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Qualitative Research: Father's experiences massaging their infants

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This was a qualitative research study conducted to determine what the experiences were of fathers who massaged their infants. The father reported a desire to bond and attach with their infants. Their motivation was prompted by a motivation to provide comfort to their infant and contribute to the relationship with the mother. The benefits fathers reported of massaging their infants supported Attachment Theory are an appropriate lens in which to study fathers and their infants. You can find me at http://mkaykeller.com or http://allfamilysolutions.com

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Qualitative Research: Father's experiences massaging their infants

  1. 1. Qualitative Research: Experiences of Fathers Who Massaged their Infants Mary Kay Keller, MPA, PhD FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF HUMAN SCIENCES Copyright 2013 Mary Kay Keller
  2. 2. Purpose The research question posed in this study was: What if any, benefits did fathers perceive from massaging their infants? MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  3. 3. Rational & Significance MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  4. 4. Research Methodology MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  5. 5. Data Collection MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  6. 6. Qualitative Research Rigor •Triangulation •Practice reflexivity •Negative case analysis, (Anfara et al., 2002; Patton, 2002).MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  7. 7. Qualitative Research Strategies Assessing Research Quality and Rigor Qualitative Term Strategy employed Strategy Met Credibility Internal Validity Triangulation Member checks Time sampling Interview, Self Report Diary & Observation Interviews were reviewed by participants for accuracy Fathers also reviewed videotapes and responded Interviews conducted 1st and 3rd week Diaries were recorded in each week for 3 weeks Transferability External Validity Provide thick description Purposive sampling Precise descriptions of the research design, methodology and data reports Research, coding and data memos Five first time fathers of infants less than 5 months Dependability Reliability Create an audit trail Code-recode strategy Triangulation Research, coding and data memos Code and recode strategy described in detail in memo Interview, Self Report Diary & Observation Confirmability Objectivity Triangulation Practice reflexivity Negative Case Analysis Interview, Self Report Diary & Observation Research Memo documenting all decisions in detail Research position, attitude and perspective disclosed Providing examples of data that does not support the outcomes. MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  8. 8. CAQDAS Atlas.ti (Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software) MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  9. 9. Qualitative Model of Analysis (NCT) Noticing Collecting Thinking MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  10. 10. Code Mapping: Three Iterations of Analysis MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  11. 11. Demographics MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  12. 12. Activity Diary Data Analysis Time of day: • Missed one day. Momma thinks he goes to bed better if massage is closer to bedtime. (Father 1, week 3). • Afternoon [massaged] and in the evening for his stomach. (Father 3, week 3). MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  13. 13. Duration: • Most importantly I tried to be as consistent as possible but I did the massage 4 or 5 times a day depending if she was in the mood. The more we did the massage for about 5 minutes I felt she enjoyed it more. (Father 2, week 1) • I like shorter massages, actually he likes shorter massages. Now that I don’t feel like I have to finish every position, I would say we are both enjoying the massages more. I am doing more frequent but shorter massages. Especially on the changing table after a diaper change. Massages don’t feel like a chore anymore, something I have to do. (Father 4, week 3) MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  14. 14. Body Part: • Baby only [fussed] once during his chest massages. (Father 1, week1) • He has been most receptive to back massage. Least receptive to chest massage. • (Father 3, week 2) • I noticed once when I was massaging his back his breathing started to slow down as if he were more relaxed. Short stomach massages to help with gas. (Father 3, week 3) • It is notable to me that infant 4 was the only infant out of five that verbally protested throughout the massage and that this father was the most verbal in both of the interviews. Additionally, father 1 reported a change in his infant's eye contact during week two of the massages. "This week I realized that on the days he didn't seem to be looking at me, he would start to do so about a minute or two into the massage." MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  15. 15. Pattern Coding Fathers desire to relieve mothers’ stress. Mother gets time to herself Father adjusts time of day Father gets one on one time Father Massages Infant MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  16. 16. Pattern Coding Fathers desire to relieve infants’ stress. Infant responds to fathers touch Father adjusts body part & or time of day Father gets one on one time Father Massages Infant MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  17. 17. Perceived Benefits Fathers Perception Parent benefits Baby receives massage Baby benefits Parent massages infant MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  18. 