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Mixer v1.0.3

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Mixer v1.0.3

  1. 1. Creation of an Audio Mixing Environment Using Max/MSP Jonathan S. Abrams Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Music in Music Technology in the Department of Music and Performing Arts Professions in the Graduate School of Education New York University Advisors: Kenneth J. Peacock, Robert J. Rowe December 15, 2004
  2. 2. -2- Table of Contents I. Preface 3 II. What’s New in v1.0.3 (build 20050823) 5 III. Mixing 6 IV. Fader and Panner Linking, Fader Automation, decibel conversion 11 V. Panning and Panner Automation 28 VI. Mute, Solo, and Transport 31 VII. Monitor Dim, Metering 38 VIII. Equalization 42 XI. Results, Mix, and Conclusions 44 X. Bibliography 53
  3. 3. -3- Preface Audio mixing consoles, whether analog or digital in implementation, whether software or hardware in use, are expected to provide the user with certain functions. These include signal faders, signal panners, mute, solo, metering, and monitor dimming. Beyond these basic functions, others may include automation, dynamics, and equalization. How many instances of these additional processes may be run simultaneously, and the quality of these processes, is limited by programming and available digital signal processing resources. The number of channels would be limited by the number of inputs, DSP resources, and signal headroom within the mixer. For digital mixers, one design consideration is what type of DSP to use, either fixed point or floating point, and that decision will effect the quality of the processes listed above. Automation functions include fader and panner automation, both for individual channels and for linked channels. Some hardware consoles and software mixers also feature transport controls. Digital consoles have graphic or para-graphic equalization controls on individual and master channels. While each console design may use a different scale to represent how much of an audio signal is panned to a side within the stereo soundfield, all consoles use the logarithmic scale to express how much of a signal is moving through a fader. After a signal is processed, panned, and its gain is adjusted, it moves to a master section where it may be further processed, in addition to its gain being further adjusted, and then is sent to the studio monitors via an output. Exceptional console designs have sufficient headroom to avoid clipping internally, though any console may have its final output clipped.
  4. 4. -4- Channel 8 and the master section of the mixer built in Max/MSP.
  5. 5. -5- What’s New in v1.0.3 (build 20050823) Preferences are now in a floating window that cannot be zoomed, grown in size, or closed. Apple+, toggles the presence of the preferences window (as it does in many Mac OS X applications). Meter~ is now in a bpatcher. In prior versions, it was in the main patch. It now has the -3dBFS, -6dBFS, -10dBFS, -12dBFS, -14dBFS, -16dBFS, and -18dBFS points on its scale marked. It updates its display every 10mS. There is now a numerical readout in dBFS of the signal level directly below the meter~ object which updates every 1mS. Levelmeter~ has been added to the metering section for each channel. The following preference settings are new to this version: Continuous, 3 Second, or Inifinite Peak Reading - Choose how often levelmeter~ and meter~ have their numerical peak readouts updated. fast (no ballistics), VU, DIN 45 406 (IEC PPM type IIb), BBC (IEC PPM type IIa), Nordic (IEC PPM type I), EBU Digital - Choose the ballistics for levelmeter~. -20dBFS, -18dBFS, -16dBFS (TASCAM), -14dBFS, -12dBFS - Choose the zero reference point for levelmeter~. The Pre-Fader or Post-Fader Metering preference is now in the new preferences window. Version 1.0.3 (build 20050823) has been tested on a B&W G3/500 using Mac OS X v10.3.9 with 768MB RAM.
  6. 6. -6- Mixing Attenuating and mixing are two of the three basic functions of a console (Pohlmann 636). With most modern mixers, the summing bus is set to operate at unity gain. For every doubling of the number of channels, if the audio in all of the channels is non-coherent, the output level increases by 3 dB. If the channels are coherent (the exact same signal), the output level increases by 6 dB for every doubling of the number of channels (DWP 2). The gain structure of the mixer should be configured so that it is not possible to clip prior to the output stage. The most popular DAW is Digidesign’s Pro Tools TDM. While there have been several different hardware offerings from Digidesign that incorporate their TDM process (time division multiplexing), the two most popular ones are Pro Tools|MIX and Pro Tools|HD (of which there are two types). Advances in DSP allow for Pro Tools|HD, the newest TDM offering from Digidesign, to support immense mixer configurations with the proper amount of DSP resources available. The older of the two TDM systems mentioned above, the Pro Tools|MIX systems, has a 48 bit mix bus with 30 dB of headroom when using the 24-bit optimized mixer, 18 dB of headroom when using the 16-bit optimized mixer, and support for a maximum of 64 simultaneous voices (PT Ref 604, 7). When using more than 59 voices simultaneously on a MIX system, an internal sub-mix is necessary, and some voices are
  7. 7. -7- truncated down to 24 bits (DUC Confusion). The 48 bit mixer allows MIX based systems in their last version of Pro Tools software, v6.4.1, to use all of the 48 bit mix bus. The 48 bit mix bus specifies 16 bits below the audio signal, followed by 24 bits for the audio signal. This adds up to 40 bits. The remaining 8 bits are utilized for mixing audio. When adding coherent channels of audio, as noted above, there is a +6 dB increase for every doubling of the channels. This worst case scenario brings the number of utilized bits in the mix bus to 46 (see chart below). Bits 47 and 48 are utilized for applying as much as +12 dB of gain above unity. Bit Allocation when Summing Coherent Audio Channels (PT TDM MIX) 6 5 4 3 2 1 36 30 24 18 12 6 64 32 16 8 4 2 Increase in Number of BitsIncrease of Level in dBChannels The first incarnation of Pro Tools|HD, which uses an HD Core card and additional HD Process cards, has a maximum of 128 voices and a 48 bit mix bus with 48 dB of headroom (PT Ref 604). When using more than 68 voices simultaneously on a HD system at 44.1 kHz, an internal sub-mix is necessary (PT Ref 601).
