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  1. 1. Narrative And Narrative theory's
  2. 2. A narrative is not a story, It is how the story is told.
  3. 3. Narrative Todorovs theory
  4. 4. Todorovs theory O Todorov says that the stories begin with an equilibrium. O This is disrupted by an event O Before eventually the problem is solved so that order can be restored to the world of fiction. This can be split into 5 stages…
  5. 5. Stage one A state of equilibrium at the start.
  6. 6. Stage two A disruption in the equilibrium by an action.
  7. 7. Stage three A recognition that this action has taken place.
  8. 8. Stage four An attempt to repair the disruption
  9. 9. Stage five A reinstatement of the equilibrium. This theory is very common in ‘mainstream’ films.
  10. 10. Narrative Kate Domaille
  11. 11. Kate’s theory Every story ever told can be fitted into 8 different narrative types…
  12. 12. One… Achilles – The fatal flaw, this leads to the destruction of a previously flawless person, e.g. O Superman O Fatal Attraction O Captain America
  13. 13. Two Candide – The indomitable hero who cannot be put down, e.g. O Rocky O James Bond O Indiana Jones
  14. 14. There Cinderella – the dream that comes true, e.g. O Pretty Woman O Cinderella O Mamma Mia
  15. 15. Four Circe – The chase, the spider and the fly, e.g. O The Terminator O Nightmare On Elm Street O Halloween
  16. 16. Five Faust – Selling your soul to the devil, may bring riches, however, eventually your soul will belong to him, e.g. O Devils Advocate O Wall Street O Wolf Of Wall Street
  17. 17. Six Orpheus – the loss of something personal, the tragedy of loss , e.g. O The Sixth Sense O Born On The 4th Of July O Schindler’s list
  18. 18. Seven Romeo and Juliet – Love story, e.g. O Titanic O The Notebook O Love Actually
  19. 19. Eight Tristan and Iseult – love triangle, man loves woman, however one or both is spoken for already, e.g. O Casablanca O Bridget Jones Diary O The Twilight saga: Eclipse
  20. 20. Narrative Pam Cook
  21. 21. The Structure of the classic narratives According to Pam Cook, the standard Hollywood narrative structure should have…
  22. 22. One Linearity of cause and effect, overall enigma resolution.
  23. 23. Two A high degree of narrative closure
  24. 24. Three A fictional world with verisimilitude.
  25. 25. Narrative Roland Barths
  26. 26. Order of narrative O Establishing the plot or theme O Development of problem O Enigma O Increase in tension O Resolution of plot These can be unambiguous and linear.
  27. 27. Narrative Vladimir Propp
  28. 28. Propp In the 100 tales he analysed, characters could be put into 7 character types.
  29. 29. The hero Reacts to the donor, may marry the princess
  30. 30. The villain O Struggles against the hero
  31. 31. The Donor Prepares the hero, or gives them a magical object.
  32. 32. The magical helper The helper in the quest
  33. 33. The Princess and her father O Gives the task to the hero, may marry the hero.
  34. 34. The dispatcher Sends the hero off on his task
  35. 35. False hero May take credit for the hero's actions