues, yourself in intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads Partners another to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.ht m
Erickson’s Stages of Personal and Social Development III• In each stage Erikson believed that people experience conflict that serves as a turning point in development• Success develops personal growth failure stunts or inhibits it• So the virtues are gained and grow or stunted and may never grow• So in the key stages where school has an influence(4 and 5) – Stage 4: Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful – Stage 5: Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future• BUT – children may come to school without the previous virtues in place
4 QuestionsQuestion TheoryHow does conscience and our feelings of Freud’s psychoanalytical theory throughguilt develop the process of Oedipus/ElektraHow do we develop our knowledge of The Cognitive developmental theories ofrules and moral principles? Piaget and Kohlberg, that see cognitive development as a precursor to moral development, explain this one.How do we learn behaviours appropriate The realm of the behaviourists,to the laws of the land and specific to our particularly the neo-behaviouristown culture? approach of Bandura and SLTHow do we develop our concern for Eisenberg’s theory of pro-social reasoningothers?
Lawrence Kohlberg • Born: 1927– USA • Died: 1987- USA • Theory of Moral Stage Development • Influenced by Piaget
Kohlberg’s Moral StagesLevel and Age Stage What determines right and wrong?Preconventional: Punishment & Obedience Right and wrong defined by what they get punished for. If you get told off for stealing then obviously stealing isUp to the Age of 9 wrong. Instrumental - Relativist Similar, but right and wrong is now determined by what we are rewarded for, and by doing what others want. Any concern for others is motivated by selfishness.Conventional: Interpersonal concordance Being good is whatever pleases others. The child adopts a conformist attitude to morality. Right and wrong areMost adolescents determined by the majorityand adults Law and order Being good now means doing your duty to society. To this end we obey laws without question and show a respect for authority. Most adults do not progress past this stage.Postconventional:1 Social contract Right and wrong now determined by personal values, although these can be over-ridden by democratically0 to 15% of the agreed laws. When laws infringe our own sense of justiceover 20s. we can choose to ignore them. Universal ethical principle We now live in accordance with deeply held moral principles which are seen as more important than the laws of the land.
Kohlberg’s Moral Stages• Developed by reading stories to children – referred to as Moral Dilemmas• 72 boys from Chicago over a 26 year period. Boys were 10, 13 and 16 when the study began in 1955.• Concluded in three levels of moral development – Preconventional – Conventional – Postconventional• Each of these consists of two sub-stages giving 6 in all• These are progressive and hierarchal• Criticized as constructed from beliefs not actions however Snarey (1985) and Fodor (1972) carried out field studies which support Kohlberg• Shaver & Strong (1976) not convinced that most people progress beyond Stage 4
Nancy Eisenberg • Born: 1952– USA • Professor at Arizona State University • Theory of Prosocial Reasoning • Influenced by Kohlberg
Eisenberg Prosocial ReasoningLevel Age Phase CharacteristicsHedonistic orientation Preschool and EYFS Social behaviour undertaken for own benefit.Needs of others EYFS, KS1 / lower KS2 Concern for others even if it conflicts with own needs butorientation without evidence of empathyApproval and interpersonal KS1, KS2, KS3 and KS4 Stereotypes of good and bad behaviour; needs approval fororientation behaviourSelf-reflective, empathetic KS3, KS4, A level Concerned about others needs and able to interpret these fromorientation their perspective; empathyInternalised values Some secondary pupils Maintains self-respect by living up to own values and beliefs;orientation belief in the dignity, rights and equality of all people
Eisenberg’s Prosocial Reasoning• Prosocial behaviour is positive action performed to benefit other people. This is related to altruism which is behaviour carried out to help others without expecting a reward.• Felt that Kohnberg’s theory incomplete and it did not consider the emotional compotent of moral behavior• Moral Dilemmas too hard for children to understand, thus explaining why they showed immature reasoning
Stages of Moral ReasoningStage 0: Egocentric (0-4) What’s Right? I should get my own way Reason to be good? To get rewards and avoid punishmentsStage 1: Unquestioned What’s Right? I should do what Im told.Obedience (4-6) Reason to be good? To stay out of trouble.Stage 2: What’s in it for What’s Right? I should look out for myself but be fair to those who are fair to me.me? (6-8) Reason to be good? Self-interest: Whats in it for me?Stage 3: Intrapersonal What’s Right? I should be a nice person and live up to the expectations of people I know and care about.Conformity (9-15) Reason to be good? So others will think well of me (social approval) and I can think well of myself (self-esteem)Stage 4: Responsibility to What’s Right? I should fulfill my responsibilities to the social or value system I feel part of.the system(15-20) Reason to be good? To keep the system from falling apart and to maintain self- respect as somebody who meets my obligations.Stage 5: Principled What’s Right? I should show the greatest possible respect for the rights and dignity of every individual person and should support a systemConscience (20+) that protects human rights.
References• About.com (2011) Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart. [online] Available from: http://psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm [Accessed 5/10/11].• Erikson, E.H. (1968) Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.• LearningTheories.com (2008) Erikson’s Stages of Development. [online] Available from: http://www.learning-theories.com/eriksons-stages-of- development.html [Accessed 5/10/11]• Slavin, R. (1988) Educational Psychology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.• Eisenberg, N. (1989) The development of prosocial values’ In: Eisenberg, N. Reykowski, J. &Staub, E. (eds.) Social and moral values: Individual and social perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.• Kohlberg, L. (1973) The Claim to Moral Adequacy of a Highest Stage of Moral Judgment. Journal of Philosophy, 70(18), 630–646.• Shaver J.P. and Strong W 1976. Facing Value Decision: Rational Building For Teachers,Wadsworth Publishing California.• Snarey, J. (1985). Cross-cultural universality of social-moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 202-232.