  8. 8. -8- The current incarnation of Pro Tools|HD (called HD Accel), which uses an HD core card and additional HD Accel cards (as opposed to HD Process cards) has a maximum of 192 voices and a 48 bit mix bus with 48 dB of headroom (PT Ref 604). When using more than 124 voices simultaneously on a HD Accel system at 44.1 kHz, an internal sub-mix is necessary (PT Ref 602). The Digidesign TDM systems use Motorola DSPs that execute fixed- point arithmetic (Integer processing) using a 56 bit accumulator (DUC Impossible). MSP performs calculations with 32-bit floating point arithmetic (so do Digidesign LE systems as of this writing, but the point is not to compare systems here). James Moorer, formerly of Sonic Solutions, has said “‘most integer arithmetic units use very wide accumulators, such as 48 to 56 bits, whereas 32-bit floating-point arithmetic units generally have only 24 or 32 bits of mantissa precision in the accumulator. This can lead to serious signal degradation, especially with low-frequency filters’”, which can be around 4 bits (Masciarotte 92). Double-precision mathematics can be used to maintain a higher level of quality, but at the cost of 4 to 5 times more DSP overhead (Tomarakos 221). Double-precision means using twice as many bits as the I/O path of the processing. In Digidesign’s TDM systems, for example, the plug-in I/O is 24-bit, so a double-precision plug-in uses 48- bits for its calculations (DUC Confusion).
  9. 9. -9- In floating-point mathematical systems, the exponent functions as a scaler. Floating-point systems are using what we write on paper as scientific notation (Roads 932). Since the exponent can be used to scale from small to large numbers, floating point systems are one way designers can work around dynamic range problems. A 32-bit floating point system has a dynamic range of 1,670 dB because of this scaling capability (Roads 356, 932). Conversely, “a 32-bit DSP that has native fixed-point support...can support signals up to 196 dB (Tomarakos 221). Floating-point based systems do not create numerical overflow (a number larger than what the system can handle) or have out-of-range samples, but fixed-point systems are easier to debug and design (Roads 933). The IEEE Standard 754-1985 specifies the format for a 32-bit floating point number as SXXXXXXX XMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM MMMMMMMM where S is the sign bit, X is the exponent, and M is the mantissa. The MSB of a normalized mantissa is always 1, and is not stored, resulting in the floating point number actually having a 24-bit mantissa (Castine). Capabilities of Available Mixers Audio engineers have come to expect mixing consoles to have certain functions, regardless of their size or cost. As size and cost increase, other features or expansion of basic capabilities are built into the design. On the next page is a chart of the features and functions in a sampling of mixing consoles. Based on the chart, it is clear that above everything else, there
  10. 10. -11- needs to be four bands of EQ on each channel in the mixer patch to meet existing expectations. User interface for linking channels and engaging inverse functions. Fader and Panner Linking, Fader Automation Consoles such as Yamaha’s O2R digital mixer allow the operator to pair faders and panners together, or link them. This is useful when working with two input signals that the operator wishes to control simultaneously with one control. To accomplish this in MSP, controls need to be paired (or linked) together and the value of the selected control needs to be sent to the input of the control it is linked with. The change in value of one control is then sent to the other control resulting in a simultaneous change. The two sets of controls in the group have a master/slave relationship. The master control is adjusted and its corresponding value is transmitted to the input of the slave control. Without this master/slave relationship, the two controls would be transmitting changes to each other
  11. 11. -12- and an infinite loop would exist. To allow for master/slave relationships to be established for linked controls, the output of each fader control is used to control a graphic gate and a standard gate. The odd channel panner control goes straight to a standard gate, and the even panner control goes though a graphic gate and a standard gate. The movement of a control by the user changes the state of these gates so that it becomes the master control, while setting up the gates so that when the same control on the other channel is manipulated, it immediately becomes the master control for the group. Graphic gates, inlets, and associated control messages for establishing master/slave relationship.
  12. 12. -13- Aside from the link ubutton in the main patch, the code for making the groups possible is in a subpatch titled group. The subpatch has inlets for link enable/disable, odd panner and even panner selection, fader value, panner value, and inverse relationship. It has two message boxes for both one and zero messages as part of the panner selection control, as well as eight gates for preventing infinite loops (establishing master/slave relationships), four graphic gates for routing either the same value or the inverse value to the other channel in the group, and abs and subtraction objects for the inverse relationship function. Two graphic gates, each with a zero message connected to the one output state, are used to control fader selection when the channels are linked. There are outlets for fader and panner values for both channels in the group. There is a loadbang object which initializes the state of the graphic gates so that the inverse function for fader and panner relationships is not engaged until explicitly done so by the user. Gates for selecting between normal and inverse values, with loadbang for initialization to normal values and toggle inlets.
