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Making Sense of SmellsDiscussing Odors with Diverse AudiencesDouglas W. HamiltonWaste Management SpecialistBiosystems and ...
http://osuwastemanage.bae.okstate.edu/www.extension.org/pages/33088/odors-from-livestock-farms-curriculum-materials
Odors need not be somysterious …1. They have structure2. They are measurable
Odors need not be somysterious …1. They have structure
Rose de Grasse ischaracterized by a honeynote, resembling veryslightly a delicate pepperynote, shading off into a lightton...
Rose de Grasse ischaracterized by a honeynote, resembling veryslightly a delicate pepperynote, shading off into a lightton...
Hyacinth Green Base No. 10HydroxycitonellelPhenylethyl acetatePhenylethyl alcoholisoEugenolCinnamic alcoholPhenylacetaldeh...
Perfume Fragrancesare mixtures of NotesFarmstead Odorsare mixtures of NotesNotesare mixtures of OdorantsNotesare groups of...
Farmstead Odorant GroupsOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehyde...
Odors need not be somysterious …1. They have structure2. They are measurable
Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?
Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?Character
Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?CharacterPersistence
Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?CharacterPersistenceConcentration
Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?CharacterPersistenceConcentrationIntensity
Notes OdorsCharacterPersistenceConcentrationIntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistenceConcentrationIntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethan...
CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethan...
CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethan...
CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethan...
CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethan...
CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethan...
Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Odor ChordConcentrationIntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentrationIntensityMeasuring N...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic S...
Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentration Detection LevelReco...
NH3 Recognition Level = 37,000 ppb
NH3 Detection Level = 17 ppb
NH3 Acute Hazard = 50,000 to 100,000 ppb
NH3 Chronic Exposure = 25,000 ppb
Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentration Detection LevelReco...
Olfactometrywww2.dpi.qld.gov.au/environment
OlfactometryChoosing presidents and measuringodors are very similar processes.OPINIONS ARE IMPORTANTAND THE MAJORITY RULES.
Olfactory Panelwww2.dpi.qld.gov.au/environment
Olfactometerswww.aromajet.comSt Croix Sensorywww.rka-inc.comwww.research-in-germany.de
Olfactometerwww.med-associates.comwww.med-associates.comwww.coleparmer.com
1/10
1/100
1/200
1/500
1/1,000
1/2,000
1/4,000
1/8,000
1/16,000
1/32,000
1/16,000
1OU =dilution to threshold
1OU =1/16,000
OU = 16,000
Dispersion Modelingwww.air-dispersion-model.comwww.odotech.com
Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentration Detection LevelReco...
Two Methods for Intensity1. Referencing Suprathreshold2. Descriptive Category Scale
Odors are compared tostandards of known intensityusing dilutions of 1-ButanolCH3CH2CH2OHReferencing SuprathresholdOdor Int...
Port12345678www.rka-inc.comPurdue Agricultural Air Quality LaboratoryReferencing SuprathresholdOdor Intensity
Port vol/vol 1-butanolppm1 122 243 484 965 1946 3887 7758 1,550www.rka-inc.comReferencing SuprathresholdOdor Intensity
Descriptive Scale Odor IntensityPanel rates Intensityon a scale independent ofan external standard
www.library.thinkquest.orgIntensity vs Concentration
01234561 10 100 1000Odor Concentration (OU)OdorIntensityMeasured Swine Odor Relationship6 = Extremely strong5 = Very Stron...
Measured Odor Relationships6 = Extremely strong5 = Very Strong4 = Strong3 = Distinct2 = Faint1 = Very Faint0 = No OdorMiss...
Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal Description OffensivenessPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentration Detec...
Offensiveness by Olfactometry1. Equal Intensity samples arepresented to panel.