18. Matrix of Findings and Sources for Data Triangulation Major Finding Attachment Constructs Source of Data I O D Finding 1 Awareness - Fathers reported awareness of enjoyment in contributing to their infants' well-being. X X Finding 2 Emotions - Fathers identified emotions in both themselves and their infants after massaging their infants. X X Finding 3 Engagement - Fathers demonstrated engagement cues with their infants during the massages that were videotaped. X Finding 4 Motivation - Fathers reported motivation to massage and spend time with their infants to relieve the mothers' care giving stress. X X Finding 5 Opportunity - Fathers valued having the opportunity to spend time with their infants. X X Finding 6. Relationship - Fathers express approval and acceptance of their infants after massaging them. X X Key: I= Interview; O=Observation; D=Document MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  19. 19. Matrix of Findings and Sources for Data Triangulation • Major Finding Major Finding Source of Data I O D Finding 7. Sensitivity - Fathers demonstrated sensitivity to their infants’ emotional and physical need by responding to their infants’ cues. X X X Finding 8. Benefits - Fathers reported benefits of relieving the infants’ stress. X X Finding 9. Confidence - Fathers reported increased confidence in their skills and abilities to interact with their infants. X X X Key: I= Interview; O=Observation; D=Document MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  20. 20. Benefits reported by fathers MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  21. 21. Discussion Attachment Concepts and Assumptions Results Assumptions 1. Awareness Attachment 2. Emotive Attachment 3. Engagement Bonding 4. Motivation Attachment 5. Opportunity Attachment 6. Relationship Attachment 7. Sensitivity Attachment 8. Learning/Insight Attachment MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  22. 22. Discussion Implications • Implications for Future Research • Implications for Practice for Professionals • Implications for Practice for Fathers • Contributions to the Literature MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  23. 23. Discussion Implications for Future Research 1. longitudinal studies, e.g., did fathers continue massaging their infants after the study; what impact was there on the father/child dyad during the early years; what were the mothers perceptions about the time the fathers spent with the infant and their behaviors after the study. MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  24. 24. Discussion 2. replication of past studies to determine outcomes for father contributions, e.g., Premature infants gained weight after being massaged (Field et al., 1986); expectations of infants with motor problems became realistic and positive (Schneider-McClure, 1989); Massaged babies had higher Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment scores (Mendes & Percianoy, 2008); Catecholamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine increased in massaged infants increasing their sense of safety and well being which is critical to attachment and bonding (Bowlby, 1969/1982; Winkler, 2000). MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  25. 25. Discussion 3. family studies In The Ecology of Attachment in the Family, the authors postulate that attachment does not hold exclusively to the parent-child dyad and can also be applied to the family (Hill et. al,. 2003). a. Non-resident fathers are less involved than resident fathers and had the same attitudes of commitment to fathering as fathers who were resident fathers however reported lower feelings of competence and satisfaction (Minton & Pasley, 1996). Competence may be a key in factor influencing father involvement (p.40). b. Mothers reported less symptoms of depression regardless of whether they massaged their infants or others massaged their infant. MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  26. 26. Discussion 4. Future: quasi-experimental design Randomly controlled, double blind study in which the participants are wait-listed (control groups learn infant massage later) and blindly assigned to two groups (2x2). Pre and post for the experimental group then control group is post tested at the same time as the control group and again after they have learned and massaged their infants. Collected data would be analyzed using repeated-measures, ANOVA (analysis of variance), to determine what if any differences there were between the two groups. Setting up for longitudinal follow up. MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  27. 27. Discussion Implications for Practice for Professionals 1. bonding & attachment opportunities for fathers Fathers showed a willingness to relieve the mothers of her care- giving activities and felt competent in spending time with their infant. Fathers reported feeling bonded and attached to their infants. Additionally, fathers responded emotionally, report motivation and change their attitudes when provided opportunity (Scholz & Samuels,2002). Fathers greatly benefited from infant massage classes with other fathers (Cheng, Volk & Marini, 2011). MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  28. 28. Discussion 2. fathers contributions to the family New fathers transitioning into a fathering role become stressed and this negatively impacts the marital relationship which also may impact their attachment to their infant (Green, Furrer & McAllister, 2007). Teaching father IM increased their feelings of competence and sense of contribution. Fathers responded with sensitivity to their infants needs. Depression study. MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  29. 29. Discussion Implications for Practice for Fathers • Fathers contribution are important to infant development. • Fathers need to actively seek opportunities for involvement. It is equally important for fathers to understand that although their relationship develops through different means than the mother it is just as valid and impacts the infant. MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  30. 30. Discussion Contributions to the literature • Theoretical Framework • Credible Research Platform rigorous qualitative design. formalized qualitative processes computer-assisted tool MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)
  31. 31. Discussion Contributions to the literature • Confirmed Father Motivation for Parental Involvement fathers desired involvement. systemic barriers (do social support discourage father involvement?) • Infant Massage as an Inclusion in Infant Care Giving Education MARY KAY KELLER, MPA, PHD (2013)

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