  13. 13. -14- When a panner control is manipulated by the user, it bangs a zero and a one message. The one message opens the primary gate for the panner being manipulated and the zero message closes the primary gate for the slave panner in the group. This prevents an infinite loop from existing where each panner would try to control the other one when they are linked. When a fader control is manipulated by the user, it also bangs a zero and a one message. The zero message closes the primary gate for the slave fader in the group. This prevents an infinite loop from existing where each fader would try to control the other one when they are linked. The one message is used to control graphic gates that allow for either fader to instantly become the master of the group. The one message passes through the graphic gate and bangs a zero message. The zero message in turn changes the state of the graphic gate. The graphic gate now passes the one message ahead of it to the primary gate of the fader being manipulated, which opens the primary gate and allows the fader value to be passed farther along in the patch. The same one message also changes the state of the graphic gate for the slave fader in the group. This sets the stage for the opposite fader to be manipulated and instantly become the master fader in the group.
  14. 14. -15- The even panner of the group has an additional graphic gate with one and zero messages. This is to correct a bug where if the even panner was the first fader in the group to be adjusted, it would not control the odd panner in the group. When the even panner is adjusted, it passes through the graphic gate. If the gate is open, the value passes to the even primary gate, and the graphic gate closes by way of a zero message being banged by fader adjustment. The next time the graphic gate receives an input, it routes the input to a one message, which changes the state of the graphic gate to allow for the signal to pass to the primary fader gate. Code to correct the bug described above. The inlet is the even panner value. For the master controls to act upon the slave controls, a group must be established. This is done with a ubutton object labeled Link. The Link ubutton is configured to operate as a toggle (as opposed to a button). When it is pressed, a bang is sent from the mouse down outlet. This bang is sent to a message object with a value of 1. This value is then transmitted to two (2) gates, one for each channel in the group. The gates
  15. 15. -16- that receive this value are secondary gates. The secondary gates receive their inputs from a primary gate. The primary gate only sends data to the secondary gate if the channel associated with the gate is being manipulated. When the channel is not being manipulated directly, the fader value never makes it through the primary gate. These primary gates, one per channel in the group, are what prevent the link function from creating an infinite loop where both faders would control each other simultaneously. When the link function is disabled, a bang is sent from the mouse up outlet. This bang is sent to a message object with a value of 0. This value is then transmitted to the two secondary gates. If a channel is manipulated directly, its fader value will pass through the primary gate. Since the secondary gate is set to zero, the fader value never makes it past the secondary gate and to the slave fader, thus providing the operator with independent fader control. Primary and secondary gates. The inlets, from left to right, are odd panner and even panner values. If the user decides that the controls in the group should move in the opposite direction of each other, this can be enabled with the Inverse Fader Relationship and Inverse Panner Relationship ubuttons in the main patch. When these ubuttons are enabled, they are highlighted and they
  16. 16. -17- change the state of graphic switch objects preceding the fader and panner value outlets in the subpatch group. With the inverse function enabled, the controller values are sent to a subtraction object and then an abs object. The subtraction object subtracts 100 from a fader value and 90 from a panner value. The absolute value of this calculation is then obtained and sent to the slave control in the group. The absolute value is necessary since both the panner and fader objects use positive values. If the master fader is at zero, and the Inverse Fader Relationship function is enabled, 100 will be subtracted from 0, which is negative 100. The absolute value of that is 100, which places the slave fader at the inverse location of the master fader. This can be used to linearly crossfade two channels either by moving the fader manually or by using the autofade function. Inverse function section of patch. Inverse values are only calculated if the inverse function is engaged.
  17. 17. -18- Above: The entire group subpatch.
  18. 18. -19- User interface for autofade function. Fader Automation I have implemented an automatic fade function that is programmable by the user to either fade in or fade out from the current fader value to a user defined value over a user defined period of time in milliseconds. In the main patch, this autofade function uses a message button (Start Fade), integer value fields for destination value and duration in ms, and a delay object set to 1 ms. In a dedicated subpatch, there are inlets for the fader’s current value, the fader’s destination value, the fade’s duration, a start inlet (via bang), and a pause inlet. There are three graphic gates, three bangs, a line object, two mathematical operators (+ and *), an abs object, a clocker object, four zero messages, two one messages, a stop message, and outlets for the remaining fade time, the fader’s current position, and a bang indicator when the line object’s operation is complete. In the main patch, the user sees two integer fields for setting the destination value of the fader and the time (in ms) that it should take to get from the current fader position to the destination value entered. The user then clicks the Start Fade message button and the fade executes.
  19. 19. -20- When Start Fade is clicked, the first thing it does is send a message to a subpatch named TwoStateButtonOutside, which is within a subpatch named autocontainer. When that message gets into the subpatch, it triggers a bang, which changes the state of a toggle object in series. The toggle object sends a message to a comparator object that sets the state of a graphic gate, allowing the button to either start or pause an autofade. The output of the comparator object triggers a bang that either sets the autofade start/pause button to the start state with a green color or the pause state with a red color by triggering messages with color values, the start or pause state, and a prepend object. TwoStateButtonOutside also has a second inlet, which receives a bang when an autofade is paused or completed, that triggers the same process described above. The TwoStateButtonOutside patch has a loadbang message that initially sets the autofade start/pause button to start with the color green, and sets the toggle at the top of the patch so that when the start button is clicked, the end result is it changes to a pause button with the color red.