Offensiveness by Olfactometry1. Equal Intensity samples arepresented to panel2. Panel rates offensiveness on adescriptive ...
www.library.thinkquest.orgOffensiveness vs Concentration
Offensiveness is an IntrinsicProperty of an OdorA odor will be equally offensive,no matter how strong.
Experimental HypothesisA odor will be equally offensive,no matter how strong.
Sample 1How Strong? _____How Pleasant? ______
Sniff TestA B C DHow Strong?How Pleasant?IntensityScale = 0 to 6
Intensity Scale0 = no odor1 = very faint2 = faint3 = distinct4 = strong5 = very strong6 = extremely strong
Sniff TestA B C DHow Strong?How PleasantIntensityScale = 0 to 6PleasantnessScale = -3 to 3
Carmichael/SpitlerPleasantness Scale-3 = Very Unpleasant-2 = Unpleasant-1 = Slightly Unpleasant0 = Neutral1 = Slightly Ple...
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1
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Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1

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Proceedings available at: http://www.extension.org/67597

Smell is perhaps the least understood of our five senses. Yet, the human perception of odor may mean the difference between war and peace for a livestock farmer and his neighbors. Because the science of smells is complex, there is a tendency to run straight for the organic chemistry book when we try to describe farmstead odors. This approach goes right over the heads of most people. There must be a better way to communicate odors to diverse audiences. Come to this workshop and find out how.

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Making Sense of Smells – Communicating Odors to Diverse Audiences - Part 1

  1. 1. Making Sense of SmellsDiscussing Odors with Diverse AudiencesDouglas W. HamiltonWaste Management SpecialistBiosystems and Agricultural Engineering
  2. 2. http://osuwastemanage.bae.okstate.edu/www.extension.org/pages/33088/odors-from-livestock-farms-curriculum-materials
  3. 3. Odors need not be somysterious …1. They have structure2. They are measurable
  4. 4. Odors need not be somysterious …1. They have structure
  5. 5. Rose de Grasse ischaracterized by a honeynote, resembling veryslightly a delicate pepperynote, shading off into a lighttonality of natural carnation… it is possible to perceivea slightly green odor …Billot, M. and F.V. Wells. Perfumery Technology:Art, Science, Industry. New York:John Wiley.Perfume StructurePerfume Fragrancesare mixtures of Notes
  6. 6. Rose de Grasse ischaracterized by a honeynote, resembling veryslightly a delicate pepperynote, shading off into a lighttonality of natural carnation… it is possible to perceivea slightly green odor …Billot, M. and F.V. Wells. Perfumery Technology:Art, Science, Industry. New York:John Wiley.Perfume StructurePerfume Fragrancesare mixtures of NotesNotesare mixtures of Odorants
  7. 7. Hyacinth Green Base No. 10HydroxycitonellelPhenylethyl acetatePhenylethyl alcoholisoEugenolCinnamic alcoholPhenylacetaldehydePhenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetalFolialBenzyl acetatePhenylethyl formateTerpineolRhodiniolalpha-Amaylcinnamic aldehydeParacetoneDimethyl phthalatePerfume StructurePerfume Fragrancesare mixtures of NotesNotesare mixtures of OdorantsOdorantsare individual Chemicals
  8. 8. Perfume Fragrancesare mixtures of NotesFarmstead Odorsare mixtures of NotesNotesare mixtures of OdorantsNotesare groups of OdorantsOdorantsare individual ChemicalsOdorantsare individual ChemicalsOdor Structure
  9. 9. Farmstead Odorant GroupsOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethanolFormaldehydeAcetoneMethyl Ethyl KetoneNitrogenCompoundsAmmoniaMethyl amineDimethyl amineDiethyl amineIndoleSkatolePhenolicCompoundsPhenolp-CresolSulfuricCompoundsHydrogen SulfideMethyl mercaptanDimethyl sulfideDiethyl sulfide
  10. 10. Odors need not be somysterious …1. They have structure2. They are measurable
  11. 11. Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?
