Crime: 1. Violates criminal law. 2. Is punishable by criminal sanctions.
Describe the two most common models of how society determines which acts are criminal.
Consensus Model: Conflict Model: Society, though Society is diverse and diverse, shares the constantly engaged in same moral value a power struggle. system. Dominant groups in Crimes violate this society codify their value system and are values into law. deemed harmful to society.
Define crime and identify the different types of crime.
An Integrated Definition: Punishable under criminal law as defined by a society. Considered an offense against society as a whole, and prosecuted by public officials. Punished by statutorily determined sanctions that bring about the loss of personal freedom.
Violent Crime: Property Crime:◦ Murder ◦ Burglary◦ Sexual assault/rape ◦ Larceny/theft◦ Assault/battery ◦ Motor vehicle theft◦ Robbery ◦ Arson
Public Order Crimes: White Collar Crimes:Behavior that has been Illegal acts committedlabeled criminal by an individual orbecause it is contrary to business entity usingshared social values, some non-violent meanscustoms and norms to obtain a personal or(e.g. public business advantagedrunkenness). (e.g. embezzlement).
High Tech Crime: Organized Crime:Crimes directly related Illegal crimes by illegalto the increased use of organizations, gearedcomputers and towards satisfying the public’s need for illegaltechnology by society. goods and services.
Goals of the Criminal Justice System: To control crime To prevent crime To provide and maintain justice
Federalism is a form of government in which a written constitution provides for a division of powers between a central government and several regional governments. Ideals of federalism can be seen in the local, state, and federal levels of law enforcement.
Outline the three levels of law enforcement.
Local and County Law Enforcement ◦ Responsible for the “nuts and bolts” of law enforcement. State Law Enforcement ◦ Generally, there are both “state police” and “highway patrols.” Federal Law Enforcement ◦ Operates throughout the U.S.
List the essential elements of the corrections system.
Criminal justice as a “system” – an orderly progression of events through a process comprised of agencies working together. Herbert Packer compared the idealized criminal justice process to an assembly line.
Each step in the assembly line, which comprises the formal criminal justice system, is the result of a series of decisions that must be made by those who work in the CJS. When members of the criminal justice system exercise discretion, this produces an informal criminal justice system.
Describe the layers of the “wedding cake” model.
Contrast the crime control and due process models.
Crime Control Model: Due Process Model:A model of criminal A model of the criminaljustice that places justice system thatprimary emphasis on places primarythe rights of society to emphasis on the rightsbe protected from crime of the individual to beand violent offenders. protected from the power of government.
Crime the Bottom Line ◦ The Impact of Law Enforcement ◦ The Scourge of Street Gangs ◦ Gun Sales and Gun Control ◦ The Illegal Drugs Problem ◦ White Collar Crime
Crime and Punishment ◦ The Growing Prison Population ◦ The Economics of Incarceration Homeland Security and the Threat of Terrorism ◦ The Patriot Act Technology: Fighting and Fueling Crime