  20. 20. -21- Above: TwoStateButtonOutside subpatch At this point, all of the action takes place in a patch that is not dedicated to UI interaction, but to driving the fader. The patch that handles this function is called autofade (and is within the subpatch autocontainer) and it has five inlets, which are pause button, fader’s
  21. 21. -22- current value, time of fade, fader destination value, and close gate. The pause inlet receives a message when an autofade is paused, and it triggers a zero message which goes to multiple locations. The zero message triggers a bang signaling the stop of the fade, which also stops the clocker object (used to track elapsed time in an autofade operation), triggers a one message which closes a graphic gate preventing line from acting upon a fader, triggers a zero message that closes a gate in front of line that allows the fader destination value to be sent to the line object, and opens a gate allowing any manual fader moves to be sent to the line object. (In some instances of this subpatch, the gate object beyond line is set to the right output by a combination of loadbang and a one message. This was necessary to get around a bug that was somehow introduced that created an infinite loop.) The zero message triggered by pausing an autofade also opens a gate used to pass the remaining fade time to the set duration field in the main patch, triggers a bang that then sends the remaining fade time to the set duration field in the main patch, and opens a gate that allows any fader moves made while the autofade is paused to be sent to the line object. Sending fader moves to line while an autofade is paused prevents line from jumping to the destination value when an autofade is resumed. The fader’s current value goes through a gate that allows the fader’s current value to be sent to line when an autofade is not in progress. The gate is closed when an autofade is in progress, preventing an infinite loop.
  22. 22. -23- A portion of the autofade subpatch that is active when the pause button is clicked. The time of fade inlet sends the fade’s duration to the line object and to a mathematical operator, *-1. The value of this mathematical operation is used to calculate the remaining fade time. A mathematical operator, +, adds the autofade’s duration, which is a negative value, to the
  23. 23. -24- elapsed time of an autofade. The result of this operation is a negative number, that when made positive by using the mathematical operator abs, provides the correct value of how much time is remaining in an autofade. It is necessary to calculate the remaining fade time this way because the calculation needs to be constant, and it can only be calculated constantly if the input to the + object is constant. That constant input is from clocker, which is counting from zero. The value of this calculation is sent out a gate that is opened when the autofade operation is paused, as described previously. The fader’s destination value is sent to a gate object that is opened when an autofade is started, allowing the value to be sent to the line object which is responsible for the fade. This gate is closed when an autofade is either completed, which is signaled by a output of the line object sending a bang, or by pausing an autofade, either of which sends a zero message to the gate object in front of line. The inlet named close gate within the subpatch autofade receives its input from the start outlet of TwoStateButtonOutside, which is a bang message that starts the autofade operation. The bang message triggers a zero message that closes a graphic gate, preventing manual fader moves from being sent to the line object, and opens a second graphic gate that allows the values from the line object to be sent to the fader. The same bang that triggers the zero message also triggers a one message that opens
  24. 24. -25- a gate, allowing for the fader destination value to be sent to the line object, and prevents the remaining fade time from being sent back to the set duration field by closing a graphic gate. A loadbang message sets a graphic gate so that any fader moves made when the patch is loaded are sent to line, which provides line with the starting point for the autofade operation. A portion of the autofade subpatch that is controlled by the start/pause button and receives the duration and range of an autofade operation.
  25. 25. -26- Autofade Subpatch (below)
  26. 26. -27- Linear and Decibel Value Conversion Every mixer expresses the amount of signal moving through a fader in decibels. This patch is no exception, yet Max/MSP prefers to work with linear values. To drive all of the functions in the mixer patch, and still provide the user with the expected feedback, subpatches were created to convert from linear to decibel and decibel to linear values. These subpatches are AtodB and dBtoA, respectively, and are pictured below. To find the linear equivalent of a decibel value, the equation 10(x/20)*100 is used, where x is the value in decibels. To convert a linear value to decibels, the equation 20*[log10*(x/100)] is used, where x is the linear value (Boylestad 861-2). dBtoA subpatch AtodB subpatch
  27. 27. -28- User Interface for Panning Panning Every console has a pan control for positioning the sound at a particular location in the soundstage. To do this in Max/MSP, a subpatch named panner was created. For each channel in the main patch, there is a dial object (with a -45 offset) that acts as the panner control, a hidden abs object, and an integer field that displays the amount of pan to either the left or right. Along the dial object are three message boxes labeled L, C, and R. These messages when clicked, trigger a bang message that bangs an integer value corresponding to the value dial needs to place the sound in that position. The C message is bang via a loadbang so that no panner adjustment is needed to play a sound when the patch is loaded. In the subpatch named panner there is a signal input that is connected to each output channel (left and right), a panner value input (the value of the dial object), a mathematical expression that converts the panner input value to radians, and a mathematical expression for calculating the amount of signal for each channel. The incoming signal is mono and is routed to left and right panning paths, and leaves the subpatch as a mono signal only if
  28. 28. -29- the panner control is hard left or hard right. The range of the dial object in the main patch is -45 to 45. The abs object, hidden from view in the main patch, converts any negative value from the dial object to an absolute value that gets displayed in an integer object beneath the dial. By looking at the dial, and the integer object, it can be determined to what side and by how much a sound is panned. When the dial object is moved left of center, it is actually outputting negative values, with -45 indicating it has been rotated fully counterclockwise. The output of dial goes to both a cosine and sine function. The result of the cosine and sine functions are sent to a mathematical equation that calculates the amount of gain per channel to achieve a pan. These equations, written so that MAX can understand them, are expr ($f1- $f2)*((sqrt(2))/2) for the left channel and expr ($f1+$f2)*((sqrt(2))/2) for the right channel (Roads 460). A close look at the equations reveals that one uses a sum and the other uses the difference of the sine and cosine values. This results in two extremes, where one equation will produce a value of one while the other produces a value of zero. When the value from the dial object is zero (center), both equations produce the same result. As a result, these equations allow for the power of the signal to be constant throughout the soundstage, just like any other audio console. The values of these
  29. 29. -30- equations are sent to a *~ object and are multiplied with the incoming audio signal, thus varying the amount of signal to each channel in the soundstage based upon the value of the dial object in the main patch. Panner Subpatch (below) Panner Automation Just like the autofade function described earlier, autopan allows the mixer to pan a sound from one location in the soundstage to another over a specified amount of time in milliseconds. The user can also pause an autopan operation and then resume it. The code from the subpatch autofade is nearly identical for the subpatch autopan, and is located within the subpatch autocontainer. There are two key differences in the code between the two.