  12. 12. Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?Character
  13. 13. Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?CharacterPersistence
  14. 14. Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?CharacterPersistenceConcentration
  15. 15. Odor MeasurementHow does it smell?How Long?How Much?How Strong?CharacterPersistenceConcentrationIntensity
  16. 16. Notes OdorsCharacterPersistenceConcentrationIntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
  17. 17. Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistenceConcentrationIntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
  18. 18. CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethanolFormaldehydeAcetoneMethyl Ethyl KetoneNitrogenCompoundsAmmoniaMethyl amineDimethyl amineDiethyl amineIndoleSkatolePhenolicCompoundsPhenolp-CresolSulfuricCompoundsHydrogen SulfideMethyl mercaptanDimethyl sulfideDiethyl sulfide
  19. 19. CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethanolFormaldehydeAcetoneMethyl Ethyl KetoneNitrogenCompoundsAmmoniaMethyl amineDimethyl amineDiethyl amineIndoleSkatolePhenolicCompoundsPhenolp-CresolSulfuricCompoundsHydrogen SulfideMethyl mercaptanDimethyl sulfideDiethyl sulfide
  20. 20. CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethanolFormaldehydeAcetoneMethyl Ethyl KetoneNitrogenCompoundsAmmoniaMethyl amineDimethyl amineDiethyl amineIndoleSkatolePhenolicCompoundsPhenolp-CresolSulfuricCompoundsHydrogen SulfideMethyl mercaptanDimethyl sulfideDiethyl sulfide
  21. 21. CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethanolFormaldehydeAcetoneMethyl Ethyl KetoneNitrogenCompoundsAmmoniaMethyl amineDimethyl amineDiethyl amineIndoleSkatolePhenolicCompoundsPhenolp-CresolSulfuricCompoundsHydrogen SulfideMethyl mercaptanDimethyl sulfideDiethyl sulfide
  22. 22. CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethanolFormaldehydeAcetoneMethyl Ethyl KetoneNitrogenCompoundsAmmoniaMethyl amineDimethyl amineDiethyl amineIndoleSkatolePhenolicCompoundsPhenolp-CresolSulfuricCompoundsHydrogen SulfideMethyl mercaptanDimethyl sulfideDiethyl sulfide
  23. 23. CharacterOrganic AcidsAcetic AcidPropionic AcidButanoic AcidIso-Valeric AcidPentanoic AcidAlcohols,Aldehydes,KetonesMethanolFormaldehydeAcetoneMethyl Ethyl KetoneNitrogenCompoundsAmmoniaMethyl amineDimethyl amineDiethyl amineIndoleSkatolePhenolicCompoundsPhenolp-CresolSulfuricCompoundsHydrogen SulfideMethyl mercaptanDimethyl sulfideDiethyl sulfide
  24. 24. Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Odor ChordConcentrationIntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
  25. 25. Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentrationIntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
  26. 26. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  27. 27. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  28. 28. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  29. 29. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  30. 30. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  31. 31. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  32. 32. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  33. 33. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  34. 34. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  35. 35. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  36. 36. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  37. 37. PersistenceTop Notes Middle Notes Base NotesHydrogen SulfideAmmoniaAldehydesAlcoholsKetonesAminesMercaptansShort Organic SulfidesOrganic AcidsPhenolic CompoundsIndoleSkatoleLong Organic Sulfides
  38. 38. Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentration Detection LevelRecognition LevelIntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
  39. 39. NH3 Recognition Level = 37,000 ppb
  40. 40. NH3 Detection Level = 17 ppb
  41. 41. NH3 Acute Hazard = 50,000 to 100,000 ppb
  42. 42. NH3 Chronic Exposure = 25,000 ppb
  43. 43. Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentration Detection LevelRecognition LevelOUIntensityMeasuring Farmstead Odors
  44. 44. Olfactometrywww2.dpi.qld.gov.au/environment
  45. 45. OlfactometryChoosing presidents and measuringodors are very similar processes.OPINIONS ARE IMPORTANTAND THE MAJORITY RULES.