  30. 30. -31- An autofade operation ranges from 0 to 100. An autopan operation ranges from -45 (left) to 45 (right). To keep the values of the panner positive within the subpatch autopan for the line object, they must be scaled. The inlets that receive the panner’s current value and the panner’s destination value are followed by a + object that scales the value by 45, so that when the panner is hard left (-45), the line object receives that as a value of zero. The portion of autopan that differs from autofade. Notice the two + objects which scale the incoming panner values by 45 for use with a line object. Mute and Solo “Although many of the obstacles present in analog technology are absent in a digital implementation, seemingly trivial exercises in signal processing might require sophisticated digital circuits.” Signal selection is also the third basic function of a console (Pohlmann 635-6). The mute and solo functions for this mixer utilize ubuttons and a subpatch named mute/solo. All of the functionality for these features is implemented in the subpatch mute/solo. This subpatch includes its own subpatches,
  31. 31. -32- mutesoloselectionodd and mutesoloselectioneven, for processing the commands that allow for the mute and solo buttons to function properly. There is also an if expression for determining if channels are linked or not and graphic gates and zero and one messages to pass the proper commands for the desired function. Beyond the logic section of the subpatch mute/solo, there is a section that processes the actual mute and solo commands on the channel. This includes subpatches named audiomuteodd, audiomuteeven, audiosoloodd, and audiosoloeven, along with one and zero messages. To fully explain how all of these subpatches interact with each other would result in a complicated and abstract text. It’s best to analyze the commented code in the patch to see exactly how it all works. Below are the goals of the mute and solo functions for each channel. Functional Goals of the Mute and Solo buttons on Each Channel •If a channel is muted, any audio file being played through that channel should no longer be heard. If it is unmuted, the audio should be heard. •If a channel is soloed, only the audio file being played through that channel should be heard. If it is unsoloed, all audio that is not muted should be heard. •If a channel is muted, and that channel’s solo button is selected, the mute function should be disabled and the solo function should be enabled.
  32. 32. -33- •If a channel is soloed, and that channel’s mute button is selected, the solo function should be disabled and the mute function should be enabled. •If two channels are linked, clicking the mute button for either channel should control the state of the mute function for both channels. To achieve these goals, the subpatch mute/solo and all the subpatches within were created to accomplish these tasks. Below is a simplification of how each function outlined above is accomplished. Simplification of Mute/Solo Logic •If the channels are linked, pass the mute command to both channels, otherwise, only pass it to the channel being acted upon. •If a mute is used, determine which channel it is being used on and set its state according to the user’s input. If the channels are linked, set the mute state for both channels, setting gates so that the mute command does not get sent back to the channel it originated from (prevent an infinite loop). •If a mute is used on a channel that is already soloed, then disable that channel’s solo function, then engage the mute function on that channel. •If a solo is used, and effectively mute all other channels or enable all channels based on the user’s input. •If a solo is used on a channel that is already muted, then disable that channel’s mute function, then engage the solo function on that channel.
  33. 33. -34- Once the logic evaluation has been completed, the commands are then passed on to the other portion of the subpatcher mute/solo that will actually mute or solo the audio. Mute commands are passed on to the appropriate audiomute patcher, where the audio signal and the output of mute~ merge and go through a pass~ object. The pass~ object guarantees a zero output when muted. Solo commands are passed on to the appropriate audiosolo patcher, where the audio signal leaving the audiomute patcher and the output of a second mute~ merge and go through a pass~ object. Audio that is muted does not pass beyond its audiomute subpatch. Audio that is muted by means of a solo function does not pass beyond its audiosolo subpatch. Audio that is neither muted nor soloed passes through its audiosolo subpatch, as does the audio of a soloed channel, where the signal then returns to the main patch for further processing. Audiomute subpatch Audiosolo subpatch One portion of the subpatch mute/solo was used to allow for linked muting and is deserving of a deeper overview. The ubuttons used for muting have four (4) outlets and an inlet. When attempting to change the
  34. 34. -35- mute state of linked channels from the even channel’s mute control, an infinite loop was impossible to avoid using the mouse-up and mouse-down outlets. To workaround this problem, the fourth outlet of the even mute ubutton is used to prevent an infinite loop with linked muting. This outlet sends a one message only if the user clicks this button (mouse-up and mouse-down outlets echo any input to the ubutton). This one message is used to set a graphic gate in the logic section to prevent an infinite loop, and that same one message, after passing through togedge, is used to change the mute state of the odd channel. The mouse-up and mouse-down outlets of the even channel change the state of that channel’s mute in a linked condition.
  35. 35. -36- Above: Code that allows for group muting to be controlled with the mute ubutton on an even channel in a group. Transport Loop To loop the soundfiles loaded into each channel, two gates and a toggle (labeled Loop Indicator) were used. When each soundfile stops, a bang is generated by the sfplay~ object. The bang from sfplay~ when a soundfile is sent via a bangWhenDonePlaying send message to a subpatch named transportControls. In that subpatch, this bang is routed to a gate, and if the stop button has not been activated, then the stop message from sfplay~ continues to a second gate. If the Loop Indicator toggle is engaged (indicating that the file will loop) the bang then passes through the
  36. 36. -37- second gate and to a 1 message. This 1 message is then sent out of the subpatch transportControls via a send transport message back to the main patch, where it is received and sent to the sfplay~ objects to start playback once again. The pause and resume operations have no effect on the state of the loop indicator or the loop function. The loop function is only useful if all files being used are of equal length, since there is no timeline for the positioning of files with shorter durations. A single send and receive object, named transport, sends all transport controls to the sfplay~ objects. The loop indicator toggle may also be activated and deactivated with the keyboard shortcut Shift+Apple+L. The keyup object, in the subpatch transportControls, outputs the numberic codes for keys pressed on the keyboard. A + object takes these numeric codes and adds them together. The sum of the codes are then sent to a select object. When the sum of the keys pressed is 805 (37 for L, 512 for shift, and 256 for Apple), the select object (set for 805) sends a bang that is routed to the transport loop toggle and changes its state.
  37. 37. -38- Transport stopped. Transport playing . Transport paused. Monitor Dim Consoles often have a Dim control in their monitoring section. The purpose of this control is to lower the level of the console’s main output without having to adjust a fader or other volume control (Eargle 158). This is done in the Max/MSP patch with a ubutton, labeled Dim, configured to act as a toggle (as opposed to a button). When clicked, a bang is sent out of the ubutton’s Mouse-Down outlet to a message box with a value of 0.3. This value is then sent to the dac~ object for the stereo output channels, effectively lowering the signal at the output to - 10dB below unity without adjusting the master fader. When the ubutton is clicked again, a bang is sent out its Mouse-Up outlet, and that bangs the value that the master fader is set to, resulting in the desired output level being restored.
  38. 38. -39- Metering A meter is provided for each channel in the mixer. The meters are configured to sample the incoming signal once every 15 milliseconds. The meter is configured to have twenty (20) LED segments, each representing 1 dB. The first 5 LEDs (-19 dBFS to -15 dBFS) are green, the next 5 LEDs (-14 dBFS to -10 dBFS) are yellow, and the next 10 LEDs (-9 dBFS to 0 dBFS) are red. In the main patch, there are two ubuttons configured as buttons (as opposed to toggles) with text overlays that read Pre Fader Metering and Post Fader Metering. Clicking on these ubuttons changes the metering state respectively. There are also send prefaderdown and send postfaderdown objects for routing the bangs from the ubuttons to the metering subpatches without patchcords. Toggle objects indicating pre or post fader metering round out the objects in the main patch. The send objects send data to corresponding receive objects in the metering subpatches. The toggle indicators receive their states from the subpatch metering, and the signal for the channel, both pre and post fader, is sent to the metering subpatches. Inside the subpatches is a loadbang, two zero messages, two one messages, two mute~ objects, subpatches for pre and post fader signals, and in the subpatch metering, outlets for pre and post fader toggle indicator messages. There are also receive objects for prefaderdown and postfaderdown. Upon loading the subpatch metering, a loadbang object
  39. 39. -40- changes the Post Fader Metering toggle indicator to active. Next, the Post Fader signal mute is disabled by banging a one message, which allows the signal to flow out of the subpatch and to the meter in the main patch. Third, the pre fader toggle indicator in the main patch is set to inactive. Fourth, the pre fader mute~ object is activated by sending a zero message to it. Without any user intervention, the metering is now set to post fader. When a ubutton receives a Mouse-Down command, for either pre-fader or post-fader metering, the bang is sent to the subpatch metering via either the send prefaderdown object or send postfader down object. It is received in the subpatch by the receive prefaderdown or receive postfaderdown object, where it bangs a zero message for the opposite metering state and a one message for the selected metering state. The one message enables the toggle object indicator for the selected metering state, while disabling the mute~ object associated with that metering state. The zero message disables the toggle object indicator for the other metering state while activating the mute~ object associated with that metering state. Since the metering selection, either pre or post fader, is global, the subpatch for channels numbered greater than 2 is slightly different. The outlets for the toggle objects used to indicate which type of metering is selected have been omitted from the subpatch metering2. This subpatch is used for all channels numbered greater than 2, as there is only one
  40. 40. -41- location where pre or post fader metering is indicated. For an explanation of how mute~ works with the subpatches in regards to metering, see the usage of it in the Mute and Solo section on page 31. Metering User Interface and Send Objects (below) Metering Subpatch (below)
  41. 41. -42- Metering2 Subpatch (below) Equalization The chart in chapter 2, evaluating the capabilities of available mixing consoles, has one constant. Every console has at least 4 bands of equalization. Indeed, “Any console must provide equalization faculties such as lowpass and highpass filters, presence, and shelving filters of various types” (Pohlmann 637). In order ot have a mixer patch that could be comparable to a console in terms of functionality, a 4 band equalizer is present on every channel. This is a graphic equalizer, and the bandwidth of each band (Q) can be adjusted by clicking and dragging on the outer edge of the band. The gain for the band can be adjusted by clicking within the band and dragging up or down, for boost or cut, respectively.