  46. 46. Olfactory Panelwww2.dpi.qld.gov.au/environment
  47. 47. Olfactometerswww.aromajet.comSt Croix Sensorywww.rka-inc.comwww.research-in-germany.de
  48. 48. Olfactometerwww.med-associates.comwww.med-associates.comwww.coleparmer.com
  49. 49. 1/10
  50. 50. 1/100
  51. 51. 1/200
  52. 52. 1/500
  53. 53. 1/1,000
  54. 54. 1/2,000
  55. 55. 1/4,000
  56. 56. 1/8,000
  57. 57. 1/16,000
  58. 58. 1/32,000
  59. 59. 1/16,000
  60. 60. 1OU =dilution to threshold
  61. 61. 1OU =1/16,000
  62. 62. OU = 16,000
  63. 63. Dispersion Modelingwww.air-dispersion-model.comwww.odotech.com
  64. 64. Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal DescriptionPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentration Detection LevelRecognition LevelOUIntensity IntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
  65. 65. Two Methods for Intensity1. Referencing Suprathreshold2. Descriptive Category Scale
  66. 66. Odors are compared tostandards of known intensityusing dilutions of 1-ButanolCH3CH2CH2OHReferencing SuprathresholdOdor Intensity
  67. 67. Port12345678www.rka-inc.comPurdue Agricultural Air Quality LaboratoryReferencing SuprathresholdOdor Intensity
  68. 68. Port vol/vol 1-butanolppm1 122 243 484 965 1946 3887 7758 1,550www.rka-inc.comReferencing SuprathresholdOdor Intensity
  69. 69. Descriptive Scale Odor IntensityPanel rates Intensityon a scale independent ofan external standard
  70. 70. www.library.thinkquest.orgIntensity vs Concentration
  71. 71. 01234561 10 100 1000Odor Concentration (OU)OdorIntensityMeasured Swine Odor Relationship6 = Extremely strong5 = Very Strong4 = Strong3 = Distinct2 = Faint1 = Very Faint0 = No OdorMisselbrook, et al. 1993
  72. 72. Measured Odor Relationships6 = Extremely strong5 = Very Strong4 = Strong3 = Distinct2 = Faint1 = Very Faint0 = No OdorMisselbrook et al, 1993
  73. 73. Notes OdorsCharacter Verbal Description OffensivenessPersistence Top NoteMiddle NoteBase NoteOdor ChordConcentration Detection LevelRecognition LevelOUIntensity IntensityMeasuring Notes and Odors
  74. 74. Offensiveness by Olfactometry1. Equal Intensity samples arepresented to panel.
  75. 75. Offensiveness by Olfactometry1. Equal Intensity samples arepresented to panel2. Panel rates offensiveness on adescriptive scale.
  76. 76. www.library.thinkquest.orgOffensiveness vs Concentration
  77. 77. Offensiveness is an IntrinsicProperty of an OdorA odor will be equally offensive,no matter how strong.
  78. 78. Experimental HypothesisA odor will be equally offensive,no matter how strong.
  79. 79. Sample 1How Strong? _____How Pleasant? ______
  80. 80. Sniff TestA B C DHow Strong?How Pleasant?IntensityScale = 0 to 6
  81. 81. Intensity Scale0 = no odor1 = very faint2 = faint3 = distinct4 = strong5 = very strong6 = extremely strong
  82. 82. Sniff TestA B C DHow Strong?How PleasantIntensityScale = 0 to 6PleasantnessScale = -3 to 3
  83. 83. Carmichael/SpitlerPleasantness Scale-3 = Very Unpleasant-2 = Unpleasant-1 = Slightly Unpleasant0 = Neutral1 = Slightly Pleasing2 = Pleasing3 = Very Pleasing

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