  42. 42. -43- The center frequency of each band can be adjusted by clicking and dragging on the center red line that appears when the cursor is within a band. Equalizers “...can be designed using a variety of techniques, such as a cascade of biquadratic sections” (Pohlmann 637). This is how the EQ has been implemented in this mixer. The output of the filtergraph~ object, whose manipulation is described above, is sent to a cascade~ object. The cascade~ object is a collection of biquad~ objects, which are two-pole two- zero filters. By having four bands of equalization, the cascade~ object effectively has four two-pole two-zero filters. An On/Off button, utilizing the TwoStateButtonOutside subpatch described earlier, is used to control whether or not the equalizer is in the signal chain. To eliminate unnecessary computation of an equalized signal when the equalizer is not engaged, a begin~ and selector~ object is used. Begin~ is connected to the signal input of cascade~, which in turn is connected to the second inlet of a selector~ object. The first inlet of selector~ is the audio signal without being routed to the cascade~ object. The state of the On/Off button bangs messages that select either the equalized signal or the unequalized signal. By using the begin~ object, cascade~ doesn’t do anything unless its output is selected to pass through selector~ by turning the equalizer On.
  43. 43. -44- Above: The EQ subpatch. Results This project culminated in the creation of an eight channel mixer to be used for the mixing stage of a project (as opposed to tracking). The eight channels can be linked into groups of 2, for a total of four groups. Channels 1 and 2 make one group, channels 3 and 4 make another group, etc. Each of the eight channels can be muted individually. The mute will apply to the group if the group function is enabled. Each channel can also be soloed. The solo function does not apply to the group. Each channel has an independent fader control, and when the channels are grouped, the selected channel’s fader control will also control the other fader in the group. This control relationship may also be inverted so that two channels that are grouped may be crossfaded. An autofade function is
  44. 44. -45- provided to allow for automated fades. The user specifies the destination value of the fader in dB, the amount of time for the fade in ms, and then clicks a start button to initiate the fade. The start button changes to a pause button until the fade is complete, allowing the user to stop and continue the fade if desired. For each channel, a pan control is used to position the audio on each mixer channel within the stereo soundfield. The panner has a range of 45 left to 45 right. Shortcut buttons are found along the outside of the panner dial, allowing the user to instantly pan the signal far left, center, or far right. Panner controls may also be linked as well, so that two channels can be panned in either the same direction or in opposite (inverse) directions. An autopan function is provided to allow for automated panning. The user specifies the destination value of the panner, the amount of time for the pan in ms, and then clicks a start button to initiate the pan. The start button changes to a pause button until the pan is complete, allowing the user to stop and continue the pan if desired. A four band equalizer is provided for each channel. The user can turn this function either on or off or each channel. It is a graphic equalizer that allows for the size of each band, its Q value, and its boost or cut to be adjusted while clicking and dragging within the graphic window. Metering is provided for each channel and can be either pre or post fader. The meter in the master section is post fader and represents the signal as it is sent to
  45. 45. -46- the dac~ object. All meters range from -20dBFS to 0dBFS and update every 15ms. The transport allows for soundfiles to be started, stopped, paused, resumed, and looped (equal length soundfiles are required for the loop function to work properly). The master fader lacks the panpot, autopoan, solo, and mute functions found on each individual channel. It does have two meters, one for each stereo channel, and a dim button that allows the user to drop the output level to a maximum of -10dBFS without adjusting the fader. Mix To put the usability of the Max/MSP mixer to the test, I used an eight track recording I had of a song titled “Iranonthesea” by the band Mori Stylez (since defunct). The recording was done live to a Tascam DA-78, a 24 bit DTRS recorder. The source was loaded into Pro Tools digitally, then edited down to eight soundfiles of equal length for this one song (necessary to have the transport loop function be effective if used). Below is a more detailed description of the setup, taken from my original recording notes. The plan originally was to use all eight channels on the Precision 8 microphone preamplifier and 3 channels of the Mackie 1642 microphone preamplifiers. I had set this up using a D-sub from the Precision 8 to the DA-78, and then ran some unbalanced lines from the 1642 into the DA-78. I then discovered that the DA-78 only allows for one set of inputs to be used,
  46. 46. -47- either balanced or unbalanced. As a result, I had to send the bassoon, clarinet, mandolin, and guitar microphones through the 1642’s microphone preamps. This was necessary because the four instruments are played by two individuals, and they often switch during the songs. The Precision 8 also lacks an input pad. This proved to be costly on the snare track, where I also used a microphone that does not have a built in attenuator, the Neumann KM184. The signal was not always distorting at the preamp, but at the tape machine. It is usable, but not as pristine as I would have liked. All I could do was move the mic back a bit (see page 52 for a microphone list and floor plan). The following conclusions are based on my using this constructed mixer to mix the recorded tracks. The mix is included on the complimenting CD, as are the individual tracks loaded from the source. Conclusions This mixer patch is designed to be used during the mixing stage of a project (as opposed to the tracking stage). This mixer serves this particular purpose well because sound files of equal length can be loaded, played back, looped, stopped, paused, and resumed - much like any DAW available today. The construction of the patch would have to be different to accommodate tracking. The functional logic behind consoles such as Yamaha’s O2R and DAWs is largely based upon gates (or an abstract of the concept). They are excellent
  47. 47. -48- and simple objects for allowing for one object to control another while avoiding a feedback loop that would crash (or create erratic behavior in) a digitally controlled device. The gate also allows for individual control of a channel or that same control to be applied to grouped channels by creating separate logic paths that when enabled control the same parameter. The positioning of the gate within the signal path is crucial. An improperly positioned gate could serve its intended purpose, but do so with other unwanted results. The transport of a DAW can be controlled through the same object. Two gates in series will prevent a stop command from restarting the transport if a loop function is engaged. Pre or post fader metering on a console or DAW can be similarly controlled with gates whose states alternate depending upon the selection. With Max/MSP, the gate and gate~ object are not always the best object to use for implementing a particular function. True, a gate or gate~ should prevent a signal from passing, and often they do. On some occasions, the gate~ object can create undesired results. It also doesn’t stop unnecessary computations from taking place, it simply stops the signal from proceeding. There are situations where the begin~ object in concert with a selector~ object has advantages. Not only will the selector~ object prevent unselected inputs from passing through, but in concert with a begin~ object it stops computations on unselected inputs. This is very useful for the equalization function of this mixer, where calculating four bands of EQ, when
  48. 48. -49- not even being used, would be an inefficient use of CPU power. In other cases, the essence of a gate~ object is desired, but it is still not the best choice. This was the case with the mute/solo function, where pass~ had to be used since it guarantees an output of zero when the input is not allowed to pass through. While it is necessary for the faders to be logarithmic and have their values expressed in dB, the scale of the faders is not ideal. On any console, unity or 0dB gain on a fader is relatively close to the top of its range. In this patch, the unity or 0dB point is towards the bottom of the fader. There is a great deal of resolution above unity gain, going all the way to the fader maximum of +12dB. The range beneath unity gain is not ideal. It would be best if this were corrected to reflect traditional console and mixer operation. Above: A signal fader at unity gain (notice the 0 in the dB readout). The flaw described above is obvious. The autofade operation was inspired by t.c. electronic’s M5000, a digital processor that had this function. The function works as desired, and
  49. 49. -50- the only way to improve upon it would be to have a timeline in the mixer where one could specify points for a fade once and always have them repeated. Since there is no automated mixing over time in this patch, the user always has to set the autofade and execute it with each pass. The same may be said of the autopan operation. Fader linking works effectively, yet the inverse fader relationship option could use some modification. When this option is enabled, channels may be crossfaded, but the crossover point is not ideal. For reasons discussed in the first chapter on mixing, the best crossover point would be - 3dB (a foolproof point would be -6dB, but since crossfades are used for differing material, it is not necessary). The crossover point when the inverse fader relationship option is engaged is +6dB. This is the crossover point because the faders use their linear scales for the inverse function, and the point where each fader is at the halfway mark of its linear range is +6dBFS. Unless the user is working with audio files that do not peak above - 6dBFS, this option may not be useful, as the output could be distorted during a crossfade. The autopan function, even with the inverse panner relationship option engaged, has no obvious drawbacks.
  50. 50. -51- Above: Linked faders with the inverse fader relationship option engaged. The flaw described above is obvious. The meter~ object functions properly. It would be ideal if it supported a higher number of individual meter segments, so the range of the meter could be extended closer to the least significant bit. Even set at its maximum range, as it is in this mixer, with each meter segment representing 1dB, it only extends to -20dBFS. Above: Stereo meters with signal present. Though a Max/MSP limitation, no signal below -20dBFS would be observed on these meters, even if present. Some of the above limitations or drawbacks are the result of programming, while others are simply a function of the capabilities in Max/MSP. If the drawbacks as a result of programming were overcome,
  51. 51. -52- then it would be possible to add additional functionality to the patch that would place it on a more comparable level with digital hardware and software based mixers. These features would include timeline based automation and compression/limiting on each audio channel, including the master output. This patch overcomes a few limitations (or lack of features) in digital hardware and software based mixers that the author has seen or has heard other users complain about. Those would include, but not be limited to, shortcuts for hard-and-fast panner values and group panning. Yet it would be foolish to add the missing features mentioned above without first correcting the existing flaws. Flaws in software mixers that don’t get fixed often never get fixed. Any software mixer with a bug for more than one major release version is a perfect example of this. This mixer patch serves as a functional representation of a console. It demonstrates and emulates functions that audio mixing professionals expect to see in any console or mixer, effectively putting digital mixing theory into practice.
  52. 52. -53- Bibliography Boylestad, Robert L. Introductory Circuit Analysis. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. 1997. Bullins, Strother. “Console Shopping?” MIX Aug. 2004: 42-7. Castine, Peter. Email. 7/12/04. Eargle, John M. Handbook of Recording Engineering. 3rd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. Masciarotte, Oliver. “Computer, Do the Math!” MIX Feb. 2003: 92. O2R Version2. Digital Console. Yamaha, 1997. Pohlmann, Ken C. Principles of Digital Audio. 4th ed. New York: Mc- Graw Hill, 2000. Pro Tools. Vers. 6.4.1. Computer Software. Digidesign, 2004. Roads, Curtis. The Computer Music Tutorial. Cambridge: MIT Press. 1996. Tomarakos, J. and C. Duggan. “32-Bit SIMD SHARC Architecture Digital Audio Signal Processing Applications.” J. Audio Eng. Soc. 48 (2000): 221. DUC Confusion http://duc.digidesign.com/showflat.php?Cat=&Number=637717&page=&view =&sb=5&o=&fpart=4&vc=1 DUC Impossible http://duc.digidesign.com/showflat.php?Cat=&Number=534532&page=&view =&sb=5&o=&fpart=3&vc=1 Pow-r. http://www.mil-media.com/docs/articles/powr.shtml

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